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HISTOLOGY Study of microscopic parts of plant & animal bodies, nts

and the & -movement of organelles & inclusions


morphologic evidence of their functions. microtubule
PATHOLOGY Study of structure & function of body in disease s
HISTO- Combined study of histology + pathology, and its Nuclea -double layered membrane
relationship r
PATHOLOGY envelo -enclosed to
HISTOCHEMIS Chemistry of tissue components and its relation to pe nucleus
TRY tissue -has openings/ pores, control passage of
morphology materials
CYTOLOGY Study of cell -site of nuclear
division
Cell Smallest functional unit of living material. Nucleu -center of all activities of cell
s
Capable of maintaining its:
-has hereditary info (genes)
Integri
-directs cell division
ty
Responsiveness -control ribosome synthesis
Chemical composition Nucleoplas -ground substance
m/
Tissue Communities of specialized cells united for performance of
nuclear sap -makes up nucleus
common
-suspends nucleolus, chromatin, chromosome
functio
n Nucleol -dense, round
us
-located at the center of nucleus
NORMAL CELL STRUCTURE
-single/multiple
Cell -semi permeable -lipoprotein bilayer
-synthesis of
membrane
ribosomes
(plasm -selective entrance & exit -protection
a
lemma -cell interaction -impart size & shape
)
-phagocytosis -pinocytosis
Cytoplasm -surrounds nucleus
-contains organelles & inclusion bodies
Mitochondri -powerhouse of the
a cell
-ATP production
-ion transport
-steroid synthesis
-double-layered membrane
-inner : extensively folded (produce cristae)
Golgi -located b/w nucleus & cell surface
Apparatus -connected to ER
-synthesize
glycoprotein
-package secretory materials
-form lysosomes
-transport & release secretory materials to
cells
-has flattened tubular membranes (cisternae)
-has dilated terminal areas (vacuoles)
ER -has parallel arrays of creating canals &
vesicles
-channel between inner & outer membrane
-ROUGH ER & SMOOTH ER
-intracellular transport, synthesis, release of
proteins
Lysosomes -suicide bags
-membrane bound
-dense appearing structures
-has hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases/
lysozyme)
-breakdown intracellular molecules
-digest foreign materials entering cell
Peroxisome -membrane bound sacs w/ enzyme
s
-produce H2O2 to
water
-destroy H2O2 to
water
-purine catabolism
-breakdown of NA
-conversion of fat to glucose
Centrosome -Lie close to nucleus
&
centrioles -has a pair of
(cell centrioles
center) -centrioles : cell division, forms cilia
Microfilame -maintenance of shape of cell
TISSUES / -wavy bundles
DIFFERENT TYPES OF TISSUE -pale pink (H&E)
Epithelium -cells are arranged in sheets, cords, tubules, follicles -blue (Mallory Azan)
-former: form protective sheath or limiting membrane -widely scattered (loose areolar)
-densely packed
-latter: secretion, absorption, excretion
(tendons)
-cells are compactly arranged, no intercellular
Reticular -collagen molecules
substance
-smaller than
Connective -cells lie more, less
collagen
scattered
-form network supporting cellular elements of
-has more intracellular
liver &
substance
lymph node
-often found in an irregular branching form (stellate)
Elastic -highly refractile
Muscle -for body movements
-single/sheets
-cells has contractile
-thinner than
protein
collagen
-muscle cells = muscle
fibers
PROPER CONNECTIVE TISSUE
-muscular tissues = myoblasts (from embryonal
muscle elements Mucus -in embryo (mesenchyme)
-cytoplasm = sarcoplasm -spindle-shaped/branching
-cell membrane = -dominant feature: matrix
sarcolemma Ex: vitreous humor of eye, umbilical cord of infants
-contractility = myofibrils/ sarcostyles Fibrous LOOSE/AREOLAR
Nervous --CNS = Brain, spinal cord -many collagen fibers + some elastic fibers
-PNS = Nerves, ganglia -rich in cells
-neuron/neurocyte = unit structure -not very fibrous
-1 neuron has 1 cell
body/cyton
-1 neuron has 2 processes = axon & dendrites

