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# Basic principles of compressive force

Before After

## Presented by: Ray Delaforce

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Basic principles of compressive force

Consider
For a tensile,
a simple
the force
bar subject
to promote
to a tensile
failure force
is: F = UTS x A

## Failure can be predicted with fair precision knowing:

The Tensile Strength UTS
Cross-sectional area A
The tensile force F
The force to promote failure is: F = UTS x A
That is a simple prediction

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Basic principles of compressive force

For a we
Now tensile,
bendthe
theforce to promote
column (or plate)failure
into ais: F = UTS x A
cylinder
Now, consider a compressive force applied to the same bar
It bends like this important - It changes shape !
Look at the consequences of changing shape - bending
There is both a bending stress and a compressive stress
In the case of the bar subjected to tensile there is one stress

## Here is the change in shape !

Does not
change
Stable
shape
x
F

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Basic principles of compressive force

## Now we bend the column (or plate) into a cylinder

Subject it internal pressure P , it becomes a stable circle
Now to external pressure P , it becomes less stable

Stable Un-Stable

## Subject to just Membrane stress x

F

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Basic principles of compressive force

Now
Consider
we bend
the rolling
the column
process
(ortoplate)
form into
cylinder
a cylinder
from plate
Subject it internal pressure P , it becomes a stable circle
Now to external pressure P , it becomes less stable

Stable Un-Stable

Bending stresses

## Failure is predictable Failure is un-predictable

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Basic principles of compressive force

Consider
Some shapes
the rolling
subjectprocess
to external
to form
pressure
cylinder
arefrom
veryplate
un-round
It is passed through roller to form the cylindrical shape
Passed back through the rollers until the cylinder is formed

## This process does not form

a perfect cylinder, it is
slightly oval

D1
D2

## Codes limit the difference between

D1 and D2 to about 1-1/4%

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Basic principles of compressive force

Some
Large shapes
thin tanks
subject
are very
to external
prone topressure
vacuumare
collapse
very un-round

## This has to be subject to

very special analysis

## That is why deep sea

submersible are spherical
it is the most stable shape

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Basic principles of compressive force

Large
A shorter
thincylinder
tanks are
is also
very better
prone to withstand
vacuum collapse
a vacuum condition

These tank have a very large D/t ratio, which makes them very
weak when subjected to vacuum conditions

## We learn that the D/t ratio largely determines the ability to

withstand even a partial vacuum

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Basic principles of compressive force

A shorter cylinder
Theoretical is also
work has beenbetter
donetoonwithstand
cylinders a vacuum
subject to condition
vacuum
A long cylinder can be made shorter by adding a vacuum ring

## Now we have learned two important facts:

A large D/t ratio makes a cylinder weaker
A large L/D ratio makes a cylinder weaker
In every pressure vessel code, these ratios are important
For internal pressure, the Pressure it can take can be predicted:
2.S.t
P=
D
That formula does not work for cylinders subject to external pressure:

## Because there are bending as well as membrane stress present

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Basic principles of compressive force

Theoretical
We look a little
work more
has closely
been done
to the
on Effective
cylinders Length
subjectof
toavacuum
cylinder

## Cylinder subjected suffer Lobing as the pressure increases

Increasing external pressure

## No Pressure More Pressure More Pressure More Pressure More Pressure

No lobes 2 lobes 3 lobes 4 lobes 5 lobes

## To withstand external pressure two metal characteristics are important

Youngs Modulus E
Yield strength SY
These characteristics are not important for internal pressure

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Basic principles of compressive force

We
Consider
look aalittle
Conemore
closely
of a to
the Effective Length of a cylinder
This is the effective length of the cylinder as it stands alone

## Effective length exists between points of support

Now, suppose we add a vacuum stiffening ring

## Making the effective length shorter

L L

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Cone Junction Analysis
Basic principles of compressive force

