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RAMJYAM'S TEXT

THE 9TH PRINCIPLE:


ETERNITY OF THE TORAH

Rambam The Ninth Principle is non-revocation. 1 *i'.!:ll,'ijiJ - 'V'~ J;liJ ,;o~iJ)


Commentary to Namely, that this Torah of Moshe will 11~.fT ;-rrttT.:J J1ii.T-'I '11 :~~;'11:
. - .
the Mishnah never be revoked and no other Torah
I "'t'J~.J;'l: ~'Ji::ljJ 11~~ 11i?.f:W~
will ever come from G-el.
- .in?m~ ~?
One may not add to it or delete from 7'~ ;-r~~~~ ~'t?i:-r? 7'~ v'7sn
it, neither in the Written Torah or the N?1 .:l11:l::lftt :-rii.T-'1::1 ~? ,lJiil?
: T : " T - :

Oral Torah, as the verse states, "You ~?" :io~.:~ttt .:-r9 ?v ::1ttt :-riin::l
- "'": "" "" : "" T -
must not add to it, or delete from it"
(Devarim 13:1).
"~3~~ V'JF1 ~?1 1'7S? ~t;?in

We have already clarified what needs i~~? "'f')~~ :11;) ~J";J~~ i~~H
to be explained about this Principle in i~::lT:liJ :1! J1Jj' ,r!~.:P :1! ,iO'.:P
the introduction to this work.

[The following is the passage from the


"introduction" to which Ram bam refers]:

You should know that prophecy is


ineffective as a means of explaining
the Torah, or for finding new ways of
deriving additional laws through the
Thirteen Rules of Torah interpretation.

1. Translation of this passage follows text .7,":li1 'li'Wnn ,,o,m :n~xp cu1n:~.
of Rabbi Yosef Kapach (Jerusalem: Mosad x1::1n x':11 ,':lu:~.n x':l ;nun n1m mu x1m
ha-Rav Kook, 1965). x':11 ,il:l qo1n, x':11 ,nn':11r 'il nxn il1m
nx11J .IU11'~:l x':11 :l1n::J:l x':l ,nmn ll1l'
{48 il1llil 357 'll ::J"il IU"1p':l
LESSON 8
/

WILL THE COMMANDMENTS


EVER BE ANNULLED~

IN THIS LESSON

.. Different ways of understanding the Talmud's statement that "the mitzvos will be
annulled in the future."
.. The w:ay in which the commandments will be perceived in the future.

CLASSIC
QUESTION
I Does the Talmud teach that the commandments will ~e annulled
in the future?

Talmud Our Rabbis taught: A garment in i::l ,~~~ ,~~ t1H1j UJ;l
which a forbidden kila'im mixture [of 1'~'":1-?.tl ~.:~~~ :-r~iV ~ o~~'?:;J
wool and linen was woven, but cannot
.n~'?
be removed because knowledge of its
precise location] was lost...may be
made into a burial shroud.

R' Yosef said: This indicates that the :11'J~i~ n~r ,~Qi' :Jj ,l;l~ ,
commandments will be annulled in .~j? ,,.t13?? fli'?~.fl 11i1~~
the future.

Abaye (or as some say R' Dimi) said :Jj Nt;J'.tl '~1 '~;!~ ;:t''f ,l;l~
to him: But did not R' Manni state in ,, ,0~ '.JO ,, ,0~
-T "T -T
~;-r,
T;
:'O'':f

the name of R' Yannai: "This [sanction


,;,!:lio'? ~'?~ ~.Jft' ~'? ,'~~~
to enshroud a corpse in kila 'im] is : : T "" T

valid only during a eulogy, but for bur- .,~0~ ;,?ii''? "-?~
ial it is forbidden"?
-~-------_:_.__,.._.~------ \ :, - .~.:-~------- ___ .:

258 I RAMBAM'S THIRTEEN P~INCIPLES OF fAITH

He replied, "But did we not learn fur- ,rt?ll ,l.J.r-1~ ,~? :;:p', ,l.J~
ther that R' Yochanan taught that bur- ?;,~,i'~ ~~,;>~ 7~r:ti' ,~ ,~~ T

ial too is permitted"?


