Está en la página 1de 32

PSICOMOTRICIDAD

Teora y Praxis del Desarrollo Psicomotor en la Infancia

EDITORIAL
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG
'HVDUUROOR3VLFRPRWRU
HQOD,QIDQFLD
)LFKDGHFDWDORJDFLyQELEOLRJUiFD

3VLFRPRWULFLGDG'HVDUUROORSVLFRPRWRUHQODLQIDQFLD

(GLFLyQ

,GHDV3URSLDV(GLWRULDO9LJR
ISBN 10: 84-96578-86-0
,6%1
ISBN 13: 978-84-96578-86-9
)RUPDWR[FP3iJLQDV

36,&20275,&,'$''(6$552//236,&202725(1/$,1)$1&,$
1RHVWiSHUPLWLGDODUHSURGXFFLyQWRWDORSDUFLDOGHHVWHOLEURQLVXWUDWDPLHQWRLQIRUPiWLFR
QLODWUDQVPLVLyQGHQLQJXQDIRUPDRSRUFXDOTXLHUPHGLR\DVHDHOHFWUyQLFRPHFiQLFRSRU
IRWRFRSLDSRUUHJLVWURXRWURVPpWRGRVVLQHOSHUPLVRSUHYLR\SRUHVFULWRGHORVWLWXODUHV
GHO&RS\ULJKW

'(5(&+265(6(59$'26UHVSHFWRDODSULPHUDHGLFLyQHQHVSDxROSRU
 ,GHDV3URSLDV(GLWRULDO

ISBN 10: 84-96578-86-0


,6%1
ISBN 13: 978-84-96578-86-9
'HSyVLWR/HJDO&
$XWRUHV5LFDUGR3pUH]&DPHVHOOHH,GHDVSURSLDV
'LVHxR,GHDV3URSLDV3XEOLFLGDG6/
&RRUGLQDFLyQ(GLWRULDO1HW%LEOR6/
,OXVWUDFLRQHV3RUWDGD$OLD
0DTXHWDFLyQ2SFLyQ*UiILFD&RUXxD
,PSUHVRHQ-RVPDQ3UHVV
,PSUHVRHQ(VSDxD3ULQWHGLQ6SDLQ
1',&(

 3VLFRPRWULFLGDG   
  ,QWURGXFFLyQ   
  &RQFHSWRGHSVLFRPRWULFLGDG   
  /DLQIOXHQFLDGHODSVLFRPRWULFLGDGVREUHHOUHQGLPLHQWRHVFRODU\
  HOGHVDUUROORLQWHJUDOGHOQLxRDIHFWLYLGDG\GHVDUUROORLQWHOHFWXDO   
  5HVXPHQGHFRQWHQLGRV   
 $872(9$/8$&,1  

 (WDSDVGHOGHVDUUROORSVLFRPRWRU   
  ,QWURGXFFLyQ   
  (OGHVDUUROORHYROXWLYRHQHGXFDFLyQSULPDULD  
  (OSULPHUFLFORGHSULPDULD  
  (OVHJXQGRFLFORGHSULPDULD  
  (OWHUFHUFLFORGHSULPDULD   
  (OFXHUSRLPDJHQ\SHUFHSFLyQH[SUHVLyQ\FRPXQLFDFLyQ   
  5HVXPHQGHFRQWHQLGRV   
 $872(9$/8$&,1  

 (OHPHQWRVGHEDVH   
  ,QWURGXFFLyQ   
  (OHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOODSURSLDLPDJHQ   
  /DFRRUGLQDFLyQPRWUL]FRQWUROSRVWXUDOIXQFLyQWyQLFDFRRUGLQDFLyQ
  GLQiPLFDJHQHUDO\FRRUGLQDFLyQYLVRPRWUL]  
  (OFRQWUROSRVWXUDO   
  /DIXQFLyQWyQLFD   
  /DFRRUGLQDFLyQGLQiPLFDJHQHUDO\ODFRRUGLQDFLyQYLVRPRWUL]   
  /DODWHUDOLGDG   
  /DRULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDO   
  /DLQIOXHQFLDGHODRULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDOVHJ~Q7DVVHW   
  /DRULHQWDFLyQWHPSRUDO   
  7LHPSR\ULWPR   
  5HODMDFLyQ\UHVSLUDFLyQ  
  /DDIHFWLYLGDGPRWUL],QGLFDGRUHVGHUHWUDVRSVLFRPRWUL]  
  ,QGLFDGRUHVGHUHWUDVRSVLFRPRWUL]  
 5HVXPHQGHFRQWHQLGRV   
$872(9$/8$&,1   
 7UDVWRUQRVGHOGHVDUUROOR  
  ,QWURGXFFLyQ   
  /RVWUDVWRUQRVGHOGHVDUUROORSVLFRPRWRU   
  /DLQHVWDELOLGDGPRWUL]   
  /DGHELOLGDGPRWUL]  
  /DLQKLELFLyQPRWUL]  
  /RVUHWUDVRVGHPDGXUDFLyQ  
  /DVGLVDUPRQtDVWyQLFRPRWRUDV  
  /RVWUDVWRUQRVGHOHVTXHPDFRUSRUDO  
  /DVDSUD[LDVLQIDQWLOHV   
  /DVGLVSUD[LDVLQIDQWLOHV  
  /RVWLFV   
  5HVXPHQGHFRQWHQLGRV   
 $872(9$/8$&,1  

 (GXFDFLyQ\UHHGXFDFLyQSVLFRPRWUL]   
  ,QWURGXFFLyQ   
  (GXFDFLyQ\UHHGXFDFLyQSVLFRPRWUL]   
  /DSUiFWLFDSVLFRPRWUL]   
  (OH[DPHQSVLFRPRWRU  
  7LSRVGHDSUHQGL]DMHSVLFRPRWRU   
  0pWRGRVHPSOHDGRVHQODVHWDSDVLQLFLDOHV   
  5HVXPHQGHFRQWHQLGRV   
 $872(9$/8$&,1  

 3URSXHVWDVSUiFWLFDVDORVFRQWHQLGRV   
  ,QWURGXFFLyQ   
  3URSXHVWDVGHWUDEDMR  
  $PRGRGHFRQFOXVLyQ   

5(680(1   

(;$0(1  

62/8&,21(6$/$6$872(9$/8$&,21(6   



%,%/,2*5$)$  
&RQVXOWHHOFDWiORJRGHWtWXORVHQ

ZZZLGHDVSURSLDVHGLWRULDOFRP
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG 

3VLFRPRWULFLGDG

 3VLFRPRWULFLGDG

  ,QWURGXFFLyQ

$ORODUJRGHHVWDXQLGDGGLGiFWLFDYHUHPRVHOFRQFHSWRGHSVLFRPRWULFLGDG\
FyPRpVWHDIHFWDDOUHQGLPLHQWRHVFRODU\DOGHVDUUROORLQWHJUDOGHOQLxR

(OWpUPLQRGHSVLFRPRWULFLGDGHVWiIRUPDGRSRUHOSUHILMRSVLFRTXHVLJQLILFD
PHQWH\PRWULFLGDGTXHGHULYDGHODSDODEUDPRWRUTXHVLJQLILFDPRYLPLHQWR
3RUWDQWRSRGUtDPRVGHFLUTXHODSVLFRPRWULFLGDGKDFHUHIHUHQFLDDODH[LVWHQFLD
GHXQDUHODFLyQGLUHFWDHQWUHODPHQWH\HOPRYLPLHQWR

  &RQFHSWRGHSVLFRPRWULFLGDG

/DSVLFRPRWULFLGDGFRPRFRQFHSWR\WHRUtDQDFHDSULQFLSLRVGHOVLJOR;;IUXWR
GHOWUDEDMR\ODVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVGHGLVWLQWRVDXWRUHVFRPRSRUHMHPSOR9D\HU
/H%RXOFKR'XSUp HVWH~OWLPRHVWDEOHFHUHODFLRQHVHQWUHDOJXQRVWUDVWRUQRV
SVLTXLiWULFRV\ORVFRPSRUWDPLHQWRVPRWRUHV /XHJRGLYHUVDVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVGH
GLVWLQWRVDXWRUHVGHODSVLFRORJtDHYROXWLYDHQWUHORVTXHGHVWDFD:DOORQSRQHQ
GHPDQLILHVWRODUHODFLyQHQWUHORVDVSHFWRVPRWULFHVGHOGHVDUUROOR\ODDGTXLVLFLyQ
GHODPDGXUH]SVLFRItVLFD/DVSRVWHULRUHVDSRUWDFLRQHVGHOSVLFRDQiOLVLV\OD
SHGDJRJtDD\XGDURQDFRPSOHWDUODVEDVHVGHODWHUDSLDSVLFRPRWUL]

$OSULQFLSLRODSVLFRPRWULFLGDGFRPRGLVFLSOLQDVHOLPLWDEDDOWUDWDPLHQWR
GHDTXHOORVQLxRV\DGROHVFHQWHVTXHSUHVHQWDEDQDOJXQDGHILFLHQFLDItVLFDR
SVtTXLFDSHURDFWXDOPHQWHVHFRQVLGHUDXQDPHWRGRORJtDPXOWLGLVFLSOLQDU
FX\DILQDOLGDGIXQGDPHQWDOHVHOGHVDUUROORDUPyQLFRGHOQLxR
 3VLFRPRWULFLGDG

