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Present Perfect

El presente perfecto equivale ms o menos al pretrito perfecto del espaol.


Veremos las diferencias en la seccin sobre usos. En general, es una mezcla
entre el presente y el pasado. Lo usamos para acciones en el pasado que
tienen importancia en el presente.
Form (Forma)
Para formar el presente perfecto, se usa el verbo
auxiliar to have en el presente y el participio pasado
del verbo. Para verbos regulares, el participio pasado es
la forma simple del pasado. Ver la leccin sobre el
pasado simple para ms informacin sobre como formar
el pasado.
Verbo Participio
Sujeto Forma Corta
auxiliar Pasado

I, you, we, Ive, youve, talked, learned,


have
they weve, theyve traveled

talked, learned,
he, she, it has hes, shes, its
traveled

Nota: Ten en cuenta que hay muchos participios


pasados irregulares en ingls. A continuacin tienes una
lista de unos de los participios pasados irregulares ms
comunes.
Participio
Verbo Pasado Simple
pasado

be was/were been

do did done

go went gone

make made made

see saw seen


Structure (Estructura)

1. Affirmative Sentences (Frases affirmativas)

Sujeto + verbo auxiliar (to have) + participio


pasado

Ejemplos:

I have [Ive] talked to Peter. (He hablado con Peter.)


She has [Shes] gone to work. (Ha ido a su trabajo.)
We have [Weve] been to London. (Hemos ido a
Londres.)
They have [Theyve] learned English. (Han
aprendido ingls.)

2. Negative Sentences (Frases negativas)

Sujeto + verbo auxiliar (to have) + not +


participio pasado

Ejemplos:

I havent talked to Peter. (No he hablado con Peter.)


She hasnt gone to work. (No ha ido a su trabajo.)
We havent been to London. (No hemos ido a Londres.)
They havent learned English. (No han aprendido
ingls.)

3. Interrogative Sentences (Frases interrogativas)

Verbo auxiliar (to have) + sujeto + participio


pasado?

Ejemplos:

Have you talked to Peter? (Has hablado con Peter?)


Has she gone to work? (Ha ido a su trabajo?)
Have you been to London? (Has ido a Londres?)
Have they learned English? (Han aprendido ingls?)

Uses (Usos)

Se usa el presente perfecto para acciones que


ocurrieron en un tiempo no concreto antes de ahora. El
tiempo especfico no es importante. Por lo tanto, no
solemos usar expresiones de tiempo especficas (this
morning, yesterday, last year) con el
presente perfecto. Se puede usar el presente
perfecto con expresiones de tiempo no
concretas (never, ever, many times, for,
since, already, yet). Este concepto de tiempo
no especfico es bastante difcil de comprender, por
este motivo, a continuacin tienes los usos particulares
del presente perfecto.

1. Se usa el presente perfecto para describir una


experiencia. No lo usamos para acciones especficas.

Ejemplos:

I have never flown in a plane. (Nunca he volado en un


avin.)
He has worked in many different museums. (Ha
trabajado en muchos museos diferentes.)
We have been to Ro de Janeiro. (Hemos ido a Ro de
Janeiro.)

2. Se utiliza el presente perfecto para un cambio


en el tiempo.

Ejemplos:

I have become more timid in my old age. (Me he


vuelto ms tmido en mi vejez.)
Their English has improved a lot this year. (Su ingls
ha mejorado mucho este ao.)
He has learned to be more patient. (Ha aprendido a
ser ms paciente.)

3. Se usa para los exitosos.

Ejemplos:

Our football team has won the championship three


times. (Nuestro equipo de ftbol ha ganado el campeonato
tres veces.)
Dan has finished writing his first novel. (Dan ha
terminado de escribir su primera novela.)
Scientists have succeeded in curing many
illnesses. (Los cientficos han tenido xito en la curacin de
muchas enfermedades.)

4. Usamos el presente perfecto para acciones que


todava no han sucedido. El uso del presente
perfecto en estos casos indica que an estamos
esperando la accin, por eso, frecuentemente usamos
los adverbios yet y still.

Ejemplos:

The plane hasnt arrived yet. (El avin no ha llegado


todava.)
Our team still hasnt won a championship. (Nuestro
equipo an no ha ganado un campeonato.)
You havent finished your homework yet? (No has
acabado todava los deberes?)

5. Se utiliza el presente perfecto para hablar


sobre acciones en diferentes momentos en el
pasado. El uso del presente perfecto en estos casos
indica que son posibles ms acciones en el futuro.