,"
R' Yochanan was thus consistent ,~~7 ,:1'~~~7 7~':Ji' ,,,
with his previously expressed view, 0'J:1~~, :l'J:'l~:r '~~ ,r~r:ti' ,,
for R' Yochanan taught: "What is the
:-r~v,~ ,07~ !1~~ 7!''*' ?"'~~r:t
meaning of the verse, 'Free among the
.. (:J ,NO ;m) J'1il4)0 7~ '~~':!
dead' (Psalms 88:6)? It means that as soon
as a man dies he is free from the com-
mandments" (Nidah 6Ib).

Tosfos The fact that the Rabbis ruled that it is i? ;-r~iV ;-r'Jl){l;J77 '~-t'1i77 10
perfectly permissible to make a burial ';:l ?v ~~ ,o~~7~~ 7'_;l'"J~.t'l
shroud from kila 'im, despite the fact
,.DV,~ ,, .J:'lS/7 ,.l.Jll!~~~
that when the corpse is resurrected
he will be wearing the garments in v~~ ,rtf.? ,~i?~~ ,,t?'~:J7~-?
which-he is buried (Kesubos lllb), proves ,'J:"'S!? n;?~:p nil4)~ ;:q~
that the commandments will be .(,ON ;r", Ol'tl) ~i:l?
annulled in the future (Nidah ibid.).

Rashba There are those who argue that from ,~D~iJ~ ~J'?S/ ~JV,~~ ;"TJV,~01
the passage in tractate Nidah there is ,, J:1Sl? n;?~-? ni1~ il"J~-?
proof that the commandments will be ;-ry;, ,n~:m ;-rt,~;-r '!I V':'f ,~;:1?
annulled in the future. But you should "" - 'J' - - T

know that the meaning of the term ?v ;-r'J't~J ,~;:1? ,'J:"'S?? ,T;l;?
"future" (le-asid /avo) can refer to ,:li,i7 ;~ pin'J ~~0 7T;l! ?~
either the distant future (i.e. the Era of . ttltf~ 1~1.J9 77;)9 ~"'~~1
Resurrection) or the immediate future ~;:17 ,, J:1Sl? n;?~:p 1111-r~~
(Yoma 77b) ... .ln our case, the Talmud is
!11~il ,n~? ;,~~11 ,~,D~ttl
.... T - --: !T"."
referring to the immediate future,
0' !1~;-rrp ,l.J;.? ;-ry;, ,ttl~l.J
i.e. that the mitzvos are only annulled - . - "." T -

for the corpse now, so long as. he 7~ O')U~~ 0'J:1~ D7iVf1


remains dead. (The Talmud proves oro ~~':1;-rttl ~~m ,n;,y~;-r
T . ! ! -

this point by bringing proof from the ,"'~~r:t 0' J:"l~~/1 :1~11~0 7~ ;-r!~';l
verse in Psalms). But after resurrec-
7~ '~~r:t ;-r~v,~ 07~ !1~~ 7l''*'
tion, the obligation to observe the
.(':J ,:::1"' .,, 111:1,:1 nmN 'l't11,'n) ;-rl-4)0
commandments will return (Chidushei
Agados, Brachos 12b). *

*Rashba continues to explain the remainder of the Talmud's discussion: "However,


this begs the question: How can R' Dimi possibly disagree with this point, and suggest

-- -------.. ----------------------------
THE NINTH PRINCIPLE - LESSON EIGHT / 259

Sdei Rambam understood the Talmud in 'l:J ft'~1:J:;) i=J'? ~1':10 0"::101:1
: T " : - ! - T

Chemed the same way as Rashba. l,'herefore, 1n~? 1~?':'f ,oft' '1::1 ~"::Jft'1:-r
--: -: T T;-T

even though he ruled in favor of


R' Yochanan that the dead may be ''Ji? :1{1'~ JT;lrJ ~7~ ,:1!1:1{-l::t
buried in kila 'im (Laws of Kila'im 10:25), he 1t)l?~7 1J~::t1 ~i:l7 ,'J:"lll?
did not agree that the mitzvos will be ;-r~;, '~~':t ;-r~v,~ 11~~ 71'-*'
annulled in the Era of Resurrection ~?1 :1{1'~ JT;l9 ~i?1J7 1T;Ji?
.(:J ,,"Oi' 'fl '? ,,~) :1!1}J;l;:f 1lJ~'?
(Ohr Li 144b).