ARRANGEMENT OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE


Simple -1 cell layer
-cells rest on basal
lamina
-cells reach the apical
surface
Stratified -multi-layered cells
-some cells rest at basal lamina/ reach apical
surface
Pseudostrati -appear stratified = nuclei lie at different
fied levels
-all cells rest on basal
lamina
-some cells reach apical surface

SPECIFIC CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIAL


TISSUE
Squamou -flat cells
s
-abundant flattened
cytoplasm
-elongated, darkly stained
nucleus
Cuboidal -cells equal in height and
width
-nucleus is spherical centrally
located
Columnar -elongated cell
-basal nucleus
-low or high columnar cells

Simple Simple Cuboidal Simple Columnar


Squamous
Endothelium of PCT Small intestines
BV
Stratified Stratified Cuboidal Stratified
Squamous Columnar
Vagina Sweat glands Prostatic urethra
(keratinized)
Epidermis
Pseudostratified
columnar
(w/cilia) Trachea
(w/o cilia) epididymis
Transitional = Urinary bladder

TYPES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE


FIBERS
Collagen/whi -most abundant
te
-found in mesenteries, subcutaneous skin, omenta Anaplasia
DENSE REGULAR Neoplasia/tumor
-fibers, great lengths,
overlapping layers -found in DEVELOPMENTAL
ligaments, tendons, cornea DEFECTS
DENSE IRREGULAR
-many fibers Aplasia -Incomplete/defective tissue/organ development
-has a mass of fatty/fibrous tissue
-found in dermis, periosteum,
perichondrium -no intercellular fluid -no resemblance to adult structure
SPECIAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE -seen in one of paired structures (kidneys, gonads,
adrenals)
Adipose -no intercellular
fibers/matrix -store fats Agenesia -Complete non-appearance of an organ
-large vacuolated -Ex: turners syndrome
cytoplasm -thin Hypoplasia -Failure of organ to reach its full mature/adult size
nucleus -incomplete development
Reticular -lacelike reticulum of
collagen fibers -rich coat of
glycoproteins
-found in vascular channel of liver, spleen, lymph
nodes, bone marrow
Cartilage -made of polygonal chondrocytes
in lacuna -hyaline, fibrous, matrix
Bones -dense compact (cortex of long
bones) -cancellous/spongy
(medulla of long bones)
-mature = osteocytes (small dense round to
elongated nuclei, ill defined cytoplasm)
-spaces = lacunae
-fine channels interconnector = canaliculi

TYPES OF MUSCULAR TISSUE


Smooth -controlled by ANS
-found in walls of alimentary, respiratory,
genitourinary tract
-no cross striations in sarcoplasm
-has longitudinal myofibrils
-cells are cigar shaped, tapered poles
-nuclei = single, centrally placed
Skeletal -controlled by CNS (main motor)
-striated cells
-nuclei = multiple, peripherally located
-has voluntary contractions n relaxations
Cardiac -has cross striations
-has longitudinal myofibrils
-nuclei : single, central
-has intercalated discs in Z band region

CELLULAR PROPERTIES
Respirati Take in O2, liberate energy
on
Excretion Eliminate waste material
Absorptio Absorb & utilize food
n,
Assimilat
ion
Secretion Synthesize useful substance from absorption
Irritabilit Respond to stimulus
y
Conducti Transmit excitation wave
vity
Contracti Be stimulated
lity
Cell Grow to a limited extend, produce other cells
division