Ejemplos:

We have spoken several times, but we still cant


reach an agreement. (Hemos hablado varias veces, pero
todava no podemos llegar a un acuerdo.)
Our team has played 4 games so far this
year. (Nuestro equipo ya ha jugado 4 partidos este ao.)
I love New York! I have been there 5 times already
and I cant wait to go back. (Me encanta Nueva York! Ya
he estado all 5 veces y no puedo esperar para regresar.)

6. En general, usamos el presente perfecto


continuo para situaciones que han empezado en
el pasado pero siguen en el presente. Pero como
hemos visto, hay unos verbos que no podemos usar
en los tiempos continuos. En estos casos, usamos el
presente perfecto.

Ejemplos:

How long has Michael been in Barcelona? (Cunto


tiempo ha estado Michael en Barcelona?)
I have loved you since the day I met you. (Te he
querido desde el da que te conoc.)

Past Simple
El pasado simple

Hay muchas maneras de hablar del


pasado en ingls, pero el pasado
simple es la forma ms comn. El
pasado simple en ingls es
equivalente al pretrito imperfecto y
pretrito indefinido del espaol.
Usamos el pasado simple para acciones
completas en el pasado. El perodo de
tiempo de estas acciones no es
importante como en el espaol. En el
pasado simple hay verbos
regulares y verbos irregulares.

Grammatical Rules (Reglas


gramaticales)

Form (Forma)

Para formar el pasado simple con


verbos regulares, usamos el infinitivo y
aadimos la terminacin -ed. La
forma es la misma para todas las
personas (I, you, he, she, it, we, they).

Ejemplos:
want wanted
learn learned
stay stayed
walk walked
show showed

Excepciones:

1. Para verbos que terminan en


una e, slo aadimos -d.

Ejemplos:
change changed
believe believed

2. Si el verbo termina en una vocal


corta y una consonante
(excepto y o w), doblamos la
consonante final.

Ejemplos:
stop stopped
commit committed
3. Con verbos que terminan en una
consonante y una y, se cambia
la y por una i.

Ejemplos:
study studied
try tried

Nota: Hay muchos verbos irregulares


en ingls. Desafortunadamente, no hay
una norma establecida para formarlos.
Ver una lista de los verbos
irregulares aqu. A continuacin tienes
los tres verbos irregulares ms
comunes y los que actan como verbos
auxiliares.

Verb Past simple

be was (I, he, she, it)


were (you, we, they)

do did

have had

Pronunciation (Pronunciacin)

Pronunciamos la terminacin -ed de


forma diferente dependiendo de la letra
que va al final del infinitivo. En general
la e es muda.

1. Con los infinitivos que terminan


en p, f, k o s (consonantes
sordas, excepto t) pronunciamos la
terminacin -ed como una t.

Ejemplos:
looked [lukt]
kissed [kisst]

2. Con los infinitivos que terminan


en b, g, l, m, n, v, z (
consonantes sonoras, excepto d) o
una vocal, pronunciamos slo la d.

Ejemplos:
yelled [jeld]
cleaned [klind]

3. Con los infinitivos que terminan


en d o t, pronunciamos
la e como una i.

Ejemplos:
ended [endid]
waited [weitid]

Structure (Estructura)

1. Affirmative Sentences (Frases


afirmativas)
Sujeto + verbo principal

Ejemplos:
She was a doctor. (Era doctora.)
The keys were in the drawer. (Las
llaves estaban en el cajn.)
I wanted to dance. (Quera bailar.)
They learned English. (Aprendieron
ingls.)
We believed him. (Le cremos.)
I bought a blue car. (Compr un coche
azul.)

2. Negative Sentences (Frases


negativas)

To be:
Sujeto + to be + not

Ejemplos:
She wasnt a doctor. (Ella no era
doctora.)
The keys werent in the drawer. (Las
llaves no estaban en el cajn.)

Nota: El verbo to have got, que en


el presente simple sigue las mismas
reglas que el verbo to be, no puede
ser utilizado en el pasado. Para indicar
la posesin en el pasado, usamos el
verbo to have.

Todos los verbos dems:


Sujeto + verbo auxiliar (to do) +
not + verbo principal (en
infinitivo)

Ejemplos:
I didnt want to dance. (No quera
bailar.)
They didnt learn English. (No
aprendieron ingls)
We didnt believe him. (No le
cremos.)
I didnt buy a blue car. (No compr un
coche azul.)

Nota: En frases negativas, el verbo


auxiliar va en pasado (did) y el verbo
principal se queda en el infinitivo.

3. Interrogative Sentences (Frases


interrogativas)

To be:
To be + sujeto?

Ejemplos:
Was she a doctor? (Era doctora?)
Were the keys in the
drawer? (Estaban las llaves en el cajn?)

Todos los dems verbos:


Verbo auxiliar (to do) + sujeto +
verbo principal (en infinitivo)?