Ritva While studying under Rashba, Ritva i11i':1:l':'f ~J? :-r"ll ~":Jfj'1;'1
: " ! T T " T ! " T

had difficulty accepting his teacher's ~"::Jft'1:-r 'J:J? ft'T.;Jft'r.J~ ,o;v


T!-T -: -:
interpretation, which he found prob-
:1~~-r~ iJ'~7 itt'~,~ ?v :-r~p::t
lematic both textually and conceptual-
ly. He concluded that the most prefer- ,?!~ ~?1 Jirtt7::t ,?!~ ~?
able interpretation is that of the early 11VJf' 1j?ViJ~ i''~T;J~ ,7!~ViJ
scholars [Tosfos], who had interpret- 111?~.p n;~~7 O'~irt'~)iJ
ed "in the future" to mean that in the
Era of Resurrection we will no longer
1T;Jt~ '_;I 1J'~::t ,~:J 7 ,,.nv?
I
O':l'n :1':1J ~? 0'111.;):1 n~nn
be obligated in the commandments. "T- .: - -:

Nevertheless, we will still observe 1~~v~ ~lt!~.r~ :11f;J ?-?~


many mitzvos voluntarily, due to their ~', O{l";J~~J:11 1{"!~r.J''~ 11~~~
perfection and beauty, like the 11i:l~iJ ir.J.f ~7~ :l~~D TJ1.'?
Patriarchs who observed the entire :1')i.11;:t ?f ~o:;r~ O' ~irt'~)iJ
Torah (Ritva according to Beirach Es Avraham,
.(,;,.::~ .nlt',!l ,o;,,:J~ .n~ 1 ,.::~> rr7~.
Parshas Behar).

that the corpse may not be buried in kila'im, when the dead are certainly exempt from
mitzvos?"

"You should know that according to R' Dimi the corpse is cdnsidered exempt from
mitzvos like a child. If we see a child eating non-kosher meat, wearing kila'im or
breaking Shabbos, there is no obligation to stop him, but nevertheless we are
forbidden to actively feed him non-kosher food and to cause him to transgress.
[Likewise, the corpse may not actively be enshrouded in kila'im.]

"And the fact that R' Dimi allows the corpse to be enshrouded in kila'im for a eulogy
does not pose a problem. For at this time the shroud is not worn properly but merely
spread over the corpse, and the prohibition of wearing kila'im only applies when a
person wears the garment properly."
LESSON 9

11
THE NEw ToRAH''
OF MASHIACH

IN THIS LESSON

~ Why the Midrash taught that a "New Torah" would be given in the future.
~ The role of Mashiach in revealing the "New Torah."
~ The difference between the "New Torah" and contemporary Torah innovations .

CLASSIC
QuESTION
I How are we to understand the Midrashic teaching that a (CNew
Torah" will be given in the future, in light of the Ninth Principle?

Midrash The celebratory feast of the righteous '?tq P~W? 7iJ i-tl!J7J J1il.J::Jfl '?f
Rabah in the future will consist of a show-
down between the Beast and the
c;:r ,~,~ ~1:17 ,,rw? C'i?':r~
Livyasan (Leviathan) fish .... How will r-tl!J77 rn1J n1o;:r.p c'~r:trq ~
they be slaughtered? The Beast will r nu r!1!)7) 1V!1v) , ni? .p
gorge the fish with its horns and tear Jin1J1 1'i'9JO::I 1110:1:1 '?
-: : T - ! :

it up, and the Livyasan will pull the


Beast down with its fin and stab it.