Cellular Adaptation : A state which lies intermediate between


normal, unstressed cell and overstressed, injured cell, allows cell
to maintain an equilibrium between
environment and its metabolic activity.
4 Most important adaptive changes in
cells:
-Atrophy -Hyperplasia -Metaplasia
-Hypertrophy
Retrogressi Organ/tissues are smaller Developmental
ve than Defects
Changes normal Atrophy
Progressive Organ/tissues are larger than Hypertrophy
Changes normal Hyperplasia
Degenerati Due to aberration of cellular Metaplasia
ve growth
Changes patterns Dysplasia
-less severe than aplasia (Profound hyperplasia) white skin epidermis,
Atresia/Clausiuria -Failure of organ to intestinal ept,
form an opening -Ex: anal, hepatocytes, fibroblasts, bone marrow cells
aortic, aural (intermediate) bone, cartilage, smooth muscles
(no capacity) nerve cells, skeletal muscle cells
ATROPHY Acquired disease in the size of a mature Physiologi Hormonal
tissue/organ. Caused by c
decrease in cell number. -enlargement of glandular epithelium (puberty,
Have diminished function, but not dead pregnancy)
Pathogene -decreased workload -physiologic hyperplasia of pregnant uterus
sis Compensatory
-loss of innervation
-diminished blood supply -occurs when a portion of liver is removed (partial
-inadequate nutrition
hepatectomy)
-loss of endocrine stimulation -occurs in epidermis after skin abrasion
>>proteolytic enzyme >>metabolic activity

<<blood & lymphatic circulation


Accumulation of CO2 & organic acids in cells
Loss of cell substance
<< mitochondria, ER, myofilaments

Atrophic cells replaced by connective & adipose tissue =
Stromal
fatty infiltration
Pathogenic -organs : smaller, firmer
changes >>conn.tissue >>vessels
-cells : smaller
-atrophic parenchymal cells @ heart, liver = contain
yellow
granular lipid containing pigments (lipochrome
pigment/

lipofuscin) brownish discoloration on gross inspection
TYPES OF ATROPHY
Physiologi -natural consequence of maturation (during
c puberty)
-Senile atrophy = at old age
Pathologic -decrease in tissue/organ size
-consequence of disease
Vascular -lack of nutrition
-reduced blood supply
-vascular narrowing (arteriosclerosis)
Pressure -persistent pressure on the organ, injure the cells
-promote disminution of blood supply, vascular atrophy
Starvation/ -general wasting of tissue
hunger -lack of nutritional supply necessary for normal growth
Disuse Inactivity/ diminished function of tissue/organ
-long standing, chronic illness, muscle fibers inactivity
-BW narrowing, loss of nutrition
Exhaustion -prolonged overwork of endocrine organ
-initial enlargement with slow progressive loss of
parenchymal
elements
-iform acid metabolites, increase catabolic enzymes
Endocrine -diminished or absent endocrine stimulation
-produce functional atrophy of organs
-dependent on endocrine supply

HYPERTROP -increase in size of tissue/organ


HY
-increase in size of individual cells
-no new cells, just larger cells
-due to increase intake of water (cellular swelling,
edema)
True -skeletal muscle, heart, kidneys, endocrine organs,
smooth
muscle of holly viscera
-due to increased workload and endocrine stimulation
Ex: pregnancy, exercise
False -due to edema fluid & conn.tissue proliferation
Ex : chronic hypertrophic salpingitis, appendicitis,
cirrhosis
Compensat -1 of paired organs when other opposite organ has
ory been
removed or suffered from functional sufficiency

HYPERPLA -increase in organ/tissue size


SIA
-increase in number of cells
-growth of new cells
Pathologic -by disease of lymphoid follicles, payers patches -blood coagulation
-Hb in blood
METAPLASI -reversible, adult cell is replaced by other type Microbiology -smears, cultures, animal inoculations
A -isolation and identification of
-may represent adaptive substitution of cells more pathogenic
sensitive to microorganisms
stress -test susceptibility and antimicrobial
Examples: drugs
(1) Squamous metaplasia = RT in chronic irritation Clinical Chemistry -chemical determinations
Normal columnar ciliated ept cells in trachea & bronchi -inorganic and organic constituents of
= blood,
Stratified squamous ept urine, etc
(2) Chronic infection of bronchi and bronchioles Serology and -unknown serum tested against known
(3) stones in excretory ducts of salivary glands, Immunohematology antigen
pancreas, bile -identify unknown antibody
ducts -for testing or typing
Columnar ept = nonfunctioning Stratified squamous Clinical Microscopy -diagnostic examination of urine,
ept feces,
(4) Vit A deficiency induces squamous metaplasia in
respiratory
epithelium
DYSPLASIA -Reversible, regressive alteration in adult cells
-adult cells, variation in size, shape, orientation
-chronic inflammation, protracted irritation on
epithelial cells
-changes in structural component of cell (irregularity in
size)
-loss/ increase in nucleus size
-presence of mitotic figures
-disruption of the normal architectural pattern
-dont lead to tumor formation
ANAPLASIA/ -change toward younger cell type
DEDIFFERE -regressive change in adult cells toward more
N- primitive/
TIATION embryonic cell type
-malignancy
-more marked, disorganized, irreversible
NEOPLASIA/ -continuous normal proliferation of cells without control
TUMOR -no useful purpose/function
-increase in size and pigmentation, mitosis, number
-metaplastic n anaplastic changes of cells
-pathologic overgrowth
-tumor formation

