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Basic principles of compressive force

Vessels subject to External Pressure


Before After

The result of just air pressure !

Presented by: Ray Delaforce

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Basic principles of compressive force

Consider
For a tensile,
a simple
the force
bar subject
to promote
to a tensile
failure force
is: F = UTS x A

Failure can be predicted with fair precision knowing:


The Tensile Strength UTS
Cross-sectional area A
The tensile force F
The force to promote failure is: F = UTS x A
That is a simple prediction

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Basic principles of compressive force

For a we
Now tensile,
bendthe
theforce to promote
column (or plate)failure
into ais: F = UTS x A
cylinder
Now, consider a compressive force applied to the same bar
It bends like this important - It changes shape !
Look at the consequences of changing shape - bending
There is both a bending stress and a compressive stress
In the case of the bar subjected to tensile there is one stress

Here is the change in shape !

Does not
change
Stable
shape
x
F

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Basic principles of compressive force

Now we bend the column (or plate) into a cylinder


Subject it internal pressure P , it becomes a stable circle
Now to external pressure P , it becomes less stable

Stable Un-Stable

Subject to just Membrane stress x


F

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Basic principles of compressive force

Now
Consider
we bend
the rolling
the column
process
(ortoplate)
form into
cylinder
a cylinder
from plate
Subject it internal pressure P , it becomes a stable circle
Now to external pressure P , it becomes less stable

Stable Un-Stable

Subject to just Membrane stress Subject to Membrane and


Bending stresses

Failure is predictable Failure is un-predictable

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Basic principles of compressive force

Consider
Some shapes
the rolling
subjectprocess
to external
to form
pressure
cylinder
arefrom
veryplate
un-round
It is passed through roller to form the cylindrical shape
Passed back through the rollers until the cylinder is formed

This process does not form


a perfect cylinder, it is
slightly oval

D1
D2

Codes limit the difference between


D1 and D2 to about 1-1/4%

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Basic principles of compressive force

Some
Large shapes
thin tanks
subject
are very
to external
prone topressure
vacuumare
collapse
very un-round

This has to be subject to


very special analysis

That is why deep sea


submersible are spherical
it is the most stable shape

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Basic principles of compressive force

Large
A shorter
thincylinder
tanks are
is also
very better
prone to withstand
vacuum collapse
a vacuum condition

These tank have a very large D/t ratio, which makes them very
weak when subjected to vacuum conditions

We learn that the D/t ratio largely determines the ability to


withstand even a partial vacuum

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Basic principles of compressive force

A shorter cylinder
Theoretical is also
work has beenbetter
donetoonwithstand
cylinders a vacuum
subject to condition
vacuum
A long cylinder can be made shorter by adding a vacuum ring

Now we have learned two important facts:


A large D/t ratio makes a cylinder weaker
A large L/D ratio makes a cylinder weaker
In every pressure vessel code, these ratios are important
For internal pressure, the Pressure it can take can be predicted:
2.S.t
P=
D
That formula does not work for cylinders subject to external pressure:

Because there are bending as well as membrane stress present

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Basic principles of compressive force

Theoretical
We look a little
work more
has closely
been done
to the
on Effective
cylinders Length
subjectof
toavacuum
cylinder

Cylinder subjected suffer Lobing as the pressure increases


Increasing external pressure

No Pressure More Pressure More Pressure More Pressure More Pressure


No lobes 2 lobes 3 lobes 4 lobes 5 lobes

In practice, this is not so predictable

To withstand external pressure two metal characteristics are important


Youngs Modulus E
Yield strength SY
These characteristics are not important for internal pressure

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Basic principles of compressive force

We
Consider
look aalittle
Conemore
instead
closely
of a to
head
the Effective Length of a cylinder
This is the effective length of the cylinder as it stands alone
However, when heads are added, the effective length changes

Effective length exists between points of support


Now, suppose we add a vacuum stiffening ring

There is now another point of support

Making the effective length shorter

L L

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Cone Junction Analysis
Basic principles of compressive force

Consider a Cone instead of a head

This now becomes the Effective Length

Why is the point of support not here ?