3RGHPRVGHILQLUODSVLFRPRWULFLGDGFRPRDTXHOODFLHQFLDTXHFRQVLGHUDQGR
DOLQGLYLGXRHQVXWRWDOLGDGSVLTXHVRPDSUHWHQGHGHVDUUROODUDOPi[LPRODV
FDSDFLGDGHVLQGLYLGXDOHVYDOLpQGRVHGHODH[SHULPHQWDFLyQ\ODHMHUFLWDFLyQ
FRQVFLHQWHGHOSURSLRFXHUSRSDUDFRQVHJXLUXQPD\RUFRQRFLPLHQWRGHVXV
SRVLELOLGDGHVHQUHODFLyQFRQVLJRPLVPR\HQFRQHOPHGLRHQTXHVHGHVHQYXHOYH

'HWDOGHILQLFLyQDVtFRPRGHODH[SRVLFLyQSUHFHGHQWHVHSXHGHGHULYDUTXHOD
SUiFWLFDSVLFRPRWUL]FRQWHPSODDOVHUKXPDQRGHVGHXQSXQWRGHYLVWDJOREDO
HVGHFLUSDUWHGHXQSODQWHDPLHQWRJOREDOGHODSHUVRQD

6HWUDWDGHXQDGLVFLSOLQDTXHDEDUFDGLYHUVRVDVSHFWRVHQWUHORVTXHSRGHPRV
GHVWDFDU

 (OHVWXGLRGHOGHVDUUROORGHOPRYLPLHQWRFRUSRUDO

 (OHVWXGLRGHODVGHVYLDFLRQHV\WUDVWRUQRVTXHSXHGDQSURGXFLUVHHQHO
QRUPDOGHVDUUROORGHOPRYLPLHQWRFRUSRUDO

 (OGLVHxR\DSOLFDFLyQGHWpFQLFDV\SURJUDPDVTXHIDFLOLWHQHOGHVDUUROOR
PRWRUQRUPDO

 (OGLVHxR\DSOLFDFLyQGHWpFQLFDVTXHPHMRUHQODVSRVLEOHVGHVYLDFLRQHV
TXHSXHGDQSURGXFLUVH

(QHVWHVHQWLGRSRGHPRVVHxDODUTXHVHKDQGHVDUUROODGRLQWHUYHQFLRQHVSVLFR
PRWULFHVSUHYHQWLYDVHGXFDWLYDVUHHGXFDWLYDV\WHUDSpXWLFDV

)LQDOL]DUHPRVHVWHSXQWRRIUHFLHQGRODGHILQLFLyQFRQVHQVXDGDGHSVLFRPRWUL
FLGDGDODTXHKDQOOHJDGRODV$VRFLDFLRQHV(VSDxRODVGH3VLFRPRWULFLGDGR
3VLFRPRWULFLVWDV(VODVLJXLHQWH

(OWpUPLQRSVLFRPRWULFLGDGEDVDGRHQXQDYLVLyQJOREDOGHOVHUKXPDQRLQWHJUDODV
LQWHUDFFLRQHVFRJQLWLYDVHPRFLRQDOHVVLPEyOLFDV\VHQVRULRPRWULFHVHQODFDSDFLGDGGH
VHU\GHH[SUHVDUVHODSHUVRQDHQXQFRQWH[WRSVLFRVRFLDO

'HHVWDIRUPDODSVLFRPRWULFLGDGGHVHPSHxDXQSDSHOIXQGDPHQWDOHQHOGHVDUUROOR
DUPyQLFRGHODSHUVRQDOLGDG6HGHVDUUROODQDGHPiVSDUWLHQGRGHHVWDFRQFHSFLyQGLIHUHQWHV
IRUPDVGHLQWHUYHQFLyQSVLFRPRWUL]TXHHQFXHQWUDQVXDSOLFDFLyQ FXDOTXLHUDTXHVHDOD
HGDGGHOLQGLYLGXR HQORViPELWRVSUHYHQWLYRHGXFDWLYRUHHGXFDWLYR\WHUDSpXWLFR'LFKDV
SUiFWLFDVSVLFRPRWULFHVKDQGHFRQGXFLUDODIRUPDFLyQWLWXODFLyQ\SHUIHFFLRQDPLHQWR
SURIHVLRQDOFRQVWLWX\HQGRFDGDYH]PiVHOREMHWRGHLQYHVWLJDFLRQHVFLHQWtILFDV
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG 

 /DLQXHQFLDGHODSVLFRPRWULFLGDGVREUHHOUHQGLPLHQWR
HVFRODU\HOGHVDUUROORLQWHJUDOGHOQLxRDIHFWLYLGDG\
GHVDUUROORLQWHOHFWXDO

/DSUiFWLFDGHODSVLFRPRWULFLGDGD\XGDDORVQLxRVGHVGHORVSULPHURVPRPHQWRV
GHVXYLGDDTXHVXGHVDUUROORSVLFRPRWRUVHFRPSOHWHGHODPDQHUDPiVDGHFXDGD
1RVUHIHULPRVDGLYHUVRVDVSHFWRVHQWUHORVTXHFDEHGHVWDFDU

 (OHVTXHPD\ODLPDJHQFRUSRUDO
 /DODWHUDOL]DFLyQ
 /DFRRUGLQDFLyQGLQiPLFD
 (OHTXLOLEULR
 /DHMHFXFLyQPRWUL]
 /DGLVRFLDFLyQPRWUL]
 (OFRQWUROWyQLFRSRVWXUDO
 /DFRRUGLQDFLyQYLVRPRWRUD
 /DRULHQWDFLyQ\ODHVWUXFWXUDFLyQHVSDFLDO
 (OFRQWUROUHVSLUDWRULR

7DOHVDVSHFWRVLQIOX\HQQRWDEOHPHQWHHQHOGHVDUUROORHVFRODU/RVQLxRVTXHQR
FRQRFHQDGHFXDGDPHQWHVXHVTXHPDFRUSRUDO\TXHSUHVHQWDQGHILFLHQFLDVGH
RULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDOWLHQHQGLILFXOWDGHVSDUDDGTXLULUGHWHUPLQDGDVHVWUDWHJLDV
LPSUHVFLQGLEOHVSDUDHODSUHQGL]DMH3RUHMHPSOR

 /RVFRQFHSWRVWHPSRUDOHV

 6RQQHFHVDULRVSDUDODFRQMXJDFLyQYHUEDOSDUDUHDOL]DUFRUUHFWDPHQWHORV
SDVRVGHXQDRSHUDFLyQPDWHPiWLFDFRPSXHVWD\SDUDODUHDOL]DFLyQGHWDUHDV
PRWULFHVRUGHQDGDVSRUHVWDFLRQHVRHQIRUPDGHFLUFXLWR

 /RVFRQFHSWRVUHODFLRQDGRVFRQODODWHUDOLGDG\ODUHODFLyQHVSDFLDO

 6RQLPSUHVFLQGLEOHVHQORVDSUHQGL]DMHVGHODOHFWRHVFULWXUDSRUHMHPSOR
SDUDGLVWLQJXLUHQWUHODVOHWUDVE\GRHQWUHORVGLVWLQWRVWLSRVGHDFHQWXDFLyQ
JUiILFDHQDOJXQDVOHQJXDV
 3VLFRPRWULFLGDG

/DSVLFRPRWULFLGDGHVWiGLUHFWDPHQWHUHODFLRQDGDFRQHOFRFLHQWHLQWHOHFWXDO\
HMHUFHXQDQRWDEOHLQIOXHQFLDVREUHpO(VWDLQIOXHQFLDIXHGHVFULWDSRU-HDQ0DULH
7DVVHW/DSVLFRPRWULFLGDGHMHUFHXQDLQIOXHQFLDGRPLQDQWHVREUHHOFRFLHQWHLQWHOHFWXDO
(VWiGHPRVWUDGRTXHHQODEDVHGHODLQWHOLJHQFLDVHHQFXHQWUDODVXPDGHODVH[SHULHQFLDV
ItVLFDVGHGpELOWHQVLyQHQHUJpWLFDYLYLGDVSRUHOLQGLYLGXR

6HJ~QHVWHDXWRUDWUDYpVGHODREVHUYDFLyQ\ODH[SORUDFLyQPRWUL]ORVQLxRV
GHVFXEUHQVXFXHUSR\ORVREMHWRVTXHORVURGHDQGLVIUXWDQPLUiQGRVHODV
PDQRVPDQLSXODQGRXQMXJXHWHHVFXFKDQGRHOUXLGRTXHKDFHXQREMHWRDO
FDHURGHVFXEULHQGRVXIRUPD\VDERUDOOOHYDUORDODERFD'HHVWHPRGRHVWiQ
FRQVWDQWHPHQWH UHFLELHQGR HVWtPXORV TXH IDYRUHFHQ OD DGTXLVLFLyQ GH VXV
PDGXUDFLRQHVPRWRUDVLQWHOHFWXDOHV\HVSDFLDOHV0HGLDQWHHVDH[SORUDFLyQGHO
HQWRUQRTXHOHVURGHDORVQLxRVGHVFXEUHQRWUDVSRVLELOLGDGHVHQORVREMHWRV
FUHDQGRQXHYDVIRUPDVGHUHODFLyQ\FRPXQLFDFLyQ

