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CAU 2014

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BASICS

10/2/2014 1

First, we look at heat exchanger construction

Comprises

This these main

is the floating components:

head type heat exchanger

Tubesheets

Exchanger tubes

The shell the shellside

The channel the tubeside

Tube supports often called baffles

Nozzles

We discuss the problems with the fixed heat exchanger in a moment

10/2/2014 2

First, we look at heat exchanger construction

This

Thereisis

the

a major

floating

difference

head type

between

heat exchanger

the two heat exchangers

Floating tubesheet can slide inside the shell

Floating head - contains the tube side fluid

The shell closure contains the shell side fluid

10/2/2014 3

First, we look at heat exchanger construction

Problems

There is a with

majorthe

difference

fixed heat

between

exchanger

the two heat exchangers

As the temperature changes:

Fixed the

tubesheets moves

with the shell

Floating

tubesheets do not

move with the

shell

10/2/2014 4

First, we look at heat exchanger construction

Problems with the fixed heat exchanger

If the tubes are hotter than the shell, the tubes want to expand

10/2/2014 5

First, we look at heat exchanger construction

Problems

First with

we cut thethe fixed heat exchanger

shell

If the tubes are hotter than the shell, the tubes want to expand

Relatively: the shell may try to contract

Creating a bending stress in the tubesheets

Also tensile stresses in the shell, and compressive stress in the tubes

An Expansion Joint can reduce these stresses

10/2/2014 6

First, we look at heat exchanger construction

First we cut the shell, then the Expansion Joint is installed

Now we can see the benefit of the expansion joint

10/2/2014 7

First, we

There twolook

types

at heat

of Expansion

exchanger

Joint

construction

First we cut the shell, then the Expansion Joint is installed

Now we can see the benefit of the expansion joint

This is what happens , shell moves independently of the tubes

10/2/2014 8

The Toroidal

There thinof

two types joint is used Joint

Expansion less often,

, first difficult

the thin to manufacture

joint

10/2/2014 9

The thick

Toroidal

joint,

thin

asjoint

the name

is used

suggests

less often,

is thicker

difficult to manufacture

Relatively thin material from which it is manufactured

The many convolutions is comprises

10/2/2014 10

The thick joint, as the name suggests is thicker

An annular plate

Two knuckles

Two shell elements make one convolution

There might be an Outer cylinder

Here is the main shell of the heat exchanger

Outer knuckle

Annular plate

Inner knuckle

10/2/2014 11

The thick for

Consider joint,

example

as the this

namestress

suggests

at theisshell

thicker

element joint

This gives rise to bending stresses

The joint may be overstressed this is an obvious problem

The joint may have a very short fatigue life

10/2/2014 12

Consider

Here for example

are examples this stress

of thin at the

and thick shell element

expansion joints joint

We can estimate the number of fatigue cycles it can withstand

Here is a fatigue curve from ASME VIII, Division 2

Stress

N N cycles

10/2/2014 13

Here are examples of thin and thick expansion joints

10/2/2014 14

Here are

These areexamples

some of the

of thin

basic

and

design

thickof

expansion

the thick joints

joint

10/2/2014 15

These

Let us are

looksome

at the

ofhistory

the basic

of the

design

design

of the

of these

thick joint

expansion joints

These are the loads to which the expansion joint can be subjected

10/2/2014 16

They

Let usused

lookmechanical

at the history

guages

of thetodesign

check of

their

these

work

expansion joints

They had to use procedures engineers could use with a slide rule

10/2/2014 17

They used mechanical

equations with

guages

which

to engineers

check theirare

work

familiar

10/2/2014 18

They1998

The usededition

equations

of TEMA

with which

had anengineers

expansionare

joint

familiar

analysis

Second differential

of the deflection y

First differential of

the shear stress p

Solution

10/2/2014 19

The 1998 edition of TEMA had an expansion joint analysis

often fails the analysis.

10/2/2014 20

Let

Theconsider the thin

1998 edition joint had

of TEMA for aan

moment

expansion joint analysis

often fails the analysis.

In the 2007 version of TEMA the analysis was removed in place of a

Finite Element Method.

10/2/2014 21

Let consider the thin joint for a moment

In

Thethe

thin

case

joint

of is

ananalysed

exchanger

in accordance

the thin joint

with

held

ASME

in alignment

VIII, Division 1

Appendix 26

Manufacturers Association

10/2/2014 22

Let consider the thin joint for a moment

Consider a piping

In the case layout like the

of an exchanger thisthin joint held in alignment

The tube bundle keeps the alignment

10/2/2014 23

Let consider the thin joint for a moment

Consider

These areathe

piping

failure

layout

modes

likeof

this,

thesee

unsupported

what happens

bellows

when heated

10/2/2014 24

Let consider the thin joint for a moment

the failure

ofmodes

support

of the unsupported bellows

This

Bending

is anIn

example

Plane of Column Squirm Lateral

And In-Plane

deflection

Squirm

The bellows have to be supported somehow

10/2/2014 25

Let consider the thin joint for a moment

angularexcessive

squirm expansion

limit expansion

10/2/2014 26

Let consider

We look at a the

problem

thin joint

with for

theadesign

momentof Expansion Joints

10/2/2014 27

We look at a problem with the design of Expansion Joints

For expansion joints, thicker is not always better.

requirements and create a circular design logic:

Flexibility is required to reduce loads on tubesheet and tubes.

Flexibility is provided by reducing thickness or increasing outside

diameter of expansion joint.

However, either of these approaches result in diminished pressure

capacity.

Pressure capacity is satisfied by adding thickness, but this causes

increased joint stiffness.

The circular logic can be overcome with a few iterations. Some

cases where pressure and displacement loads are equally

important may require a finely balanced design.

10/2/2014 28

againatlook

We look at the history

a problem of design

with the the expansion joint analysis

of Expansion Joints

A common misconception is that increasing the thickness will

eliminate a stress problem.

Increasing the thickness of a thick walled expansion likely

increases the stiffness, leading to increased stresses.

Identify the cause of the high stress, then address it by changing

the geometry.

10/2/2014 29

We can now

again look

look at ahistory

at the PV Eliteofexample

the expansion joint analysis

Kopp and Sayre (1950, 1952)

Original paper to address thick walled expansion joints.

Widely used.

Wolf and Mains (1972)

Introduced a more analytical approach using ring finite

elements.

Singh and Soler (1984)

Extended Kopp and Sayer method using shell theory.

TEMA , ASME, and other codes and guidance

K-Shell (Dr. Arturs Kalnins)

Finite Element Analysis (Flanged+Flued)

10/2/2014 30

We can now look at a PV Elite example

10/2/2014 31

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