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# F.

## 5 MATHEMATICS: USEFUL FORMULAS

1. Interest 5. Logarithm
Simple interest (i) log a log b log(ab)
PRT a
I
100 (ii) log a log b log
b
RT
A P 1 (iii) log a n n log a
100 (iv) If ax= y, then x = loga y
Compound interest
n
r
A P 1
100
=

6. Factorization
2. Percentage change
(i) Taking common factor
% increase (ii) Grouping
(i) new value=old value 1 %increase (iii) Use of identities
increase a 2 b 2 (a b)(a b)
(ii) %increase 100%
old value a 2 2ab b 2 ( a b) 2
% decrease a 2 2ab b 2 (a b) 2
(i) new value=old value 1 %decrease a 3 b 3 ( a b)(a 2 ab b 2 )
decrease
(ii) %decrease 100% a 3 b 3 (a b)(a 2 ab b 2 )
old value
new old
% change 100%
old
7. Remainder Theorem

## If a polynomial f ( x ) is divided by ( x a ) , the

remainder R f (a ) .
3. Profit and Loss f(x) = (x a) Q (x ) + R
Profit R = 0 .(x a) is a factor of f(x) f(x) is
divisible by (x a)
selling price - cost
(i) Profit =

cost profit% 8. Variation
(ii)selling price=cost 1 profit % Direct variation
profit If y varies directly as x(y x), then y kx , where
(iii)Profit% 100%
cos t k is a constant.
Loss Inverse variation
1 k
Cost - selling price If y varies inversely as x(y
x
), then y ,
x
(i) Loss=
where k is a constant

Cost Loss%
Joint variation
Eg1If z varies directly as x and inversely as y, then
(ii) Selling price=cost 1 Loss % kx
z=
Loss y
(iii) Loss% 100% Joint variation
Cost
4. indices and surd Eg1 : If z partly varies directly as x and partly varies
directly as y, then z kx cy
m
(i) ab a b (vi) n m
Eg2 : If z partly varies directly as square of x and
a an partly constant, then z kx 2 c
a a
(ii) (vii) ( ab) n a n b n
b b
n
m n a an
(iii) a a a
m n
(viii)
b bn
am
(iv) n
amn (ix) a 0 1
a
1
(v) (a m ) n a mn (x) a n
an

(v) (vii) a 0 1

P.1
If ax 2 bx c 0 , then c2 = a2 + b2 Pythagoras Theorem
Definition of trigonometry
b b 2 4ac opp. side
x sin
2a Hypotenuse
Let b 2 4ac , if adj. side opp. side
(i) > 0 2 distinct real root cos hypotenuse
Hypotenuse
(ii) = 0 repeated real root
opp. side
(iii) < 0 no real root tan adj. side
Let and are the roots of
Trigonometric identities
ax 2 bx c 0 (i) sin 2 cos 2 1
b c
Then sin
a a (ii) tan
cos
a b c
Max / min of y ax 2 bx c Sine formula
(i) When a > 0, min. of y is k when x = h sin A sin B sin C
Cosine formula c 2 a 2 b 2 2ab cos C
1
Area of ABC = ab sin C
2
Herons formula
Area of = s ( s a )( s b)( s c )
1
(ii) When a < 0, max. of y is k when x = h where s (a b c)
2
Special angle
30 45 60
sin 1 2 3
2 2 2
cos 3 2 1
y = a(x h)2 + k Vertex (h , k)
2 2 2
tan 1 1 3
y = a(x m)(x n) x-intercepts = m, n
y = ax2 + bx + c y-intercept = c 3
Trigonometric conversion

cos(90 ) sin
1
tan(90 )
tan
cos(90 ) sin
1
tan(90 )
tan
sin(180 ) sin
cos(180 ) cos
tan(180 ) tan
10. A.P./ G.P. Quadrant III sin(180 ) sin
A.P. cos(180 ) cos
(i) T ( n) a (n 1)d tan(180 ) tan
n Quadrant IV sin(360 ) sin
(ii) S (n) ( a l ) or
2 cos(360 ) cos
n tan(360 ) tan
[2a (n 1)d ]
2 sin( ) sin
a1st term , nno. of terms ;
cos( ) cos
dcommon difference= T2 T1
tan( ) tan
G.P.
90
(i) T ( n) ar n 1 S A
a (1 r n ) T C
(ii) S ( n) 270
1 r
a
(iii) S () , -1 < r < 1
1 r
T2
* rcommon ratio=
T1

P.2
Trigonometric graph
a + b + c = 180
( sum of )

a+b=d
b+c=e
c+a=f
( ext. of )

Sum of int. s
= (n 2)180
( sum of polygon)

a + b + c + + k = 360
(ext. of polygon )