Ejemplos
Did you want to dance? (Queras
bailar?)
Did they learn English? (Aprendieron
ingls?)
Did you believe him? (Le creste?)
Did you buy a blue car? (Compraste
un coche azul?)

Nota: Al igual que en las frases


negativas, el verbo auxiliar va en
pasado (did) y el verbo principal se
queda en el infinitivo.
Uses (Usos)

1. El pasado simple se utiliza para


hablar de una accin concreta que
comenz y acab en el pasado. En
este caso equivale al pretrito
indefinido espaol. Generalmente, lo
usamos con adverbios de tiempo
como last
year, yesterday, last night

Ejemplos:
Tom stayed at home last night. (Tom
se qued en casa anoche.)
Kate worked last Saturday. (Kate
trabaj el sbado pasado.)
I didnt go to the
party yesterday. (No fui a la fiesta ayer.)
Did they walk to school this
morning? (Han andado a la escuela esta
maana?)
2. Se usa el pasado simple para un
serie de acciones en el pasado.

Ejemplos:
I received the good news and
immediately called my
husband. (Recib la buena noticia y llam
de inmediato a mi marido.)
He studied for an hour in the
morning, worked all afternoon
and didnt returnhome until 10 at
night. (Estudi durante una hora por la
maana, trabaj toda la tarde y no regres
a casa hasta las 10 de la noche.)

3. Tambin lo usamos para


acciones repetidas o habituales en
el pasado, como se usa el pretrito
imperfecto espaol.

Ejemplos:
We always traveled to Cancun for
vacation when we were
young. (Siempre viajbamos a Cancun
durante las vacaciones cuando ramos
jvenes.)
He walked 5 kilometers every day
to work. (Caminaba 5 kilmetros hasta el
trabajo cada da.)

4. Lo usamos para narraciones o


acciones de perodos de largo
tiempo en el pasado, como el
pretrito imperfecto espaol.

Ejemplos:
I worked for many years in a
museum. (Trabajaba en un museo
durante muchos aos.)
She didnt eat meat for years. (No
coma carne durante aos.)

5. Se utiliza para hablar de


generalidades o hechos del
pasado.

Ejemplos:
The Aztec lived in Mexico. (Los
aztecas vivan en Mxico)
I played the guitar when I was a
child. (Tocaba la guitarra cuando era
nio.)
Present Conditionals
f t g+ p
Present Real Conditional

FORM

[If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Present ...]

[... Simple Present ... if / when ... Simple Present ...]

USE

The Present Real Conditional is used to talk about what you normally do in real-
life situations.

Examples:

If I go to a friend's house for dinner, I usually take a bottle of wine or some


flowers.

When I have a day off from work, I often go to the beach.

If the weather is nice, she walks to work.

Jerry helps me with my homework when he has time.

I read if there is nothing on TV.

A: What do you do when it rains?


B: I stay at home.

A: Where do you stay if you go to Sydney?


B: I stay with my friends near the harbor.

IMPORTANT If / When

Both "if" and "when" are used in the Present Real Conditional. Using "if"
suggests that something happens less frequently. Using "when" suggests that
something happens regularly.

Examples:

When I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach.


I regularly have days off from work.

If I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach.


I rarely have days off from work.
Present Unreal Conditional

FORM

[If ... Simple Past ..., ... would + verb ...]

[... would + verb ... if ... Simple Past ...]

USE

The Present Unreal Conditional is used to talk about what you would generally
do in imaginary situations.

Examples:

If I owned a car, I would drive to work. But I don't own a car.

She would travel around the world if she had more money. But she doesn't
have much money.

I would read more if I didn't watch so much TV.

Mary would move to Japan if she spoke Japanese.

If they worked harder, they would earn more money.

A: What would you do if you won the lottery?


B: I would buy a house.

A: Where would you live if you moved to the U.S.?


B: I would live in Seattle.

EXCEPTION If I were ...

In the Present Unreal Conditional, the form "was" is not considered


grammatically correct. In written English or in testing situations, you should
always use "were." However, in everyday conversation, "was" is often used.

Examples:

If he were French, he would live in Paris.

If she were rich, she would buy a yacht.

I would play basketball if I were taller.

I would buy that computer if it were cheaper.


I would buy that computer if it was cheaper. Not Correct (But often said in
conversation.)

IMPORTANT Only use "If"

Only the word "if" is used with the Present Unreal Conditional because you are
discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used.

Examples:

I would buy that computer when it were cheaper. Not Correct

I would buy that computer if it were cheaper. Correct

EXCEPTION Conditional with Modal Verbs

There are some special conditional forms for modal verbs in English:

would + can = could

would + shall = should

would + may = might

The words "can," "shall" and "may" cannot be used with "would." Instead, they
must be used in these special forms.