6LJXLHQGRFRQ7DVVHWDQLYHODIHFWLYRRFXUUHDOJRVHPHMDQWH$VtXQQLxRWtPLGR
TXHKDEODSRFR\FX\RVJHVWRVVRQSRFRV\WRUSHVHVXQQLxRTXHQRWLHQH
FRQILDQ]D\VHVLHQWHLQIHULRUDORVGHPiVSLHQVDTXHHVPHQRVLQWHOLJHQWHTXH
VXVFRPSDxHURV\DGHPiVFUHHTXHODRSLQLyQTXHKDIRUPDGRVREUHVXSURSLD
SHUVRQDHVFRPSDUWLGDSRUORVGHPiV

6LIDYRUHFHPRVODVDFWLYLGDGHVTXHOHVRQDJUDGDEOHV\OHLQGXFLPRVDTXHUHDOLFH
WDUHDVFRPSOHWDPHQWHQXHYDVSDUDVXH[SHULHQFLDHQODVTXHHOREMHWLYRHVWp
SUy[LPRDVXVFDSDFLGDGHVHOQLxRDGTXLULUiH[SHULHQFLDVQXHYDVTXHSHUPLWLUiQ
TXHYD\DDGTXLULHQGRVROWXUD\PD\RUUDSLGH]HQVXVPRYLPLHQWRVJUDGXDOPHQWH
ORTXHLQFUHPHQWDUiVXFRQILDQ]DHQVXVSURSLDVDFWLWXGHV\HQVXYDOtDSHUVRQDO
7RGRHOORVHUHIOHMDUiHQVXVDFWLWXGHV\HQVXUHODFLyQFRQHOHQWRUQRHOQLxRVH
LGHQWLILFDUiPiVFRQVXVLJXDOHV\PHMRUDUiVXFRPSRUWDPLHQWRVRFLDO

 5HVXPHQGHFRQWHQLGRV

/DSVLFRPRWULFLGDGVHWUDWDGHXQDGLVFLSOLQDFRPSOHMDFRQXQDVSRVLELOLGDGHV
HQRUPHVTXHSDUDVHUYiOLGDGHEHVHUHVWDEOHFLGDVREUHEDVHVVyOLGDV\GHEHUi
DVHPHMDUVHHQORSRVLEOHDODDSOLFDFLyQGHXQPpWRGRFLHQWtILFRSODQLILFDGR
RUGHQDGRELHQGRFXPHQWDGRFRQXQRVREMHWLYRVFODURV\XQSODQWHDPLHQWR
HGXFDWLYRVHULR\ULJXURVR3DUDTXHVHDHIHFWLYDQRSXHGHDIURQWDUVHVLQXQ
SHUIHFWRFRQRFLPLHQWRGHODVGLIHUHQWHVHWDSDVGHOGHVDUUROORGHXQQLxR\GHORV
HOHPHQWRVEiVLFRVGHODPRWULFLGDG
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG 

$872(9$/8$&,1

(OFRQFHSWRGHSVLFRPRWULFLGDGVHRULJLQyJUDFLDVDORVWUDEDMRVGH

D :DOORQ
E 'XSUp
F 3LDJHW
G 9LJRWVN\

'HILQLFLyQGHSVLFRPRWULFLGDG

/DSVLFRPRWULFLGDGWUDWDDOLQGLYLGXRGHVGHXQSXQWRGHYLVWD

D )tVLFR\SVtTXLFR
E 6RFLDO
F &RJQLWLYR
G 7RGDVODVDQWHULRUHVVRQFRUUHFWDV

/RVFRQFHSWRVWHPSRUDOHVVRQQHFHVDULRVSDUD

D 5HDOL]DUORVSDVRVGHRSHUDFLRQHVPDWHPiWLFDVFRPSXHVWDV
E (ODSUHQGL]DMHGHODOHFWRHVFULWXUD
F (ODSUHQGL]DMHGHORVGLVWLQWRVWLSRVGHDFHQWXDFLyQJUiILFDHQDOJXQDVOHQJXDV
G %\&VRQFRUUHFWDV

/DSVLFRPRWULFLGDGHVWiGLUHFWDPHQWHUHODFLRQDGDFRQ

6ROXFLRQHVGHOD$XWRHYDOXDFLyQ3VLFRPRWULFLGDGHQODSiJLQD
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG 

 (WDSDVGHOGHVDUUROORSVLFRPRWRU

 ,QWURGXFFLyQ

$ORODUJRGHQXHVWURGHVDUUROORH[SHULPHQWDPRVUHODFLRQHVItVLFDVVRFLDOHV\
HPRFLRQDOHVGLIHUHQWHVFDPELDQQXHVWURVFRQRFLPLHQWRVVREUHQRVRWURVPLVPRV
\HOPXQGRTXHQRVURGHDQXHVWUDIRUPDGHSHQVDUGHVHQWLU\GHDIURQWDUODV
DGYHUVLGDGHVQXHVWUDDXWRHVWLPD\DXWRFRQFHSWR\FDPELDQQXHVWUDVFDSDFLGDGHV
ItVLFDV\FRJQLWLYDV\ODIRUPDGHUHODFLRQDUQRV7RGDVHVWDVWUDQVIRUPDFLRQHVVRQ
IUXWRGHOGHVDUUROORHYROXWLYR\GHODVH[SHULHQFLDVYLYLGDVGXUDQWHHOPLVPR

$FRQWLQXDFLyQKDUHPRVXQEUHYHUHSDVRGHDOJXQRGHORVIDFWRUHVGHWHUPLQDQWHV
GHHVWRVFDPELRVHQHOGHVDUUROORHYROXWLYRGXUDQWHODHVFRODUL]DFLyQHQORVFLFORVGH
SULPDULD&RQYLHQHUHFRUGDUTXHFDGDLQGLYLGXRSUHVHQWDXQGHVDUUROORPDGXUDWLYR
GLIHUHQWH\TXHpVWHQRVLHPSUHYDSDUHMRDOFUHFLPLHQWRFURQROyJLFRSRUOR
TXHGHQWURGHXQPLVPRFLFORREVHUYDUHPRVGLIHUHQWHVJUDGRVGHPDGXUDFLyQ
HQIXQFLyQGHODVFDSDFLGDGHVItVLFDVSVtTXLFDVFRJQLWLYDV\VRFLDOHVGHFDGD
QLxRRQLxDVXVH[SHULHQFLDVVXVDSUHQGL]DMHVSUHYLRVVXVSRWHQFLDOLGDGHV\OD
XWLOL]DFLyQGHODVPLVPDV

 (OGHVDUUROORHYROXWLYRHQHGXFDFLyQSULPDULD

(OSULPHUHOHPHQWRGHFRPXQLFDFLyQGHXQLQGLYLGXRHVVXSURSLRFXHUSR
(OOHQJXDMHFRUSRUDOH[SUHVDGRDWUDYpVGHOPRYLPLHQWRYLHQHSURYLVWRGHORV
UHIOHMRVQHFHVDULRVTXHJDUDQWL]DQODVXSHUYLYHQFLDFRPRSXHGHVHUHOUHIOHMRGH
VXFFLyQ$VtHOQLxRVHFRPXQLFDFRQVXPDGUHPHGLDQWHHOOODQWRFXDQGRTXLHUH
FRPLGDVHFRQWUDHFXDQGRVLHQWHGRORURWLHQHIUtR
 3VLFRPRWULFLGDG

3RFRDSRFRDPHGLGDTXHYDFUHFLHQGRSHUIHFFLRQDVXOHQJXDMHYHUEDO\FRUSRUDO
SDUDSRGHUH[SUHVDUVHUHODFLRQiQGRVHFRQHOHQWRUQRJULWDPDPiFXDQGR
UHTXLHUHVXSUHVHQFLDVHPXHUGHODVXxDVFXDQGRHVWiQHUYLRVRVRQUtH\VDOWD
FXDQGRHVWiFRQWHQWRIUXQFHHOFHxRFXDQGRHVWiHQIDGDGRRH[WUDxDGRHVWR
HVYDGHVDUUROODQGRSDXODWLQDPHQWHWRGDVODVFDSDFLGDGHVFRPXQLFDWLYDVTXHOH
SHUPLWLUiQVHUXQLQGLYLGXRDGXOWRLQWHJUDGRHQODVRFLHGDG

'XUDQWHODHWDSDGHHGXFDFLyQSULPDULDKD\XQDVHULHGHFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVTXH
FRQGLFLRQDQHOGHVDUUROORGHVXVFDSDFLGDGHV