The Sages asked: How could that be :-t~'nft'


T !
1r C'i1.J1~
C'O.:Jm
" ! T -:-

a kosher form of slaughter? Aren't we .t,:;,;:r 1~'~~ 1f ~'?J ?~'::r :1')~?


taught in the Mishnah, "Any person
c'{1v7~ i'~Q1ft' ',-:;,~~ i'~q1ft'
may slaughter, slaughter may be done
at any time; and any [hard, smooth] "i'~i? "~~~ rm i'~Q1ft'
implement may be used for slaughter, i::Jtq '~~~ c~~W/0J :-t')~'f0)
except a scythe, saw or teeth are pro- ?j'i?~1n
hibited since they [are jagged and
cause] strangulation" (Chullin 15b)?
274 I RAMBAM'S THIRTEEN PRINCIPLES OF fAITH

G-d says, "A new Torah will come :-t')i.r-1 =~~;"! ,~,~ ft'i,j?;:t 11;J~
forth from me! New laws will emerge :11i.n rt>r=rn !~Y .n '.n~T.J :-tft',n
T " "" "" " " "" T T -:
from me!" (Vayikra Rabah 13:3).

Yalkut In the future G-d will sit in the Garden ni'ry'? ~~;-r ,~,~ rt>i,R;:r ,, rw
Shimoni of Eden, with all the righteous sitting
before Him and expound.... G-d will sit
roi,R;:rJ ft'Ji,J nv.
7~f! :J~i'
:-t')if-'1 rt'ji,J :J~i~ ~~;"! ,~,~
and expound the New Torah that in
the future He will give through 'T ?v 1n'? ,, nv~ :-t~7q
Mashiach (Isaiah, no. 429).' .(t::J":m TO, r.I'V!O' 117"1pt,) n'ft'l.J - T

Chidushei The "New Torah" refers to a tempo- :11i.n rt>r=rn ~Y .n '.n~T.J :-t1i.n
T " " " T

ha~Radal rary dispensation that will be given rt>r=rn 1T.Ji? :-tY11 ~,:, '.n~T.J
" - T T :

[by a prophet to eat this prohibited


form of slaughter] (Vayikra Rabah ibid. See
also Maharatz Chayes to Chulin 67b).

Yedey For G-d, it is permissible to slaughter 11i1~~? opt,? ft'~~ 7t":1':1~ o~


Moshe even with fins, but for humans who 7'~t?f! ~i?J:J ~n~'? ~~:-t ovcgtTJ
were given the Torah to refine their
hearts and to impart in them,a feeling
:J7f! Vi?.fl~~ ?';Jff'~ i'~,~
of mercy, it is forbidden to use fins, for p 7'~~ :-Jt;J n~-,~~rn o7~iJ
they cause pain to animals (ibid.). iT.J11-? ~~;"! ,~,~ ft'i,j?ti~.P
.(Crt/) :1J7 1'":1- 7'~ ~IJift'

Chasam -Even we could slaughter with an :1')~',1~ ~M~~ '~~ 7~~ ~?';J~
S"ofer uneven object if we could be sure that '? '111 1T.Ji? 1ft'!)~ :1':1 0~
" " T - T : "." T 1" "

it would not cause any damage or


tearing. But no person could say that, ~7~ 'J:ll,'Ji? ~?J '.rw~~ ~"~
and even if he did we would not ,p 1t;Ji? ?i.:J! o:r~ 7'~~
believe him, for who could be sure of i1''? 7~'~':1'::1':1 ~? ,11;J~., ~?';J~l
such a thing? G-d, however, when per- ?~~ ,:-t! 1V.TP7 ?i.:J! '~ '~
forming slaughter Himself could say ~IJirt'~ ' ~~:1 ,~,~ ft'i,j?;:t
SO with certainty (Responsa, Yoreh De'ah
,,,,) '? '111 11.Ji? Si.:J' il.JYl!11
" T - T : :
no.l9).
.(t::J"' roo
LESS 0 N 12

THE FUTURE ANNULMENT


OF THE FESTIVALS

IN THIS LESSON
..... Why the Midrash taught that the festivals are to be annulled in the future.
..... The exceptional cases of Purim, Yom Kippur, Chanukah and Lag b'Omer.

Q;J:s~~~ I Is it true that the festivals wiU be annulled in the Messianic Era?

Midrash All the festivals will in the future be ,0''7~~ 0')' J:"'V, C')V,i~;:t t, f
annulled. But the days of Purim will C''?~:p or~ C'}~!ll;:t '~'1
never be annulled, as the verse states:
C'':l~s::r 'D'1" ,o~.:~~ ,c'?w'?
"These days of Purim will not pass - "o": "" "" T !

away from among the Jews [nor will the 1if1~ ~,."?ll~ ~" i17~::r
memorial of them perish from their chil- ."O')~i1~;:t
dren]" (Esther 9:28).