Examples:

If I went to Egypt, I would can learn Arabic. Not Correct

If I went to Egypt, I could learn Arabic. Correct

If she had time, she would may go to the party. Not Correct

If she had time, she might go to the party. Correct

The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include conditional, so you
cannot combine them with "would."

Examples:

If I had more time, I would could exercise after work. Not Correct

If I had more time, I could exercise after work. Correct

If he invited you, you really would should go. Not Correct

If he invited you, you really should go. Correct


First Conditional

We use the First Conditional to talk about a future situation that is possible.
The verb in the if-clause is in the present tense; the verb in the main clause is in the
Future Simple. It doesn't matter which comes first. There is usually a comma between
the two clauses.
If you try very hard, you'll see the difference.
John will be late, if you don't lend him your car.
This type of sentence implies that the action is very probable.
Note that the meaning here is present or future, but the main verb in the if-clause is in a
present, not future tense.
1 . Possible variations of the basic form

Sometimes instead of if + present + future, we may have:


a) if + present + may/might (possibility)
If the climate keeps warming, the Arctic might be warm enough for swimming.
b) if + present + may (permission) or can (permission or ability)
If your documents are in order, you may/can leave at once. (permission)
If it stops raining, we can go out." (permission or ability)
c) if + present + must, should or any expression of command, request or advice
if you want to look slim, you must/should eat less meat.
if you want to look slim, you had better eat less meat.
if you want to look slim, eat less meat.

d) When if is used to mean as/since, a variety of tenses can be used in the main clause
2. Variations of the if-clause

Instead of if + present tense, we can have:


a) if + present continuous, to indicate a present actions or a future arrangement."
If you are waiting for a bus (present action), you'd better join the queue.
If you are looking for Peter, you'll find him upstairs.
If you're staying for another night (future arrangement), I'll ask the manager to give you
a better room.
b) if + present perfect
if you have finished dinner, I'll ask the waiter for the bill.
If has written the letter, I'll post it.
If they haven't seen the museum, we'd better go there today.
Verbos Modales: MAY MIGHT
Otro de los verbos modales que se utilizan frecuentemente en el idioma ingls es MAY, un
verbo que es empleado para hacer referencia a una situacin hipottica, es decir que
puede ser posible, por ejemplo:
They may forgive me. Ellos pueden perdonarme.

She may decide to travel to Spain. Ella puede decidir viajar a Espaa.

He may accept your request. l puede aceptar tu pedido.

Observe en los ejemplos superiores que cuando utilizamos la palabra puede nos
referimos a una probabilidad y no a la capacidad de hacer algo, ya que en tal caso
utilizaramos el verbo modal CAN.

El verbo modal MAY se encuentra relacionado estrechamente con MIGHT dado que ambos
tienen el mismo uso y significado, aunque MAY indica un grado mayor de certeza, por
ejemplo:

She may forget the problems. Ella puede olvidar los problemas.

She might forget the problems. Ella podra olvidar los problemas.

You may pay the bills. T puedes pagar las cuentas.

You might pay the bills. T podras pagar las cuentas.

Para expresar una posibilidad en el futuro, solamente deberemos colocarle a la oracin


el momento en que se realizar la accin, por ejemplo:

She may help me tomorrow. Ella podr ayudarme maana.

They might visit the hospital this afternoon. Ellos podran visitar el hospital esta tarde.

Tanto MAY como MIGHT se utilizan para solicitar algo de manera formal y educada, siendo
el ltimo un trmino de mayor cortesa, por ejemplo:

May I use your telephone please? Puedo usar su telfono por favor?

Might I use your telephone please? Podra usar su telfono por favor?
Para construir la forma negativa de ambos verbos modales lo haremos de la siguiente
manera:

She may not apologize her friend. Ella no puede disculpar a su amiga.

He might not find a solution to his problem. l no podra encontrar una solucin a su problema.

Would like
de English Grammar Today

We use would like or d like to say politely what we want, especially when
making offers and requests:

Would you like a biscuit with your coffee?

Can you order for Ellie? Shed like the Margarita pizza, please.

Verbs that follow would like are in the to-infinitive form:

Would you like to listen to that again?

Id like to get a return ticket for tomorrow.

We use Do you like ? to ask about preferences in general. We dont use Do


you like ? to make offers or requests.

Compare

Do you like rice? Would you Do you like Would you


like some
dancing? like to dance?
rice?

asks about likes and offers some asks about likes and invites you to
dislikes in general rice dislikes in general dance

Would like to have + -ed form

We use would like to have + -ed form when talking about things in the past
that we have missed:

Id like to have watched the football but I had to go out. (I wanted to watch
the football, but I didnt.)