(VWDVFDSDFLGDGHVGHEHUtDQDOFDQ]DUVHFRQODSDUWLFLSDFLyQGHOMXHJRFRPR
HOHPHQWREDVHSUHVHQWHHQFDVLWRGRVORVSURFHVRVHGXFDWLYRV\DTXHHVXQ
LQVWUXPHQWRPX\YiOLGRSDUDFRQVHJXLUGHVDUUROODUVXVFDSDFLGDGHVItVLFDVEiVLFDV
DODYH]TXHGLVIUXWD\DSUHQGHDJDQDU\DSHUGHUDFRQWURODUVXVHPRFLRQHV\
DH[SUHVDUODVGHODPDQHUDPiVFRUUHFWDDUHODFLRQDUVHFRQVXVFRPSDxHURV\D
DGTXLULUKiELWRVVDOXGDEOHVTXHIDYRUH]FDQVXGHVDUUROOR

(OMXHJRSRUWDQWRVHFRQYLHUWHHQHOFRQGXFWRUSULQFLSDOGHODSUHQGL]DMH
SVLFRPRWRUTXHVLW~DDOQLxRQRVyORIUHQWHDVLWXDFLRQHVGHHTXLOLEULRPX\
YDULDGDVGLIHUHQWHVFRRUGLQDFLRQHV\KDELOLGDGHVJLPQiVWLFDVPXOWLWXGGH
SRVLFLRQHVGHDSR\R\SRVLELOLGDGHVGHGHVSOD]DPLHQWRVLQRTXHDGHPiVOH
SHUPLWHDSUHQGHUHVWUDWHJLDVGHUHVROXFLyQGHSUREOHPDVIDYRUHFHODWRPDGH
GHFLVLRQHVOHSHUPLWHDGTXLULUHOFRQFHSWRGHGLVFLSOLQD IXQGDPHQWDOPHQWH
DWUDYpVGHORVMXHJRVUHJODGRV HLQFUHPHQWDVXFDSDFLGDGSDUDVXSHUDUODV
VLWXDFLRQHVDGYHUVDVDWUDYpVGHOFRQWUROGHODVHPRFLRQHV\VXFRUUHFWDXWLOL]DFLyQ
FRPRPHGLRGHH[SUHVLyQ

 (OSULPHUFLFORGHSULPDULD

(OQLxRVHHQFXHQWUDHQOD~OWLPDIDVHGHOSHUtRGRSUHRSHUDWRULR/DRULHQWDFLyQ
HVSDFLDOVLJXHVXGHVDUUROORGHORFHUFDQRDORDEVWUDFWR\DXQTXHVLJXHSULPDQGR
VXLQWHUpVSRUHOPXQGRPiVFHUFDQRLUiLQWHUHViQGRVHSDXODWLQDPHQWHSRU
DFWLYLGDGHVGHFDUiFWHUPiVVRFLDO

(VFDSD]GHGLIHUHQFLDUSROtJRQRVHQIXQFLyQGHVX
GLVSRVLFLyQHVSDFLDO\GHVXVHMHV(OGLEXMRVHYXHOYH
PiVUHDOGHHVWHPRGRDSDUHFHQORVFRQFHSWRVGH
YROXPHQ\HPSLH]DDGLEXMDUHQWUHVGLPHQVLRQHV\
FRQSHUVSHFWLYDVVLPSOHVDXQTXHGHPRGRDLVODGR
VLQLQWHJUDUORVREMHWRVHQXQFRQWH[WRFRP~Q
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG 

(OMXHJRSUHVHQWHDORODUJRGHWRGRHOGHVDUUROOR
GHO VHU KXPDQR VLJXH VLHQGR HO LQVWUXPHQWR
IXQGDPHQWDOSDUDFRQVHJXLUXQDFRUUHFWDHYROXFLyQ
GHODFRQFHSFLyQGHOSURSLRHVTXHPDFRUSRUDO(Q
HVWHPRPHQWRGHOGHVDUUROORVHDSUHFLDXQDPD\RU
SUHVHQFLDGHORVPRYLPLHQWRVVHJPHQWDULRV\GHOD
PRWULFLGDGILQDHQFRQWUDSRVLFLyQDOPRYLPLHQWR
JOREDO\DODSUHGRPLQDQFLDGHODPRWULFLGDGJUXHVD
GHORVSULPHURVDxRVGHYLGD

(QHOSURFHVRGHHQVHxDQ]DDSUHQGL]DMHVREUHWRGRHQHOGHODOHFWRHVFULWXUD
HOQLxRQHFHVLWDDILUPDUVXODWHUDOLGDGGRPLQDQWHSDUDHVWDEOHFHUXQSXQWRGH
UHIHUHQFLDDSDUWLUGHOTXHJXLDUVH

(VWDDILUPDFLyQGHODGRPLQDQFLDHQODODWHUDOLGDGWHQGUiWDPELpQFRQVHFXHQFLDV
LQPHGLDWDVHQODFRQFHSFLyQGHOSURSLRHVTXHPDFRUSRUDO\HOFRQRFLPLHQWRGH
XQRPLVPR\IDFLOLWDUiODFRQFHSWXDOL]DFLyQGHHOHPHQWRVEiVLFRVDQLYHOHVSDFLR
WHPSRUDO$QLYHOPDWHPiWLFRFRPLHQ]DDUHDOL]DURSHUDFLRQHVPiVFRPSOHMDV
HVGHFLUVHDFHUFDDOSHUtRGRGHODVRSHUDFLRQHVFRQFUHWDV
 3VLFRPRWULFLGDG

 (OVHJXQGRFLFORGHSULPDULD

1RVHQFRQWUDPRVHQODIDVHGHOSHUtRGRRSHUDWRULR WDPELpQOODPDGDIDVHGH
RSHUDFLRQHVFRQFUHWDV HQHOTXHORVQLxRVVRQFDSDFHVGHUHSUHVHQWDUJUiILFDPHQWH
\GHWUDQVPLWLUGHIRUPDYHUEDORPRWUL]DTXHOORVFRQRFLPLHQWRV\FRQFHSWRV
TXHKDQFRPSUHQGLGR

$GHPiVVRQFDSDFHVGHHVWDEOHFHUJUXSRV\DVRFLDFLRQHVGHHOHPHQWRVHQ
IXQFLyQ GH FDUDFWHUtVWLFDV SURSLDV FRPXQHV OR TXH OHV SHUPLWH UHDOL]DU
FODVLILFDFLRQHVVHQFLOODVVHJ~QODIRUPDHOWDPDxR\HOYROXPHQGHORVREMHWRV
VXFRORURVXDVSHFWR

$HVWDHGDGORVQLxRVHQWLHQGHQODH[LVWHQFLDGHODVFRVDVLQYLVLEOHVFRPRHO
DLUHRXQRVJUDQRVGHVDOTXHKHPRVGLVXHOWRHQDJXD7DPELpQVRQFDSDFHVGH
RULHQWDUVHPHGLDQWHUHIHUHQFLDVWRSRJUiILFDVVHQFLOODV\DTXHVXPHPRULDYLVXDO
\HVSDFLDOVHKDGHVDUUROODGRFRQVLGHUDEOHPHQWH

<DQRUHSLWHQGHVSOD]DPLHQWRVFRUWRV\VHQFLOORVFRPRHQHWDSDVDQWHULRUHVOR
TXHVXSRQHXQJUDQDYDQFHIiFLOPHQWHREVHUYDEOHHQMXHJRVWUDGLFLRQDOHVFRPR
HOHVFRQGLWHDKRUDVRQFDSDFHVGHDOHMDUVHPiV\GHLGHQWLILFDUQXHYRVHVSDFLRV
GRQGHRFXOWDUVHGHVXVFRPSDxHURV

(VODHGDGLGHDOSDUDODLQLFLDFLyQGHSRUWLYD
\DTXHVXVFDSDFLGDGHVItVLFDV\PHQWDOHV
HVWiQ OR VXILFLHQWHPHQWH GHVDUUROODGDV
SDUD REWHQHU JUDQGHV EHQHILFLRV GH ORV
DSUHQGL]DMHVSVLFRPRWRUHV/DSDUWLFLSDFLyQ
GHORVQLxRVHQHOGHSRUWHPHMRUDUiVXHVWDGR
GHVDOXGSRWHQFLDUiVXVFXDOLGDGHVItVLFDV
EiVLFDV\DGHPiVIDFLOLWDUiVXUHODFLyQVRFLDO
FRQVXVLJXDOHV

 (OWHUFHUFLFORGHSULPDULD

(VHOSHUtRGRGHODVRSHUDFLRQHVDEVWUDFWDV<DFRPSUHQGHODLGHDGHFRQVHUYDFLyQ
GHODVSURSLHGDGHVGHORVHOHPHQWRVFDUHQWHVGHIRUPDSURSLD FRPRXQOtTXLGR
SRUHMHPSORVHDGDSWDDODIRUPDGHODERWHOODODMDUUDRHOYDVRTXHORFRQWLHQH
PDQWHQLHQGRVXYROXPHQLJXDO \HVSHUIHFWDPHQWHFRQVFLHQWHGHODGXDOLGDG
GHORVSXQWRVGHRULHQWDFLyQHQIXQFLyQGHODVGLVWLQWDVUHIHUHQFLDV\DTXH
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG 