Rabbi Elazar said: The Day of oi' 9~ :,tv?~ '~'J ,t;J~


Atonement, too, will never be annulled, ,o',;vt, '?~.!1 iJ'N O',~!ll.!li1
T ! T -

as the verse states, "This will be an O:J'? nN:r i1n'i11" ,1.:JN3~


"" T T ! T : - .: "" ""
eternal statute for you, to atone for the
Jewish people, for all their sins, once a
'~:P '?v ,~~? o7iv niY~?
year" (Vayikra 16:34; Midrash Mishlei 9:2). nnN cnN"tan '?.!lo '?N,t''
-- T - T" T:
304 / RAMBAM'S THIRTEEN PRINCIPLES OF FAITH

Radvaz This Midrash refers to the Messianic o::J? 0't?'J7t;l;:t ~s~ ~.1' .;>1
Era when there will be an abundance tl't?~;:r nl1.J'7 0',:~ . ,o
- :
of good produce, joy, peace and ':

pleasure, to the extent that all days


:-tno~m
T
:-t:l1ta:-t :-t:~,n~
! ' T - , : ,

will be equally joyous. Thus it will be "~ ~';;t~~ ,v ltll!,-801 :1Qtll;J;:t1


as if the festivals have been annulled, 0,~ 'J.!I t,y~ 0'1~ 0'~~~
TT u; , 'T "T-

for there will be no distinction 7'~~ o'-:rv,1~;:r ~srp;~{'l~ ~s~~


between a weekday and a festival; but ~t, ,v.1o'? '?1n 7'.!1 ~,n~
none of the commandments will be
0 : :

.o1'?~1 on :-t1Y~:-t Sta:~11n~


annulled, G-d forbid. T;- T;- -:,

Nevertheless, Purim will prevail, O',::m ' T ! "


~':-t' O',~::m -
'l.J' '?:1~ T -:

even though it is not a Biblical com- 7~ OJ'~~ '~ ?s_t 'l~ O'f?tl!,~1
mand, because the Jewish people will o',:J1r s~,ft'' ~':1' ':!! :1,,,.,:1 ! "
still wish to recall the suffering of that "' T T -

period. This is in contrast to the suf- 7T;li;i OiJ'':?~ S!'~0 ,~~ ,S!0
fering in Egypt from which we were ~,:~t' ~t, :-t~S ,l.J~l-1 o~1
! ! " T T - ;
:-t-m , -

already appeased during the idyllic ,:1:!1~


T
,01'? ~' .O',Yl.J ,~.!IV~
! , - - ; !

period of the First Temple. But the n~.';l~ 0'-?'?'f::r 7T;lpl 1111~ ~n-?~
anguish of the Purim persecution was ~t, O',H.:I:-t 'l.J' '?:1~ 11'.!1:1
not appeased by the building of the - - : T -: - -

Second Temple, which was not a com- ~',~ '~~ 11~.;1 7~P-? ~Mfl.tl~~
plete redemption. ... :-tT.J'?~ onS~l :-tn':-t
T''! TT",! T!T

R' Elazar then adds that, according o1' 'l~ 'l'l;!i:-t1 C,!l??~J '~J ~.;n
to the reasoning mentioned above, oS;vS s~:~ iJ'~ O',H~:J:-t
T ! "" T '" ' -

the Day of Atonement will not be


7'~~ '~7 7i~~':l;:t ov~;:r~
annulled, for the joy of the future era
:1:1,,~., '~~v 11'?ta:1o :-tno~:-t
will not annul the affliction of the Day T-;-; " ";.'''-; T;-

of Atonement. On the contrary, the :-tnT.Jft'.!l


T;;
o,~ :-t':-t~~
TT ,;,
:-to -
'?:~ T

happier a person is, the more he feels ,n1' ,~~v-? ~'n~ l~JV.t~-?~
pain (Responsa 2:828). .(n.,.:mnroo ::J"n t"::J,, n"lto)