Id like to

We can use Id like to as a short answer to an offer or invitation:

A:

You must have dinner with us.

B:

Yes, Id like to.

A:

Good. Is Sunday night any good?

See also:

Hate, like, love and prefer

Like
1) Expresar deseos
Una de ellas es para expresar deseos, cosas que nos gustara que ocurrieran.
Para ello, pondremos un infinitivo precedido de to justo detrs de would
like.

Sujeto + would/wouldnt + like + infinitivo con to


+ (Complemento)
He wouldnt like to be a doctor No le gustara ser mdico
Id like to have a bigger flat Me gustara tener un apartamento ms grande

Supongo que has notado que en su forma afirmativa, el verbo modal


would puede contraerse, aadiendo solo -d al sujeto.

Hed like to know more people Le gustara conocer a ms gente

2) Ofrecimientos
Tambin utilizamos esta forma verbal para ofrecer algo. En este caso el verbo
va en su forma interrogativa.

(Wh-word) + would + Sujeto + like


+ (Complemento)
Would you like a sandwich? Quieres/Quiere un sandwich?
Would you like to come to my party? Te gustara venir a mi fiesta?

2.1- Algo tangible

Cuando lo que ofrecemos es algo tangible (en este caso sobre todo se utiliza
con comida y bebida), tras would like tendremos inmediatamente aquello
que se ofrece en forma de nombre u otra forma nominal.

Would you like a beer? Quieres una cerveza?


Would you like some chocolate cake? Quieres un poco de torta de
chocolate?

2.2- Ideas abstractas


Si en lugar de ofrecer algo tangible invitamos a alguien a alguna actividad, el
complemento del verbo would like ser una forma verbal, donde el verbo
ser un infinitivo con to

Would you like to go for a walk? Quieres dar un paseo?


Would you like to drive my new car? Te gustara conducir (manejar) mi
coche (auto) nuevo?

**Recuerda que hablar ingls implica ser muy educado , as

que nunca diremos directamente que queremos algo como hacemos en


espaol. En lugar de hacer eso, utilizaremos esta frmula, que nos hace
quedar mucho mejor en nuestras relaciones sociales.

Id like some more wine Me das ms vino?


Id like to ask you something? Me gustara preguntarte algo

Aqu el complemento de would like depender de si estamos pidiendo


algo tangible o si lo que pedimos es una accin.
Do you mind if I + (verb)
You are asking someone in present tense if they object to something you are
asking.

Here are some examples:

"Do you mind if I excuse myself?"


"Do you mind if we leave early?"
"Do you mind if I take a nap?"
"Do you mind if I ask your mom?"
"Do you mind if it snows?"

You could also use the word 'would'

Here are some examples:

"Would you mind if we went out to eat?"


"Would you mind if I opened the window?"
"Would you mind telling me what you're doing?"
"Would you mind being quiet for a minute?"
"Would you mind if I changed the channel?"

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agree Tom agreed to help me.

appear His health appeared to be better.

arrange Naomi arranged to stay with her cousin in Miami.

ask [8] She asked to leave.

begin [13] He began to talk.

can't bear [14] He can't bear to be alone.

can't stand [14] Nancy can't stand to work the late shift.

care He doesn't care to participate in the activity.

cease [14] The government ceased to provide free healthcare.

choose [8] I chose to help.

claim She claimed to be a princess.

continue [14] She continued to talk.

decide We decided to go to Hawaii.

demand He demanded to speak to Mr. Harris.

deserve He deserves to go to jail.

dread [13] I dread to think what might happen.

expect [8] They expect to arrive early.

fail He failed to get enough money to pay for the new project.
forget [13] I forgot to lock the door when I left.

get (be allowed to) Debbie gets to go to the concert next week! Why can't I?

happen She happened to be at the bank when it was robbed.

hate [14] He hates to clean dishes.

hesitate She hesitated to tell me the problem.

hope I hope to begin college this year.

intend We intend to visit you next spring.

learn I learned to speak Japanese when I was a kid.

like [14] Samantha likes to read.

love [14] We love to scuba dive.

manage He managed to open the door without the key.

need [8,13] I need to study.

neglect [14] She neglected to tell me the date of the meeting.

offer Frank offered to drive us to the supermarket.

plan We plan to go to Europe this summer.

prefer [14] He prefers to eat at 7 PM.

prepare [8] They prepared to take the test.

pretend The child pretended to be a monster.

promise [8] She promised to stop smoking.


propose [14] Drew proposed to pay for the trip.

refuse The guard refused to let them enter the building.

regret [13] I regret to inform you that your application was rejected.

remember [13] Did you remember to lock the door when you left?

seem Nancy seemed to be disappointed.

start [13] Marge started to talk really fast.

swear She swore to tell the truth.

tend He tends to be a little shy.

threaten [8] He threatened to leave forever.

try [13] Mary tried to lift the table, but it was too heavy.

vow He vowed to get revenge.

wait She waited to buy a movie ticket.

want [8] I want to study Spanish.

wish [8] I wish to stay.

would like [8] We would like to start now.