GENERAL PATHOLOGY
Pathology = pathos (suffering) logos (reason)

The science that deals with the study of


diseases

Purpose: to correlate manifestations of disease with underlying


abnormalities and physiologic disturbance (pathophysiology)

Different aspects of diseases:


-Etiology (cause)
-Pathogenesis (manner of development
of disease) -Changes and final effects in
the body

PATHOLOGIC ANATOMY : Deals with tissues and organs


separated and removed from body for pathologic study
purposes
Surgical -study tissue specimens excised surgically in
major/minor
operation
BIOPSY = take pieces of tissue from a living patient
Autopsy -study tissue specimens from dead person on autopsy
table
AUTOPSY = take pieces of tissue (cut section) from
dead person
(cadaver)
Gross -study body structures because of disease (readily
seen with
unaided eye)
Microscopi -deals with changes in microscopic structure
c

CLINICAL PATHOLOGY : study of compositions and char of


body secretions, excretions, fluids. For diagnosis of
diseases, measurement of diseases course, and therapy
evaluation.
Hematology -blood counts
-microscopic test of blood cells
stomach contents, abnormal elements,
disease producing factors
Parasitology -demonstration of protozoan,
metazoan
parasites, ova in the stool

RESEARCH/ EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY = Study of diseases


produced in animals to make significant correlation with
comparable disease process in human to do further research and
ultimate goal.

GENERAL PATHOLOGY = surveys, disease processes as


degenerative changes, circulation disturbance, inflammation,
tumors, maladies that affect tissues and organs.

SPECIAL PATHOLOGY = CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES.


-Neuropathology = pathology of nervous
system -Urologic pathology = pathology of
genitourinary system
-Gynecologic and obstetric pathology = pathology of female rep
system

PATHOLOGIST = Person engaged in pathology practice.


(surgical/clinical/autopsy)
3 Major Roles:
1. Service = practical application of knowledge for benefit of
medical colleagues and patients
2. Teaching = disseminates/passes fund of knowledge to
others
3. Research = engage in activities for their primary
purposes, additions, and contributions to general store of
knowledge of pathology.

MED TECH OR HISTOLOGIC TECHNICIAN


-prepare
specimen
-perform lab
tests
-prepare slides from surgical or autopsy material to be examined
by pathologist for diagnosis.

Role of Medtech:
-technical ability
-strong sense of responsibility
toward patient -conscientious
handling of tissue
-care in producing best possible result

PATHOLOGY LABORATORY (Start in operating room/ autopsy


room)
FIRST STEPRemove organ/tissue of concern from the bodyBy
Attending surgeonFIXATIONPut tissue in a fluid to preserve cells as
nearly as possible in thenatural stateGROSS-Pathologist describes
the tissue (char, size, shape, consistency,DESCRIPTION.weight,
color, special markings, appearance of outer and
cutsurfaces)TISSUE-Clearing/dehydrationPROCESSING-Embedding-
Sectioning-Staining-MountingMICROSCOPIC-Pathologist examines
and interprets microscopicallyDESCRIPTION-describe the
fundamental unit, char, architectural relation toother cell (for study
of disease)WRITTENFINAL
REPORTINGMICROSCOPICDESCRIPTION /