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Notebook 10: Fluoroscopy History Timeline

Date Occurrence
1895 Roentgen discovered x-ray by placing hand between
tube and screen; saw his fingers move

1896 More contributors:

1. Salvioni of Italy (Cryptoscope)
2. McGie of Princeton (Sciascope)
3. Thomas Edison (Fluoroscopy)

1900 Dally (Edisons assistant) began to show lesions and

degenerative skin conditions on his hands and face. His
hair began to fall out, then his eyebrows and eyelashes,
too. Soon his face was heavily wrinkled and his left
hand was especially swollen and painful. He was a
faithful researcher, committed to science. He found
what he thought was the solution to prevent further
damage to his left hand: he began using his right hand!
At night, he slept with both hands in water to alleviate
the burning. Like many researchers at the time, Dally
assumed he would heal with rest and time away from
the tubes.

1937 Irving Langmuir patented the image intensifier

1940s (Fluoro) Technician using fluoroscopy to image a female patient

1948 J.W. Coltman improved upon the design so that the

image brightness increased 1,000 times

1950s (Fluoro) 1. A shoe-fitting device was created. Viewed from

above by salesman and the parents, while the
person trying on shoes stood on x-ray source
2. Dr. looked into screen directly in a darkened room

1953 Westinghouse Company manufactured the 1st

commercial-use image intensifier
Notebook 10: Fluoroscopy History Timeline

Cones and rods are photoreceptors of the eye. Cones are located within the
fovea centralis. Cones arent sensitive to light and can be seen up to 100lux.
Rods are found in the periphery of the retina layer. Rods are more sensitive
to light and can see about 2 lux. (Lux is the measurement of luminescence)

Photopic light is daytime vision and is what cones use. This is where color is
formed (red, green, and blue) also where small objects can be visualized
(detail), and can perceive different densities which is known as contrast

Scoptopic light is nighttime vision and is what rods use. This is where the dim
objects are viewed peripherally.

Cornea is where light passes through a transparent protective layer

The lens is disc shaped and focuses light onto the retina

The iris acts as a diaphragm of the eye to adjust the amount of light coming
to the retina
-Bright lights means the iris contracts
-Low light means the iris dilates

The image changed as the unit moved from a thicker part to a thinner part.
The thicker part was darker and the thinner part was lighter

ABS: maintains the same brightness throughout the anatomy

mA: more mA has greater brightness, mA increases on thicker parts of


kVp: increases with thicker parts, but has less detail

When the collimator is closed (tightened), we get more detail and spatial
resolution, less noise/fog, the image is dim (less brightness), less contrast
resolution because you want a more diagnostic image which has less
contrast resolution. The exact opposite happens with open collimation.