(meaning "wish" or "want")

yearn Melanie yearns to travel somewhere exotic.


25 Ejemplos oraciones con infinitivos en
ingles y espaol

El infinitivo (infinitive) de un verbo se utiliza acompaando a un verbo y


completar la informacin de la oracin.

1. She wants to see him. (Ella quiere verlo)

2. I want to dance with you. (Yo quiero bailar con ella)

3. We will be glad to help you with your homework.


(Estaremos encantados de ayudarte con tu tarea)

4. I tried to call her. (Trat de llamarla)

5. He went there to learn German. (l fue all para aprender


alemn)

6. We prefer to eat at home. (Nosotros preferimos comer en


casa)

7. They forgot to buy the book. (Ellos olvidaron comprar el


libro)

8. I dont want to buy it because it is expensive. (Yo no lo


quiero comprar porque es caro)

9. We expect to leave at 12 oclock. (Nosotros esperamos


partir a las 12)

10. I am studying to get a good mark. (Yo estoy estudiando


para obtener una buena nota)

Tambin, para completar la informacin acompaando adjetivos y


adverbios en una oracin.

1. It is impossible to open the door. (Es imposible abrir


la puerta)

2. It is easy to play tennis. (Es fcil jugar tenis)

3. It is possible to do it. (Es posible hacerlo)


4. The exercises are easy to do. (Los ejercicios son fciles
de hacer)

5. He is too weak to do it. (l es muy dbil para hacerlo)

6. It was impossible to sell the old house. (Fue imposible


vender la vieja casa)

7. It is hard to do it. (Es difcil de hacer)

8. It is very important to learn a second language. (Es muy


importante aprender un segundo idioma)

9. The workout was easy to do. (El ejercicio fue fcil de


hacer)

10. I was happy to see you. (Yo estaba feliz de verte)

11. Please, come quickly to help me. (Por favor, ven rpido a
ayudarme)

Y, para expresar la idea de propsito se puede escribir el infinitivo solo o


despus de in order.

1. They went to see thier friend. (Ellos fueron a ver a su


amigo)

2. She went there in order to study with him. (Ella fue all
para estudiar con l)

3. We went there in order to get a new license. (Nosotros


fuimos all para conseguir una nueva licencia)

4. I came early in order to get good seats. (Yo llegu


temprano para conseguir un buen asiento)

5. Did she need to speak English in order to get a better


job? (Ella necesit hablar ingls para conseguir un mejor
trabajo?)
Verb patterns: verb + infinitive or verb + -ing?
de English Grammar Today

Verbs followed by a to-infinitive

Some verbs can be followed immediately by a to-infinitive:

afford demand like pretend

agree fail love promise

arrange forget manage refuse

ask hate mean (= intend) remember

begin help need start

choose hope offer try

continue intend plan want


decide learn prefer

I cant afford to go on holiday.

It began to rain.

She hopes to go to university next year.

My mother never learnt to swim.

Did you remember to ring Nigel?

See also:

Help somebody (to) do

Want

Verbs followed by a direct object and a to-infinitive

Verbs followed by -ing


-ing but not to-infinitive

Some verbs are normally followed by the -ing form, not the to-infinitive:

admit deny finish mind

avoid dislike give up miss

(cant) help enjoy imagine practise


(cant) stand fancy involve put off

consider feel like keep (on) risk

I always enjoy cooking.

Not: I always enjoy to cook.

We havent finished eating yet.

Not: We havent finished to eat .

She keeps changing her mind about the wedding.

New subject before -ing

Some of these verbs (e.g. cant stand, dislike, imagine, involve, mind, miss,
put off and risk) can be used with a new subject before the -ing form
(underlined in the examples below). If the new subject is a pronoun, it is in the
object form (me, him, her, us, them):

We just couldnt imagine Gerry singing in public.

Do you mind me being here while youre working?

I dont want to risk him losing his job.

See also:

Verbs followed by -ing


Verbs followed by a to-infinitive or -ing
Hate, like, love, prefer

Hate, like, love and prefer can be followed either by -ing or a to-infinitive. The
difference in meaning is often small. The -ing form emphasises the verb itself.
The to-infinitive puts the emphasis more on the preference for, or the results
of, the action.