FRPSUHQGHTXHXQREMHWRHVWpDODL]TXLHUGDGHRWUR\DODYH]DODGHUHFKDGH
XQWHUFHUR(VWDFDSDFLGDGPDUFDHOILQGHODVRSHUDFLRQHVFRQFUHWDVSXHVSXHGH
VLWXDUREMHWRVRSHUVRQDVWRPDQGRFRPRUHIHUHQFLDVXSURSLRSXQWRGHYLVWDHO
GHXQFRPSDxHURRSXQWRVGHUHIHUHQFLDHVWiWLFRVRGLQiPLFRVTXHREVHUYDR
LPDJLQDHQHOHVSDFLR

/DVGLIHUHQFLDVHQHOGHVDUUROOR\ODPDGXUDFLyQHQWUHVH[RVVHHPSLH]DQDQRWDU
PiVDHVWDVHGDGHV\SURQWRWRPDUiQFDPLQRVVHQVLEOHPHQWHGLIHUHQWHV

6XFDSDFLGDGFRRUGLQDWLYDHVWiPX\GHVDUUROODGDDVtFRPRODYHORFLGDG\OD
IOH[LELOLGDGSHURSUREDEOHPHQWHVXIULUiQXQDUHJUHVLyQQRWDEOHHQSRVWHULRUHV
HGDGHVGHELGRDOFUHFLPLHQWRyVHRDFHOHUDGRORTXHVXSRQHXQFDPELRVXVWDQFLDO
HQODLPDJHQGHVXSURSLRHVTXHPDFRUSRUDO\GHODDSOLFDFLyQGHODSDODQFDV
PRWRUDVDODKRUDGHUHDOL]DUPRYLPLHQWRV PiVWDUGHHQODSXEHUWDGYHQGUi
DFRPSDxDGRGHODXPHQWRGHPDVDPXVFXODUTXHOHDFHUFDUiDOILQDOGHVXGHVDUUROOR
FRUSRUDO 1HFHVLWDUiQSXHVGHXQDEXHQDEDVHHQVXHGXFDFLyQPRWUL]SDUDTXH
ODVIXWXUDVHYROXFLRQHVILVLROyJLFDVQDWXUDOHVVXSRQJDQXQGHVDMXVWHPtQLPRHQ
VXVFXDOLGDGHVItVLFDVEiVLFDV

 (OFXHUSRLPDJHQ\SHUFHSFLyQH[SUHVLyQ\FRPXQLFDFLyQ

/DSVLFRPRWULFLGDGHVXQSODQWHDPLHQWRJOREDOGHODSHUVRQD(VXQDIXQFLyQ
GHOVHUKXPDQRTXHVLQWHWL]DSVLTXLVPR\PRWULFLGDGFRQHOILQGHSHUPLWLUTXH
HOLQGLYLGXRVHDGDSWHGHIRUPDIOH[LEOH\DUPRQLRVDDOPHGLRTXHOHURGHD
7DPELpQHVHQWHQGLGDFRPRXQDDSUR[LPDFLyQDOFXHUSRTXHHVH[SUHVLyQGH
PRWULFLGDGLQWHOLJHQFLD\DIHFWLYLGDG
 3VLFRPRWULFLGDG

'HVGHTXHQDFHHOQLxRYDDGTXLULHQGRFRQFLHQFLDGHVXFXHUSRDWUDYpVGH
P~OWLSOHVYLYHQFLDV\SRFRDSRFRYDJHQHUDQGRVXSURSLDLPDJHQFRUSRUDOHVGHFLU
LQWHULRUL]DQGR\DVXPLHQGRODSHUFHSFLyQGHVXFXHUSR(OQLxRYDFRQRFLHQGR
\HODERUDQGRXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHVXFXHUSRJUDFLDVDODVVHQVDFLRQHVWDQWR
LQWHURFHSWLYDVFRPRH[WHURFHSWLYDV\GHODVKDELOLGDGHVPRWRUDV(QODHGXFDFLyQ
SULPDULDVHGHEHIDYRUHFHUTXHHOQLxRDGTXLHUDXQDFRPSOHWDSHUFHSFLyQGHVX
SURSLRFXHUSRWRPDQGRFRQFLHQFLDGHFDGDXQDGHODVSDUWHVTXHORFRPSRQHQ
SDUDORTXHHVPX\~WLOODUHDOL]DFLyQGHHMHUFLFLRItVLFR8QDFRUUHFWDSHUFHSFLyQ
GHODLPDJHQFRUSRUDOIDFLOLWDODHVWUXFWXUDFLyQHVSDFLRWHPSRUDO

3RURWUDSDUWHHOFXHUSRHVXQLQVWUXPHQWRGHH[SUHVLyQUHODFLyQ\FRPXQLFDFLyQ
SXHVHOQLxRVHFRPXQLFDFRQVXHQWRUQRDWUDYpVGHVXFXHUSR1RREVWDQWHOD
FDOLGDGGHWDOFRPXQLFDFLyQHVWiHQtQWLPDUHODFLyQFRQODIXQFLyQWyQLFD\HO
FRQWUROSRVWXUDO/DUHDOL]DFLyQGHXQDFWRPRWRUYROXQWDULRHVLPSRVLEOHVLQRVH
WLHQHFRQWUROVREUHODWHQVLyQGHORVP~VFXORVTXHLQWHUYLHQHQHQXQGHWHUPLQDGR
PRYLPLHQWRSRUORTXHSDUDSRGHUGRPLQDUQXHVWURFXHUSRGHEHPRVDSUHQGHU
DFRRUGLQDUOR7RGRVHVWRVDVSHFWRVVHWUDWDUiQFRQPD\RUSURIXQGLGDGHQOD
XQLGDGGLGiFWLFD

 5HVXPHQGHFRQWHQLGRV

/DLQWHJUDFLyQGHQWURGHOSURFHVRHGXFDWLYRGHWRGRVORVHOHPHQWRV\ODLPSOLFDFLyQ
GHWRGDVODVFDSDFLGDGHVItVLFDVSVtTXLFDVVRFLDOHV\HPRWLYDVVHUiXQDFRQVWDQWH
DORODUJRGHWRGDODHGXFDFLyQSULPDULD

&RQHOORSHUVHJXLPRVXQGREOHREMHWLYR

 'RWDUDOLQGLYLGXRGHOPD\RUQ~PHURGHUHFXUVRVSRVLEOH
 5HDOL]DUXQDDFFLyQSUHYHQWLYDTXHPLQLPLFHODVDOWHUDFLRQHVHYROXWLYDV
SURGXFLGDVHQVXGHVDUUROORItVLFRFRPRSXHGHVHUHOGHVDMXVWHGHOFUHFLPLHQWR
GHVXHVWUXFWXUDyVHD\PXVFXODU

3DUDFRQVHJXLUHVWRVREMHWLYRVGHEHPRVIDFLOLWDUTXHORVQLxRVYLYHQFLHQ\H[SH
ULPHQWHQHOPD\RUQ~PHURGHVLWXDFLRQHVPRWULFHV\SVLFROyJLFDVHQULTXHFHGRUDV
SDUDVXGHVDUUROOR1RGHEHPRVFRQWHQWDUQRVFRQTXHORVQLxRVGRPLQHQ
FRUUHFWDPHQWHODFRRUGLQDFLyQGHVXVVHJPHQWRVFRUSRUDOHVVLQRTXHGHEHPRV
LQWHQWDUODSOHQDLQWHJUDFLyQGHWRGDVODVSDUWHVGHOFXHUSRHQXQGHVDUUROOR
DUPRQLRVRTXHOHSHUPLWDDOFDQ]DUHOPi[LPRGHVDUUROORGHVXVSURSLDVFDSDFLGDGHV
\SRWHQFLDOLGDGHV
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG 

$872(9$/8$&,1

(QHOSULPHUFLFORGHSULPDULD

D (OQLxRVHHQFXHQWUDHQODSULPHUDIDVHGHOSHUtRGRSUHRSHUDWRULR
E (QORVGLEXMRVDSDUHFHHOFRQFHSWRGHYROXPHQ
F 3UHGRPLQDODPRWULFLGDGJUXHVD
G /RVQLxRVUHSUHVHQWDQJUiILFDPHQWHORVFRQRFLPLHQWRV\FRQFHSWRVTXHKDQ
DSUHQGLGR

(QHOVHJXQGRFLFORGHSULPDULD

D /RVQLxRVWUDQVPLWHQYHUEDOPHQWHORVFRQFHSWRVTXHKDQFRPSUHQGLGR
E 7RGDYtDQRHQWLHQGHQODH[LVWHQFLDGHODVFRVDVLQYLVLEOHVFRPRSXHGHVHU
 HODLUH
F 'XUDQWHHOMXHJRUHSLWHQGHVSOD]DPLHQWRVFRUWRV\VHQFLOORV
G $\&VRQFRUUHFWDV