Abarbanel The "annulment" .of the festivals fm O~'~f O')l!,i~;:t t,~


described by the Midrash is not, G-d
'?~ta~ 7'~ .O'}~~~;:t Oi'l 0'}~~~
forbid, a discontinuation of the festi.:.
vals themselves, but only an annul., Ot;JS! O')l!,i~;:t '?~ta.!l :1!
!Dent of that which they recall, since o11,':Jt S~ta:~ o~ ':!! :-t'?'Sn
ITT': 'T'T

they were all ordained "in remem- ."O',YT.J 11~'Y''? ,:n" oS:~ 0:-t~
- : . - , T ,, ,

brance of the Exodus from Egypt" (Liturgy, 71:1!~ '?~'JfP~~ ,t;l~~;:r 7~~V)
The point of the
7i,-?i "~ :1':? ~l.J'f?t! ~? :-t?~~;:r
Shabbos Evening Kiddush).
Midrash is that in the time of the
----'-'- .. ---- ---~ ._,. _,_._ -'--'~'.:,-.....- .. -- .. ~ -----.- . - --- .. - .. -- --- - ,_- ---- .. '. --' ~-'--~----- . :_ --~-- -- -- --~~-~-- ,.__ ..::. .

354 / RAMBAM'S THIRTEEN PRINCIPLES OF fAITH

Yefey To'ar How can the Midrash claim that the ,~v ''Jt!~ tj~r:tiJ.P il! 1;1~' ~r,
sacrifices will be annulled in the future ,,.rw7 l'~t;J~l.J~ 1'1'~{1 ni.l~":Ji?
when the very reason why we wish to
ro:rr~::r n'+.l il~~~ il! '?v]
rebuild the Temple is to offer sacri-
~:Jil:J :1'n:J,:J~ ~J'l.J':l il,ilt.J:J
fices? Does scripture not state, "Do T - ; .: ; T ; T :

good with Your good will to Zion; build f9r:t.tl r~ '~:J1 ;~iY":J.;I il-?'~'u
the walls ofJerusalem. Then You will be .'~:J] 'IJ-?!
pleased with the sacrifices of righteous-
ness, with burnt-offerings and whole
burnt offeri'!f?s; then they will offer bulls
upon Your altar" (Psalms 51:20-21)?

Rather, here the Midrash is referring n~~;:r 1~~~ ,~!~ ... "'v.'? ,t;J~J
specifically to personal sacrifices, '?-?~ ,,,J:"'l?7 ,.tli'fl niJ~?i?trJ
which, with the exception of the
~!'t~., ,'1:1! ni.lfl":Ji?fl ~-?iJ
Thanksgiving-offering, are brought to
atone for sin. Therefore, in the future, O'~~ o'?~~ '~'?~ '"J~t;Ji? :-i7in7
when the phenomenon of sin will "'v'?1+' O'~'?tq~::r n'?n ~C91J '?v
cease, these offerings will no longer '?~"J~~ 1i13!, tO~~~ ,,J:"'l/7 ':;JiJ'?
be brought. The communal sacrifices ~7~ ni.l~":Ji? ~:l''Ji?~ ~r, ~1lt~1
will nevertheless be offered in the .(Oto "1N'I1'1 ;'I!J') i'? il~i,J il'Jif-1 j?'J
Temple (commentary to Midrash ibid.; see also
Aitz Yosefibid.).

CLAssic
QUESTION 1Willt there stt11 be an obl.tgatton
to pray tnt
, he M esstantc
Era?

Midrash I In the future ...all prayers will be


annulled but thanksgiving will not be
ni~~{"ltr '?f ... ~i:1'7 ,'J:"ll/7
il'?tj:J m'~ il~,iilil ni'?tj:J
T-: T"" TT- :

annulled (Vayikra Rabah 9:7).

Avudraham People will simply not have to ask G-d '~! r,~rp7 ~:J?rt~ ~~~
for their needs any more because il'?i,l il.:Jitj:J
T ;
o'?iVil
T :
'~ ,mil
.- T T

there will always be an abundance of


~7~ o;:r'? 1'~1 ,o'~!tr '?f ~';;r~
produce in the future era. All that will
remain will be for people to praise and 1'J~{'l~ o~? il~'JiilJ . n;~~
thank G-d (Seder Tefilos she/ Chol, end of .(':I ,vro '110 '?1n;'l m'?!Jn ,,o ,o.,,,,::l~)
Sha'ar2).