Compare

-ing form to-infinitive

I love cooking Indian I like to drink juice in the morning, and tea
food. (emphasis on the process at lunchtime. (emphasis more on the
itself and enjoyment of it) preference or habit)

She hates cleaning her I hate to be the only person to


room. (emphasis on the process disagree. (emphasis more on the result: I
itself and no enjoyment of it) would prefer not to be in that situation.)

We prefer to drive during the day whenever


Most people prefer watching a film
we can. (emphasis more on the result and
at the cinema rather than on
on the habit or preference. The speaker
TV. (emphasis on the process itself
doesnt necessarily enjoy the process of
and enjoyment of it)
driving at any time of day.)

Hate, like, love, prefer with would or should

When hate, like, love and prefer are used with would or should, only the to-
infinitive is used, not the -ing form:
Shed love to get a job nearer home.

Not: Shed love getting a job nearer home .

Would you like to have dinner with us on Friday?

To-infinitive or -ing form with a change in meaning

Some verbs can be followed by a to-infinitive or the -ing form, but with a
change in meaning:

go on need remember try

mean regret stop want

Compare

-ing form to-infinitive

Working in London means


leaving home at 6.30. (Because I I didnt mean to make you cry. (I didnt
work in London, this is the result intend to make you cry.)
or consequence.)

He went on singing after


She recited a poem, then went on to sing a
everyone else had finished. (He
lovely folk song. (She recited the poem first,
continued singing without
then she sang the song.)
stopping.)
I tried searching the web and
I tried to email Simon but it bounced back. (I
finally found an address for
tried/attempted to email him but I did not
him. (I searched the web to see
succeed.)
what information I could find.)

She stopped crying as soon as We stopped to buy some water at the


she saw her mother. (She was motorway service area. (We were travelling
crying, and then she didnt cry and we stopped for a short time in order to
anymore.) buy some water.)

See also:

Mean

Need

Remember or remind?

Stop + -ing form or to-infinitive

Want

Verbs followed by an infinitive without to


Let, make

Let and make are followed by an infinitive without to in active voice sentences.
They always have an object (underlined) before the infinitive:

Let me show you this DVD Ive got.

They made us wait while they checked our documents.

Not: They made us to wait


Help

Help can be followed by an infinitive without to or a to-infinitive:

She helped me find a direction in life.

Everyone can help to reduce carbon emissions by using public transport.

See also:

Help somebody (to) do

Let, lets

Make

Verbs followed by -ing or an infinitive without to

A group of verbs connected with feeling, hearing and seeing can be used with
-ing or with an infinitive without to:

feel notice see

hear overhear watch

When they are used with -ing, these verbs emphasise the action or event in
progress. When they are used with an infinitive without to, they emphasise the
action or event seen as a whole, or as completed.

Compare
-ing infinitive without to

She heard people shouting in the street I heard someone shout Help!, so I
below and looked out of the ran to the river. (emphasises the whole
window. (emphasises that the shouting event: the person probably shouted
probably continued or was repeated) only once)

A police officer saw him running along Emily saw Philip run out of Sandras
the street. (emphasises the running as it office. (emphasises the whole event
was happening) from start to finish)

Verbs followed by a direct object and a to-infinitive

Some verbs are used with a direct object (underlined) followed by a to-
infinitive. These verbs include:

advise hate like persuade request

ask help love prefer teach

challenge instruct need recommend tell

choose intend order remind want


forbid invite

I advised him to get a job as soon as possible.

Did Martin teach Gary to play squash?

They want me to go to Germany with them.

(Verb patterns: verb + infinitive or verb + - ing ? de English Grammar Today


Cambridge University Press.)

Attend marriage looks just for fun.


Debe asistir a este matrimonio slo por diversin.
So I used to get my eyes tested just for fun.
Sola hacerme exmenes visuales slo por diversin.
You know, just for fun.
Ya sabes, slo para divertirnos.
Come on, it's just for fun.
Vamos, es slo para divertirnos.
It's about wanting something just for fun.
Se trata de querer algo slo para divertirse.
He slaughters them all just for fun.
Los mata a todos, slo para divertirse.
It's just for fun, don't worry.
Es slo por diversin no te preocupes.
Look, now this here is just for fun, man.
Mire, ahora esto aqu es slo por diversin, hombre.
But first, just for fun...
Pero primero, slo por diversin...
But then, just for fun, he...
Pero entonces, slo por diversin, l...
Say it again, just for fun.
Dilo otra vez, slo por diversin.
Now just for fun, try it this way.
Slo por diversin di: "Soy una chica mala".
She's plotting the perfect murder for years now, but just for fun.
Ella est planeando el asesinato perfecto hace aos... pero slo por diversin.
It was just for fun, we had...
Fue slo por diversin, nosotros...
Also working on a short film, just for fun.
Tambin estoy trabajando en un cortometraje, slo por diversin.