(QHOWHUFHUFLFORGHSULPDULD

D (OQLxRVHHQFXHQWUDHQHOSHUtRGRGHODVRSHUDFLRQHVDEVWUDFWDV
E 1RVHQRWDQGLIHUHQFLDVHQHOGHVDUUROOR\ODPDGXUDFLyQHQWUHVH[RV
F 6XFDSDFLGDGFRRUGLQDWLYDHVWiPX\GHVDUUROODGD
G $\&VRQFRUUHFWDV

(OMXHJR

D (VHOFRQGXFWRUSULQFLSDOGHODSUHQGL]DMHSVLFRPRWRU
E 3HUPLWHDSUHQGHUHVWUDWHJLDVGHUHVROXFLyQGHSUREOHPDV
F $XPHQWDODFDSDFLGDGSDUDVXSHUDUODVVLWXDFLRQHVDGYHUVDV
G 7RGDVODVDQWHULRUHVVRQFRUUHFWDV

(OOHQJXDMHFRUSRUDO

D &RQVWLWX\HHOSULPHUHOHPHQWRGHFRPXQLFDFLyQ
E (VWiIRUPDGRSRUUHIOHMRVTXHJDUDQWL]DQODVXSHUYLYHQFLD
F 6HSHUIHFFLRQDDPHGLGDTXHHOQLxRFUHFH
G 7RGDVODVDQWHULRUHVVRQFRUUHFWDV

6ROXFLRQHVGHOD$XWRHYDOXDFLyQ3VLFRPRWULFLGDGHQODSiJLQD
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG 

 (OHPHQWRVGHEDVH

 ,QWURGXFFLyQ

(QHVWDXQLGDGGLGiFWLFDGHVFXEULUHPRVFXiOHVVRQORVHOHPHQWRVGHEDVHHQ
ODHGXFDFLyQSVLFRPRWUL]\FXiOHVODLQIOXHQFLDGHFDGDXQRGHHOORVHQHO
GHVDUUROORHYROXWLYRGHORVQLxRV9HUHPRVHOHPHQWRVFRPRHOHVTXHPDFRUSRUDO
ODFRRUGLQDFLyQPRWUL]ODODWHUDOLGDGODRULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDO\WHPSRUDOHOWLHPSR
\HOULWPRODUHODMDFLyQ\UHVSLUDFLyQ\ODDIHFWLYLGDGPRWUL]

 (OHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOODSURSLDLPDJHQ

(OFRQFHSWRGHLQWHJUDOLGDGHVHVHQFLDOSDUDHO
VHUKXPDQR(OKRPEUHVHFRQFLEHFRPRXQ
WRGRORTXHVHSRQHGHPDQLILHVWRHQFXDOTXLHU
DFWLYLGDGTXHUHDOLFH\WUDQVFLHQGHODFRQFLHQFLD
LQGLYLGXDO(VIiFLOYHUORFRQXQHMHPSORSDUD
EHEHUXQYDVRGHDJXDSULPHURKHPRVGHFRJHU
HOYDVRTXHDFDEDPRVGHYHUHQODDODFHQD YLVWD
PRYLPLHQWRHTXLOLEULRIXHU]DWRQLFLGDGHWF 
3XHV ELHQ HO FRQFHSWR IXQGDPHQWDO GH WDO
LQWHJUDOLGDGHVHOGHHVTXHPDFRUSRUDO

'HVGHHOPRPHQWRGHVXQDFLPLHQWRHLQFOXVRDQWHVHOVHUKXPDQRDGTXLHUH
YLYHQFLDVVREUHVXSURSLRFXHUSRTXHPiVWDUGHOHSHUPLWLUiQVHUFRQVFLHQWHGH
O\GHVXUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ

$MXULDJXHUUDGHILQtDHOHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOFRPR/DVXPDGHVHQVDFLRQHV\VHQWLPLHQWRV
TXHFRQFLHUQHQDOFXHUSRHOFXHUSRFRPRVHVLHQWH/HLQIOX\HQODVH[SHULHQFLDVYLWDOHV
\ORVSURFHVRVPHQWDOHVHQORVTXHHOVXMHWRVHUHFRQRFHDVtPLVPR(VHQGHILQLWLYDHO
FXHUSRYLYLGR
 3VLFRPRWULFLGDG

:DOORQSURSRQHTXHHOHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOWLHQHFRPRUHTXLVLWRODLQWHUDFFLyQGHO
LQGLYLGXRFRQHOPHGLR

/DSLHUUHDILUPDTXH(OHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOHVODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQPHQWDOTXHFDGDLQGLYLGXR
KDFHGHVXSURSLRFXHUSR(VODFRQFLHQFLDTXHFDGDXQRWLHQHGHVXVSDUWHV\GHODXQLGDG
HQVXFRQMXQWR(VODFRQFLHQFLDGHLGHQWLILFDFLyQGHVX\RFRUSRUDO

6HJ~Q/H%RXOFKODQRFLyQGHHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOKDFHUHIHUHQFLDDOFRQRFLPLHQWR
LQPHGLDWRTXHSRVHHPRVGHQXHVWURFXHUSRDODLQWXLFLyQGHFRQMXQWRTXH
WHQHPRVGHpO\DVHDGHIRUPDHVWiWLFDRGLQiPLFDDODVUHODFLRQHVHQWUHVXV
GLIHUHQWHVSDUWHV\VREUHWRGRDVXVUHODFLRQHVFRQHOHVSDFLR\ORVREMHWRVTXH
QRVURGHDQ

3DUD7DVVHWHOHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOHPHUJHHQODSULPHUDHGDGDWUDYpVGHOFRQRFL
PLHQWRGHOFXHUSRHQVXFRQMXQWR8QEHEpSRUHMHPSORVLHQWHGRORUSHURHV
LQFDSD]GHORFDOL]DUORHQVXFXHUSR'HHVWHPRGROORUDFRPRUHVSXHVWDDOGDxR
SHUFLELGRSHURVXVHQVLELOLGDGSURSLRFHSWLYDQRVHKDGHVDUUROODGRD~QSRUOR
TXHQRGLVWLQJXHTXpSDUWHGHVXFXHUSROHGXHOH

$SUR[LPDGDPHQWHDODHGDGGHWUHVDxRVHOQLxRHVFDSD]GHGLVWLQJXLUODFDEH]D
HOWURQFR\ODVSLHUQDVHQVXFXHUSR/DGLIHUHQFLDFLyQGHORVEUD]RVVXHOHVHUXQ
SRFRPiVWDUGtD

&XDQGRXQQLxRGLEXMHXQDILJXUDKXPDQDVyORUHSUHVHQWDUiODVSDUWHVGHOFXHUSR
TXHUHFRQR]FD\GLVWLQJD
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG 

$PHGLGDTXHORVQLxRVFUHFHQDSUHQGHQDGLVWLQJXLUWRGDVODVSDUWHVGHVX
FXHUSRSLHVWRELOORVURGLOODVSLHUQDVFDGHUDYLHQWUHHVWyPDJRHVSDOGDSHFKR
KRPEURVEUD]RVFRGRVDQWHEUD]RVPXxHFDVPDQRVGHGRVFXHOOR\FDEH]D/D
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQJUiILFDVHGHVDUUROODUiSDUDOHODPHQWHDHVWRVDSUHQGL]DMHV

7DVVHWDILUPDTXHOHFRUUHVSRQGHDOSURIHVRU\DOHGXFDGRUHVWLPXODUORVDSUHQGL]DMHV
GHOQLxRWDQWRORVSURSLRFHSWLYRVFRPRORVJUiILFRV/DHGXFDFLyQGHOHVTXHPD
FRUSRUDOVHJ~QpOSUHVHQWDPX\DPSOLDVSRVLELOLGDGHVSHURDILUPDTXHDQWHVGH
HPSUHQGHUODVWDUHDVGHDSUHQGL]DMHFRQYLHQHFRQRFHUDGHFXDGDPHQWHWRGDVODV
GLILFXOWDGHVTXHHQWUDxD

([LVWHQQXPHURVDVSUXHEDVTXHYDORUDQODSHUFHSFLyQGHOHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOHQ
HOQLxR

 (OWHVWPRWRUGH2]RUHWVNL
 (OWHVWGHOGLEXMRGHODILJXUDKXPDQD
 (OWHVWGHODWHUDOL]DFLyQGH3LDJHW
 /DSUXHEDGHOHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOGH6WDPEDN%HUJHV
 /DSUXHEDGH+HDG
 (WF
 3VLFRPRWULFLGDG

3HURVXXWLOL]DFLyQFRPRDVHJXUD7DVVHWUHTXLHUHH[WUHPDGDSUXGHQFLD\DTXHVXV
UHVXOWDGRVQRGDQFXHQWDH[DFWDGHORVPDWLFHVGHOFRQRFLPLHQWRGHORVQLxRV
(OWHVWGHELGRDVXHVWDQGDUL]DFLyQQRHVVHQVLEOHDODVFRQGLFLRQHVSDUWLFXODUHV
GHFDGDHQWRUQRFRPRSXHGHVHUODUHODFLyQHQWUHHOQLxR\HOH[DPLQDGRU
6HJ~QHVWHPLVPRDXWRUHOHGXFDGRUGHEHFRPSUHQGHUTXHHOHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOQRVH
FLxH~QLFDPHQWHDOFRQRFLPLHQWRGHODVGLVWLQWDVSDUWHVGHOFXHUSRVLQRTXHWDPELpQ
LPSOLFDODFDSDFLGDGGHSODVPDUHVHFRQRFLPLHQWRHQUHVSXHVWDVPRWULFHVORTXH
LPSOLFDDVXYH]ODLQIOXHQFLDGHOFRPSRQHQWHDIHFWLYRHQODVUHVSXHVWDV