If AB //CD, then
(i) a = b
(corr. s , AB//CD)
(ii) b = c
(alt. s, AB//CD)
(iii) b + d = 180
12. Measurement (int. s, AB//CD)

base height 1
Area of = or absinC
2 2
(i) Circumference = 2r
(ii) Area = r 2 Conditions for AB//CD
(1) If a=b, then AB//CD
(corr. s equal)
(i) Arc length = 2r
360 (2) If b=c, then AB//CD
(alt. s equal)
(ii) Area of sector = r 2
360 (3)If b+d=180, then AB//CD
Similar figures (int. s supp.)
2
A1 l1
(i) Area ratio =
A2 l2
3
V l
(ii) Volume ratio = 1 1
V2 l2
(i) If AB=AC, thenB=C
(base s, isos. )
(ii)If B=C, then AB=AC
(sides opp. equal s )

## 13. Basic Geometry

Conditions for congruent
If ABC is a st. line, then a
triangles
+ b = 180 (i) S.S.S.
(adj. s on st. line )

a + b + c + d + e = 360
(ii) S.A.S.
( s at a pt. )

a = c and b = d
(vert. opp. s ) (iii) A.S.A.

P.3
(iv) R.H.S. If AB is diameter, then
APB = 90
( in semi-circle)

## Conditions for similar

triangle
(i) A.A.A. + = 180
(ii) 3 sides proportional
(iii) ratio of 2 sides, inc.

=
14. Circle (ext. , cyclic quad.)

## Tests for concyclic points

(i)If ON AB, then AN=BN (i) If d = c, then A,B,C and D are
(line from centrechord bisects concyclic
chord) (converse of s in the same
(ii)If AM=BM, thenOM AB segment)
(line joining centre to mid-pt. of
chordchord) (ii) If a + c = 180, then A,B, C
and D are concyclic.
(opp. s supp.)

## (i)If AB=CD, then OM=ON (iii) e = b

(equal chords, equidistant from ( ext int. opp. )
centre)
(ii)If OM=ON, thenAB=CD
(chords equidistant from centre
are equal)

## = 2 (i)If PQ is the tangent to the

( at centre twice circle at A, then OA PQ

## (ii)If OA is radius and OA PQ,

then PQ is tangent at A

## If PA and PB are tangents from

P, then
(1) PA=PB
(2) x=y
(3) p=q
(tangent properties)

If PQ is tangent at A, then
(i) BAQ = BCA
(ii) BAP = BDA
( in alt. segment)
If BAQ = BCA or
BAP = BDA
then, PQ is tangent at A
(converse of in alt.
P = Q
( s in the same segment) segment)

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15. Coordinate 16. Probability

## Given that A = ( x1 , y1 ) and B = ( x2 , y 2 ) no. of favourable outcome

P(E) =
Slope no. of all possible outcome
P(TRUE) = 1
y2 y1
(i) Slope of AB = P(Impossible) = 0
x2 x1 0 P( E ) 1
(ii) Slope of AB = tan If event A and B are mutually exclusive, then
AB = ( x1 x2 ) 2 ( y1 y 2 ) 2 P(A or B)=P(A) + P(B)
Section formula If event A and B are independent, then
P(A and B) = P(A) P(B)
nx1 mx2 ny1 my2 If event A and B are complementary to each other, then
P ,
mn mn P(A) = 1 P(B)
Given that event B has occurred. The probability of
even A occur is defined as
P Aand B
Mid-pt. of AB =
x1 x2 y1 y2 P A B
, P ( B)
2 2
If AB // CD, then Slope of AB =Slope of CD
If ABCD, then Slope of AB Slope of CD = 1
Equation of st. line
2-point form
y y1 y2 y1

x x1 x2 x1
Point-slope form
y y1
m 17. Statistics
x x1
Slope-intercept form
Measure of Central Tendency
y = mx+c
Intercepts form x1 x2 ... xn
(i) mean x
x y n
1 (ii) median If a set of data is arranged in ascending
a b
Genral form order, the middle term is median
(iii) modeThe data of the highest frequency
Ax + By + C=0
(iv) Weighted meanIf the weights of
Equation of circle
Standard form x1 , x2 ,..., xn are w1 , w2 ,..., wn , then
(i) x 2 y 2 r 2 , Weighted mean =
Centre = (0, 0)radius = r x1w1 x2 w2 ... xn wn
(ii) ( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2 r 2 , w1 w2 ... wn
Centre = (h ,k)radius = r Measure of dispersion
General form x 2 y 2 Dx Ey F 0 (i) Range = Maximum datum minimum datum
D E (ii) Inter-quartile range = Q3 Q1
(i) centre = , (iii) Standard deviation
2 2
2 2 ( x1 x ) 2 ( x2 x ) 2 ... ( x3 x ) 2
D E