I forgot how good you were at that.

Olvid lo bueno que eras en eso.

You were so busy telling me how good you were.


Estabas muy ocupado contndome lo bueno que eras.

Well... that just proves how good you were tonight.

Bueno... eso prueba lo buena que eres.

I'd believe the whole innocent act a little bit better If I didn't know how good you were At
providing a distraction on demand.

Hubiera credo un poquito ms todo ese acto inocente, si no supiera lo buena que eres en
proporcionar una distraccin a pedido.

He came back when he heard how good you were in the centre ring.

Ha vuelto al saber lo buena que eras en la pista central.

I still remember how good you were

Todava recuerdo lo buena que eras.

And... I reacted badly to how good you were at that class, and I was wrong.

Y reaccion mal a lo buena que eras en esa clase y estaba equivocada.

But I will never forget in my entire life how good you wereto me.

Pero, nunca olvidar, lo buena que eres conmigo.

Really, uncle James, I'd forgotten how good you were at all this.

Vaya, to James, me haba olvidado de lo bueno que eraspara esto.

You know, I forgot how good you were.

Sabes, olvid lo bueno que eras.

To how much fun you were having, to how good you were.

Por lo bien que te lo estabas pasando, por lo buena que eras.

I'm reminded of how good you were at it every day.

Me acuerdo de lo buena que eras todos los das

And you... came home to your family... to test how good you were... because now, maybe,
you're going to start one of your own.

As que... regresas a casa... para comprobar lo bueno que eras... porque ahora, quizs, vas a
empezar a ser t mismo.

Remember how good you were at crowd control last time...

Recuerdas que bueno que eras en el control de masas...

I forgot how good you were, Methos.

Olvid lo bueno que eres, Methos.


I forgot how good you were at this.

Olvid lo bueno que eres con esto.

I always remember how good you were.

Siempre me acuerdo de usted, de lo bien que se port.

I wanted to see how good you were.

Quera ver lo buena que era.

To see how good you were.

Quera ver que tan buena eras.

I forgot how good you were at that.

Haba olvidado lo bueno que eres en eso.

Regstrese para ver ms ejemplos

RegstreseConectar

Resultados: 32. Exactos: 32. Tiempo de respuesta: 204 ms.

1. Whose is that car? (De quin es aquel automvil?)


2. Whose is that bag? (De quin es aquella bolsa?)

3. Whose is that ipad? (De quin es aquella ipad?)

4. Whose is this umbrella? (De quin es esta sombrilla?)

5. Whose is this? (De quin es esto?)

6. Whose are this keys? (De quin son estas llaves?)

7. Whose are those gloves? (De quin son estos guantes?)

8. Whose is this book? (De quin es este libro?)

9. Whose is this wallet? (De quin es esta billetera?)

10. Whose is that motorbike? (De quin es aquella motocicleta?)

11. Whose are these shoes? (De quin son estos zapatos?)

12. Whose is the car parked over there? (De quin es el automvil
estacionado all?)

Tambin, se puede preguntar cambiando la posicin del verbo to be.


Ejemplos:

1. Whose car is that? (De quin es aquel automvil?)

2. Whose bag is that? (De quin es aquella bolsa?)

3. Whose ipad is that? (De quin es aquella ipad?)

4. Whose umbrella is this? (De quin es esta sombrilla?)

5. Whose keys are this? (De quin son estas llaves?)

6. Whose gloves are those? (De quin son estos guantes?)

7. Whose book is this? (De quin es este libro?)

8. Whose wallet is this? (De quin es esta billetera?)

9. Whose motorbike is that? (De quin es aquella motocicleta?)

10. Whose shoes are these? (De quin son estos zapatos?)
11. Whose car is parked over there? (De quin es el automvil
estacionado all?)

1. Where are you from? (De dnde eres?)

2. Where are you? (Dnde ests?)

3. Where do you live? (Dnde vives?)

4. Where were you born? (Dnde naciste?)

5. Where is the nearest bank? (Dnde est el banco ms cercano?)

6. Where are you going? (A dnde vas?)

7. Where is the dog? (Dnde est el perro?)

8. Where can I buy a car? (Dnde puedo comprar un automvil?)

9. Where was the party? (En dnde fue la fiesta?)

10. Where did you find him? (Dnde lo encontraste?)

11. Where have you been? (Dnse han estado?)

12. Where are the keys? (Dnde estn las llaves?)