 /DFRRUGLQDFLyQPRWUL]FRQWUROSRVWXUDOIXQFLyQWyQLFD
FRRUGLQDFLyQGLQiPLFDJHQHUDO\FRRUGLQDFLyQYLVRPRWUL]

/DFRRUGLQDFLyQPRWUL]FRQOOHYDHOFRUUHFWRFRQWUROWyQLFRGHODPXVFXODWXUD
LPSOLFDGDHQFDGDPRYLPLHQWRWDQWRGHODPXVFXODWXUDDJRQLVWDFRPRGHOD
DQWDJRQLVWD\GHODPXVFXODWXUDILMDGRUDDGHPiVGHODFDSDFLGDGGHVHFXHQFLDU
WRGDVODVFRQWUDFFLRQHVPXVFXODUHVGHIRUPDTXHHOJHVWRUHDOL]DGRVHDORPiV
HILFD]SRVLEOH

/DHYROXFLyQGHODFRRUGLQDFLyQSDVDSRUODDGTXLVLFLyQGHSDWURQHVVHQFLOORV
GHPRYLPLHQWRFRPRODPDUFKDRODFDUUHUDTXHLUiQDXWRPDWL]iQGRVHSDUD
IRUPDUSDUWHGHSDWURQHVPiVFRPSOHMRVTXHSHUPLWDQDOLQGLYLGXRDGDSWDUVHD
LQILQLWDVVLWXDFLRQHVPRWULFHV FRPRODVTXHVHSUHVHQWDQGXUDQWHHOGHVDUUROOR
GHORVMXHJRVGHHTXLSRODFRQGXFFLyQGHXQYHKtFXORRGXUDQWHXQSDUWLGRGH
WHQLV GHXQDIRUPDDUPRQLRVDDODYH]TXHHILFD]
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG 

 (OFRQWUROSRVWXUDO

/DVSRVWXUDVTXHDGRSWDQORVQLxRV\ODIRUPDHQODTXHUHDOL]DQORVPRYLPLHQWRV
GHSHQGHQGHVXFRQWUROSRVWXUDOTXHDVXYH]GHSHQGHGH

 /DVFDSDFLGDGHVItVLFDVEiVLFDVGHFDGDLQGLYLGXR IXHU]DYHORFLGDGUHVLVWHQFLD
\IOH[LELOLGDG 

 /DFDSDFLGDGQHXURPXVFXODUGHUHVSXHVWDDORVHVWtPXORV

 (OJUDGRGHVDWLVIDFFLyQREWHQLGRHQH[SHULHQFLDVVLPLODUHVDQWHULRUPHQWH
YLYHQFLDGDV

 6XFDSDFLGDGGHH[SUHVLyQYHUEDO\FRUSRUDOHQGHILQLWLYDGHODVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDV
SURSLDVTXHOHLGHQWLILFDQ

3RUHOORFDGDSHUVRQDDGRSWDXQDSRVWXUDFRQFUHWDTXHODGLIHUHQFLDGHORV
GHPiV KRPEURVFDtGRVDFWLWXGHVFROLyWLFDH[FHVLYDWHQVLyQHQODPXVFXODWXUD
PD[LODUHWF 

(OHGXFDGRUGHEHRULHQWDUDORVQLxRVVREUHFXiOHVVRQORVKiELWRVSRVWXUDOHV
PiVIDYRUDEOHVSDUDVXGHVDUUROORWDQWRHQHODXOD DFHUFDGHFRPRVHQWDUVHR
FRPRFRORFDUVXFXHUSRSDUDHVFULELUVLQTXHVHSURGX]FDQWHQVLRQHVTXHSXHGHQ
UHVXOWDUSHUMXGLFLDOHV FRPRHQODUHDOL]DFLyQGHWDUHDVPRWULFHV OHYDQWDUVHGHO
VXHORRDFRVWDUVHDOFDQ]DUREMHWRVTXHHVWiQVREUHODDOWXUDGHVXVKRPEURVR
TXHUHFRJHGHOVXHORDPRUWLJXDUXQDFDtGDHWF 

 /DIXQFLyQWyQLFD

/DIXQFLyQWyQLFDWLHQHFRPRUHIHUHQWHVHOJUDGRGHWHQVLyQPXVFXODU\ODV
YDULDFLRQHVTXHVHSXHGHQSURGXFLUHQpO\TXHFRQOOHYDUiQUHVSXHVWDVGLIHUHQWHV
VHJ~QVHSURGX]FDQDFRUWDPLHQWRV DXPHQWRGHODWHQVLyQ RHORQJDPLHQWRV
GLVPLQXFLyQGHODWHQVLyQ HQODORQJLWXGGHOP~VFXOR7RGDVHVWDVDFFLRQHVVRQ
LQIOXHQFLDGDVGHPDQHUDGLUHFWDSRUODDFFLyQGHODPXVFXODWXUDDQWDJRQLVWDHV
GHFLUODTXHVHRSRQHDOPRYLPLHQWRUHDOL]DGR

([LVWHQP~VFXORVTXHVHFRQWUDHQ DXPHQWDQVXWRQR \RWURVTXHVHUHODMDQ


HQFXDOTXLHUDFWRPRWRUYROXQWDULRORTXHH[LJHDOLQGLYLGXRODFDSDFLGDGGH
FRQWURODUODWHQVLyQPXVFXODUSURGXFLGDHQFDGDDFFLyQ
 3VLFRPRWULFLGDG

6HJ~Q$MXULDJXHUUDHOWRQRPXVFXODUWLHQHXQDJUDQUHODFLyQFRQHOSODQRDIHFWLYR
\VRFLDO$VtHOQLxRSXHGHUHVSRQGHUPRWUL]PHQWHFRQVLWXDFLRQHVGHKLSHUWRQtD
FRPROORUDURSDWDOHDU RSRUHOFRQWUDULRPRVWUDUUHVSXHVWDVKLSRWyQLFDVRGH
FDOPD FRPRUHODMDUVHWXPEDUVHRGRUPLUVH 

 /DFRRUGLQDFLyQGLQiPLFDJHQHUDO\ODFRRUGLQDFLyQ
 YLVRPRWUL]

 /DFRRUGLQDFLyQGLQiPLFDJHQHUDO

 (VODUHIHULGDDODLQWHUYHQFLyQGHJUDQGHVJUXSRV
PXVFXODUHV6XVFRQGXFWDVGHDFWXDFLyQVRQOD
PDUFKDODFDUUHUDHOVDOWRODUHSWDFLyQHWF

 /DFRRUGLQDFLyQYLVRPRWUL] yFXORPDQXDO\yFXORSRGDO DXGLRPRWUL]

&RQOOHYD OD LQWHUYHQFLyQ GH XQ PD\RU Q~PHUR GH


P~VFXORVPiVSHTXHxRV\SRUORWDQWRWDPELpQGH
XQPD\RUQ~PHURGHWUDQVPLVLRQHVQHUYLRVDV6LJQLILFD
SXHVXQPD\RUJUDGRGHSUHFLVLyQHQODHMHFXFLyQ\VH
REVHUYDHQDFFLRQHVWDOHVFRPRHQKHEUDUXQDDJXMD
UHOOHQDUXQDERWHOODGHDJXDVLQTXHVHSURGX]FDXQ
GHUUDPHPDQHMDUXQDFiPDUDIRWRJUiILFDRXWLOL]DUOD
FXEHUWHUtDDODKRUDGHFRPHU

 

  /DODWHUDOLGDG

/DODWHUDOLGDGSXHGHGHILQLUVHFRPRODSUHGRPLQDQFLDGHXQRGHORVGRVODGRV
HOGHUHFKRRHOL]TXLHUGRSDUDODHMHFXFLyQGHDFFLRQHV(PSOHDPRVHOWpUPLQR
ODWHUDOLGDGSDUDUHIHULUQRVDOSUHGRPLQLRRDODGRPLQDQFLDGHXQKHPLVIHULR
3VLFRPRWULFLGDG 

FHUHEUDOVREUHRWURORTXHSURYRFDTXHFDGDSHUVRQDXVHFRQPD\RUGHVWUH]D
XQRGHORVGRVPLHPEURVVLPpWULFRVHQODUHDOL]DFLyQRHMHFXFLyQGHDFFLRQHV\
IXQFLRQHV$VtTXLHQHVHPSOHHQGHPRGRSUHIHUHQWHODPDQRGHUHFKDWHQGUiQ
SRUKHPLVIHULRGRPLQDQWHHOL]TXLHUGRHQORTXHVHUHILHUHDODVDFWLYLGDGHV
PRWyULFDVPDQXDOHV\YLFHYHUVD