## We now take a short detour to discuss the cone junction

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Cone Junction Analysis

## First, we consider the basic principles

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Cone Junction Analysis
First, we consider the basic principles

## Apply internal pressure see what the cone wants to do

The cone wants to separate from the cylinder

## This is what it does instead

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Cone Junction Analysis

First, we consider
Consider the free body
the basic
diagram
principles
(to see the forces that are acting)

## Let us examine the forces that are

acting in this region

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Cone Junction Analysis

Let us take
Consider another
the view
free body of the forces
diagram (to seeacting on the
the forces junction
that are acting)

## Treating this point as a hinge: Resolving components

The cylinder must have the reaction forces here they are

## This is the force

causing the
problems

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Cone Junction Analysis

Remember, Stress =
Let us take another Force
view / Area
of the forces acting on the junction

## A compressive hoop stress is trying to collapse the junction

F
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Cone Junction Analysis

Remember,Consider
Stress =a cone
Forcesubject
/ Area to internal pressure
We now consider the Area of the junction , and Effective Area

## If necessary, we can add a compression ring increases area

Full details can be seen in: ASME Appendix 1-5 and 1-8

F
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Cone Junction Analysis
Consider a cone subject to internal pressure

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Cone Junction Analysis
Consider a cone subject to internal pressure

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Cone Junction Analysis
Consider a cone subject to internal pressure

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Cone Junction Analysis
Let us revisit
Consider
our illustration
a cone subject
of the
toCone-Shell
internal pressure
junction

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The Cone is treated as
Cone
a completely
Junction Analysis
separate element
This is the situation if the cone-shell junction is not reinforced

## If the small end is not reinforced, the effective length changes

The lengths L are for the cylinders only not the cone itself

L L L L

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Let us
The consider
Cone this vessel
is treated as an example
as a completely of the
separate foregoing
element
The cone is turned into a equivalent cylinder
With transformed dimensions , only DO is the same

## Recall, these dimensional ratios are important for cylinders

subject to external pressure:
A large D/t ratio makes a cylinder weaker
A large L/D ratio makes a cylinder weaker

Le te

Do

## Let us see how this works in practice

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Let us consider this vessel as an example of the foregoing

4 516mm

When both
We first end ofthe
consider thedesign
cone are considered
where the coneasisreinforced (demo)
not reinforced (demo)

## The large cylinder fails under external pressure

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Did youconsider
Let us notice the
thiscone junction
vessel at the large
as an example endforegoing
of the of the cone failed ?

1900mm 4 516mm

## The large cylinder withstands the external pressure with a short L

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Did you
There is notice
anotherthe
effect
conewhen
junction
external
at thepressure
large end
exists
of the cone failed ?
Reinforcing ring
required here

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There is another effect when external pressure exists

There
The moment
is a compressive
can produce
axial
a problem
stress induced
in the shell
in the shell

## This does not present a problem, because:

The axial stress is half the hoop stress
It becomes important when there is a moment present
when there is a wind load or,
when there is a seismic load

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Consider
There is another
what constitutes
effect when
external
Cases pressure exists

## Let us look at the concept of Load Cases

Compressive
together
Increased Increased
tension compression

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## The moment can produce a problem in the shell

Stress from Pressure: From weight: From the moment:

P.D W 4.M
P = W = - M =
2.t .D.t .D.t
The final equation depends on only:
Effects from the pressure
Effects from the weight
Effects from the applied moment

## So the final equation is:

P.D W 4.M
= -
2.t .D.t .D.t

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## The moment can produce a problem in the shell

Stress from Pressure: From weight: From the moment:

## Design pressure Operating weight Seismic moment

Hydro pressure Hydro weight Wind moment
No pressure No weight Hydro moment
Vacuum
Thank you for watching
No moment

## Any combination can apply, for example

Or perhaps this Any questions ?
From what we have above, there are 48 load cases in all

## We can see this in PV Elite (demo)

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