It has to do with the Shell to Cone junction

We now take a short detour to discuss the cone junction

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Cone Junction Analysis

First, we consider the basic principles

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Cone Junction Analysis
First, we consider the basic principles

Apply internal pressure see what the cone wants to do


The cone wants to separate from the cylinder

It cannot because it is welded to the cylinder here

This is what it does instead

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Cone Junction Analysis

First, we consider
Consider the free body
the basic
diagram
principles
(to see the forces that are acting)

Apply internal pressure see what the cone wants to do

The cone wants to separate from the cylinder

It cannot because it is welded to the cylinder here

This is what it does instead Notice the movement

Let us examine the forces that are


acting in this region

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Cone Junction Analysis

Let us take
Consider another
the view
free body of the forces
diagram (to seeacting on the
the forces junction
that are acting)

Treating this point as a hinge: Resolving components

The cylinder must have the reaction forces here they are

There is a compressive hoop stress here

This is the force


causing the
problems

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Cone Junction Analysis

Remember, Stress =
Let us take another Force
view / Area
of the forces acting on the junction

The forces trying to collapse the junction can now be seen

By analysing a small piece of the junction we can see the forces

There must be a balancing force here it is

A compressive hoop stress is trying to collapse the junction

F
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Cone Junction Analysis

Remember,Consider
Stress =a cone
Forcesubject
/ Area to internal pressure
We now consider the Area of the junction , and Effective Area

Excessive stress can be reduced by Increasing the Area

If necessary, we can add a compression ring increases area

Full details can be seen in: ASME Appendix 1-5 and 1-8

F
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Cone Junction Analysis
Consider a cone subject to internal pressure

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Cone Junction Analysis
Consider a cone subject to internal pressure

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Cone Junction Analysis
Consider a cone subject to internal pressure

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Cone Junction Analysis
Let us revisit
Consider
our illustration
a cone subject
of the
toCone-Shell
internal pressure
junction

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The Cone is treated as
Cone
a completely
Junction Analysis
separate element
Let us revisit our illustration of the Cone-Shell junction
This is the situation if the cone-shell junction is not reinforced

If reinforced by self reinforcement or a ring added, this happens

Maybe a ring was required to give sufficient reinforcement

We also have to consider the small end junction of the cone-shell

If the small end is not reinforced, the effective length changes


The lengths L are for the cylinders only not the cone itself

L L L L

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Let us
The consider
Cone this vessel
is treated as an example
as a completely of the
separate foregoing
element
The cone is turned into a equivalent cylinder
With transformed dimensions , only DO is the same

Recall, these dimensional ratios are important for cylinders


subject to external pressure:
A large D/t ratio makes a cylinder weaker
A large L/D ratio makes a cylinder weaker

Le te

Do

Let us see how this works in practice

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Let us consider this vessel as an example of the foregoing

4 516mm

When both
We first end ofthe
consider thedesign
cone are considered
where the coneasisreinforced (demo)
not reinforced (demo)

The large cylinder fails under external pressure


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Did youconsider
Let us notice the
thiscone junction
vessel at the large
as an example endforegoing
of the of the cone failed ?

1900mm 4 516mm

When both end of the cone are considered as reinforced (demo)

The large cylinder withstands the external pressure with a short L


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Did you
There is notice
anotherthe
effect
conewhen
junction
external
at thepressure
large end
exists
of the cone failed ?
Reinforcing ring
required here

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There is another effect when external pressure exists

There
The moment
is a compressive
can produce
axial
a problem
stress induced
in the shell
in the shell

This does not present a problem, because:


The axial stress is half the hoop stress
It becomes important when there is a moment present
when there is a wind load or,
when there is a seismic load

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Consider
There is another
what constitutes
effect when
Load
external
Cases pressure exists

The moment can produce a problem in the shell

One side there is an increased compressive stress

The combined compressive stress could buckle the shell

Let us look at the concept of Load Cases

Compressive
stresses added
together
Increased Increased
tension compression

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Consider what constitutes Load Cases

The moment can produce a problem in the shell


Stress from Pressure: From weight: From the moment:

P.D W 4.M
P = W = - M =
2.t .D.t .D.t
The final equation depends on only:
Effects from the pressure
Effects from the weight
Effects from the applied moment

So the final equation is:

P.D W 4.M
= -
2.t .D.t .D.t

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Consider what constitutes Load Cases

The moment can produce a problem in the shell


Stress from Pressure: From weight: From the moment:

Design pressure Operating weight Seismic moment


Hydro pressure Hydro weight Wind moment
No pressure No weight Hydro moment
Vacuum
Thank you for watching
No moment

Any combination can apply, for example


Or perhaps this Any questions ?
From what we have above, there are 48 load cases in all

We can see this in PV Elite (demo)

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