6HJ~Q7DVVHWODDGTXLVLFLyQGHODODWHUDOLGDGFRQVLVWHHQFRQRFHUORVFRQFHSWRVGH
GHUHFKDHL]TXLHUGD\VXLPSOLFDFLyQFRQODVUHODFLRQHVSHUVRQDOHVGHOLQGLYLGXR
FRQVLJRPLVPRVXVLJXDOHV\FRQHOHQWRUQRTXHOHURGHD6HJ~QHVWHDXWRUHVWH
FRQRFLPLHQWRGHEHVHUDXWRPDWL]DGRORPiVWHPSUDQDPHQWHSRVLEOH\DTXHFRQIRUPD
ODEDVHGHODRULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDO

1HFHVLWDPRVUHIHUHQFLDVSDUDXELFDUQRVHQUHODFLyQDOHVSDFLR\DQRVRWURVPLVPRV
$ILUPDWDPELpQTXHODGHWHFFLyQGHODODWHUDOL]DFLyQGHEHUHDOL]DUVHGXUDQWHORV
SULPHURVDxRV\TXHFRQFRQRFHUODPDQRFRQODTXHHOQLxRHVFULEHRDOFDQ]DHQ
SULPHUDLQVWDQFLDORVREMHWRVQRHVVXILFLHQWHSDUDGHWHUPLQDUVXSUHGRPLQDQFLD
VLQRTXHKD\TXHKDFHUXQHVWXGLRPiVSURIXQGRTXHQRVSHUPLWDGLVFULPLQDU
HQWUHODVODWHUDOL]DFLRQHVGHORVPLHPEURVLQIHULRUHVORVVXSHULRUHV\ORVRMRV
&RQRFLGDVHVWDVGLIHUHQFLDFLRQHVHVSUHFLVRLQYHVWLJDUODVFRRUGLQDFLRQHVSUHVHQWHV
HQWUHHOODV\GLOXFLGDUODVGLILFXOWDGHVSURYHQLHQWHVGHFXDOTXLHUGLVFRUGDQFLD

/RVHMHUFLFLRVGHIXHU]DSUHFLVLyQ\ODWHUDOL]DFLyQGHODYLVWDSHUPLWLUiQWUDVODGDUXQD
VHULHGHUHVXOWDGRVDXQFXDGURGHGDWRV\HVWDEOHFHUODODWHUDOLGDGSUHGRPLQDQWH

7DVVHWFRQFOX\HTXHXQQLxRODWHUDOL]DGRGHPDQHUDKRPRJpQHD GHOPLVPRODGR SXHGH


OOHYDUDFDERXQEXHQQ~PHURGHHMHUFLFLRVTXHUHIXHU]DQVXODWHUDOLGDG$VtHOQLxR
ODWHUDOL]DGRGHIRUPDKHWHURJpQHDHQFRQWUDUiPiVGLILFXOWDGHVHQODUHDOL]DFLyQ
GHGLFKDVWDUHDV(VPX\LPSRUWDQWHUHIRU]DUODODWHUDOLGDGSUHGRPLQDQWHHQHO
QLxRSDUDTXHWHQJDXQVLVWHPDGHUHIHUHQFLDPDUFDGRTXHOHSHUPLWDDILDQ]DU
VXHVTXHPDFRUSRUDO\PHMRUDUVXFRRUGLQDFLyQ\RULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDO

 /DRULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDO

(VLPSRUWDQWHFODULILFDUODGLIHUHQFLDHQWUHHVTXHPDFRUSRUDO\RULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDO
FRQHOILQGHHYLWDUSRVLEOHVFRQIXVLRQHVDILUPD-HDQ0DULH7DVVHWTXLHQH[SOLFDTXH
HOHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOKDFHUHIHUHQFLDDODWRPDGHFRQFLHQFLDGHODH[LVWHQFLDGHODVGLVWLQWDV
SDUWHVGHOFXHUSR\GHVXVUHODFLRQHVUHFtSURFDVWDQWRHVWiWLFDVFRPRGLQiPLFDV\VX
HYROXFLyQFRQUHODFLyQDOHQWRUQR$VtHOHVTXHPDFRUSRUDOHVHOFRQRFLPLHQWRGHO
\RFRPRWDPELpQDILUPDED/DSLHUUH
 3VLFRPRWULFLGDG

3DUD7DVVHWODRULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDOKDFHUHIHUHQFLDDODHVWUXFWXUDFLyQGHOPXQGR
H[WHUQRUHODFLRQDGRSULPHURFRQHOSURSLRLQGLYLGXR\GHVSXpVFRQVXVVHPHMDQWHV
\ORVREMHWRVTXHXWLOL]D\OHURGHDQ/DRULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDOHVHOFRQRFLPLHQWRGH
ORVRWURV\GHORVHOHPHQWRVGHOHQWRUQRDWUDYpVGHOUHIHUHQWHGHO\R

'HHVWDVGHILQLFLRQHVVHSXHGHGHVSUHQGHUODHVWUHFKDUHODFLyQH[LVWHQWHHQWUH
ORVFRQFHSWRVGHHVTXHPDFRUSRUDO\RULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDO8QPHMRU\PD\RU
FRQRFLPLHQWRGHXQRPLVPRSHUPLWLUiXQDPHMRUHVWUXFWXUDFLyQGHOGHVDUUROOR
GHODRULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDO\DTXHODVUHIHUHQFLDVHVWiQFODUDPHQWHLGHQWLILFDGDV
\SRUORWDQWRODVUHODFLRQHVGLQiPLFDV\ORVGHVSOD]DPLHQWRVHQHOHQWRUQR
REWHQGUiQPHMRUHVUHVXOWDGRV

 /DLQXHQFLDGHODRULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDOVHJ~Q7DVVHW

3DUDHOEHOJD7DVVHWODFDUHQFLDGHXQDRULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDOFRUUHFWDLPSOLFD
QRWDEOHVGLILFXOWDGHVHQHODSUHQGL]DMHGHODOHFWXUD\DTXHHOQLxRHVLQFDSD]GH
GLVWLQJXLUFRUUHFWDPHQWHHQWUHDOJXQDVOHWUDV SRUHMHPSOREGRTS 

$GHPiVQRUHFRQRFHUiFRUUHFWDPHQWHORVHVSDFLRVH[LVWHQWHVHQWUHOHWUDV\
SDODEUDVORTXHGLILFXOWDUiHOSURFHVRGHOHFWXUD\ODHQWRQDFLyQGLVPLQX\HQGR
QRWDEOHPHQWHODFRPSUHQVLyQGHOWH[WR

(QFXDQWRDODRUWRJUDItD7DVVHWFRQFOX\HTXHHOGRPLQLRGHOHVSDFLRIDFLOLWD
WDPELpQODDGTXLVLFLyQGHODRUWRJUDItD\DTXHHVQHFHVDULRTXHHOQLxRLGHQWLILTXH
FODUDPHQWHHOILQDOGHXQDSDODEUDDODKRUDGHUHDOL]DUSRUHMHPSORORVSOXUDOHV
6LHOQLxRQRUHDOL]DHVWDVFRPSUREDFLRQHVGHPDQHUDDXWRPiWLFDVHUDOHQWL]DUi
HOSURFHVRGHHVFULWXUD\GLVPLQXLUiHOWLHPSRTXHQHFHVLWDGXUDQWHHOSURFHVR
SDUDYHULILFDUODVFRQFRUGDQFLDVJUDPDWLFDOHVFRPHWLHQGRDVtXQJUDQQ~PHUR
GHIDOWDVGHRUWRJUDItD

(OSURFHGLPLHQWRQHFHVDULRSDUDFRPSOHWDUFRQp[LWRODHGXFDFLyQRUHHGXFDFLyQGHOD
RULHQWDFLyQHVSDFLDOVHJ~QHVWHDXWRUHVODVLJXLHQWH

 5HDOL]DUXQFRPSOHWRDQiOLVLVGHOHVTXHPDFRUSRUDO

 9HULILFDUHOHVWDGRDFWXDOHQHOTXHVHHQFXHQWUDHOQLxR

 (ODERUDUXQSURJUDPDSURJUHVLYRGHHQVHxDQ]D

 +DFHUHIHFWLYRHOSURJUDPDSDUDTXHHODSUHQGL]DMHVHOOHYHDFDER
PSICOMOTRICIDAD

La psicomotricidad es aquella ciencia que, considerando al individuo en

su totalidad, pretende desarrollar al mximo sus capacidades individuales,

valindose de la experimentacin y de la ejertizacin consciente del

propio cuerpo, para conseguir un mayor conocimiento de sus posibilidades

en s mismo y en realizacin al medio en el que se desenvuelve.

El objetivo principal de este manual es el de dar a conocer el desarrollo

psicomotor en la infancia.

Tras la lectura de este manual el lector adquirir conocimientos sobre la

psicomotricidad, las etapas del desarrollo psicomotor, los elementos de

base, los trastornos del desarrollo y la educacin y reeducacin psicomotriz.

ISBN 10: 84-96578-86-0


ISBN 13: 978-84-96578-86-9

9 788496 578869
EDITORIAL

www.ideaspropiaseditorial.com