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Photoshop is unlike other common software interfaces which emulate virtual typewriters or
graphing paper. Photoshop creates an artist's virtual studio/darkroom. When you open the
program you see a toolbox on the left with tools you will use to manipulate your images, and on
the right, a white square which is your "canvas" or work area. The gray area surrounding the
canvas is not part of your image, but only defines its edges.

Photo manipulation is a process where in a person is to transform an image into

something that is even more creative and expressive, by conveying what the artist wants, rather
than settling with the original image. This is where the editor is able to create even more
powerful images with the use of a certain software; examples are Photoshop, GIMP, Paint Tool
Sai, Adobe Illustrator, and a lot more. But in order to do this, the manipulator should be skilled
enough if the person wants to reach the people.

However, a lot of people mistake Photo Manipulation and Photo Enhancement to be the
exact same things; yes, they are analogous, but they are not one and the same. Photo
Enhancement is where the make minimal changes to the image, such as the removing of
blemishes and other skin imperfections, removing red eye and other discolorations, and other
minimal touch-ups; often used for Glam Photography. Whereas in Manipulation, the editor can
make drastic changes in the image, wherein the person can either make it look disturbing,
amazing, or just unrealistically beautiful; often used for Advertising.


Photoshop was developed in 1987 by the American brothers Thomas and John Knoll, who sold
the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in 1988. Thomas Knoll, a PhD student at
the University of Michigan, began writing a program on his Macintosh Plus to display grayscale
images on a monochrome display. This program, called Display, caught the attention of his
brother John Knoll, an Industrial Light & Magic employee, who recommended that Thomas turn
it into a full-fledged image editing program. Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in
1988 to collaborate with his brother on the program. Thomas renamed the program ImagePro,
but the name was already taken. Later that year, Thomas renamed his program Photoshop and

worked out a short-term deal with scanner manufacturer Barneyscan to distribute copies of the
program with a slide scanner; a "total of about 200 copies of Photoshop were shipped" this way.

During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program
to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful,
and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September 1988. While John worked
on plug-ins in California, Thomas remained in Ann Arbor writing code. Photoshop 1.0 was
released on 19 February 1990 for Macintosh exclusively. The Barneyscan version included
advanced color editing features that were stripped from the first Adobe shipped version. The
handling of color slowly improved with each release from Adobe and Photoshop quickly became
the industry standard in digital color editing. At the time Photoshop 1.0 was released, digital
retouching on dedicated high end systems, such as the Scitex, cost around $300 an hour for basic
photo retouching.



The one of the advantages of photo manipulation are it can boost the subjects self-esteem,
positive feedbacks, comments, and a lot more factors can help the subjects build up confidence
for oneself, and gain self-satisfaction. Since the image is manipulated, the chances of it having
great impact and being influential is very significant. The editor can add dimension to the image
by making the image ever more potent than it actually is.

Another thing is its inexpensive. The subject can choose freely and customize the image
until the desired look is acquired. Its accessible, cheaper, and for everyone. Photo manipulation
experts use such capabilities to improve marketing strategies and conduct intensive trainings to
individuals who wish to create impressive illustrations for personal or career purposes. Even
economic giants and institutions, big or small, put great importance to a digital artists ability to
manipulate photos to render the desired message to potential or target audiences.

However, there are a number of disadvantages in which editors, or people who love to
edit should also consider. First is that the subject may rely too much on photo editing programs
or applications, and make the others incapable of posting images that havent been digitally
manipulated yet. Then, by using photoshop software it takes time and patience with yourself in
order to learn how to use each one correctly. Photoshop also takes up a large amount of room on
your computer but if you willing, you can buy at local media or electronic store.


In order to create the eye catching graphic for header, here are some step that we need to follow
by using Adobe Photoshop Application. For this project, we will need at least two or three
picture of our choosing. It can be art, a photo, whatever we would like. Keep in mind that text
will be going over the image. We use three pictures in our project to be used as background
header, and another two product images. Most of these tools in Photoshop Application that
always will be used later, such as the embedding, the copy/paste method and also render in lens
flare for images.

The step in designing a header stated as below:

1. Make a First Layer

Firstly, select New in order to customize the width, height and resolution of the layer. Then
the blank layer will pop out like image shown above.

2. Create the Background Image

After the first layer created, select Open to add the image as background of the header. The
second layer will automatically produced. Select the Rectangular Marquee Tool at Tools
Panel for cropping the part of the image that we want to make as the background.

Select Copy to copy the image in second layer and paste it the first layer by selecting
Paste. Image above shown the background produced that we will be used for our header.
3. Inserting the Images (Product)

Select Open to add the image. When Photoshop started, the Tools Panel appears at the left of
the screen. Some tools in the Tools panel have options that appear in the context-sensitive
options bar. By using Lasso (L) Tool in Panel Tool, we can freely crop the part of the image.
The cropped image is then being copy and paste in the first layer. In Photoshop, we can adjust
the size content of the selected cropped image by pressing Shift + T key without affecting the
rest of the image. Pressing the Shift key while resizing the image can keep the perfect shape,
and making it smaller or bigger.

4. Inserting the Text

From the Tool Panel, select the Horizontal Type (T) to create a single line of text, click in the
image to set an insertion point for the type. The small line through the I-beam marks the position
of the type baseline. For horizontal type, the baseline marks the line on which the type rests; for
vertical type, the baseline marks the center axis of the type characters.

Then, select type options, such as font, style, size, and color, in the tool options bar. Other
than that, type the characters you want. If you did not create a textbox, press Enter to create a
new line. The text appears in its own layer. To view the layers, in the Expert mode, press F11.
For this project, we added the text of the header at upper centered side. The font used is Verdana
with bold and 30pt.

5. Filter the Image

With our image open in Photoshop, the first thing we need to do is add a lens flare the way we
normally would if we were applying it directly to the image. Even though we're going to be
undoing the effect, this gives us a chance to position the lens flare exactly where we want it. To
add a lens flare, go up to the Filter menu at the top of the screen, choose Render, and then
choose Lens Flare. The Lens Flare filter simulates the light refraction caused by shining a
bright light into a camera lens. We can set the flare brightness, flare location, and flare shape (the
lens type).

This opens the Lens Flare dialog box. Photoshop's Lens Flare filter adds a simulated lens
flare effect to the image, and we can choose from one of four different types of lenses (50-300
mm Zoom, 35mm Prime, 105mm Prime, and Movie Prime) in the Lens Type section at the
bottom of the dialog box. Each one will give us a different type of flare. Select each one to view
the effect in the preview area in the top half of the dialog box. So, for this image we will be stick
with the default 50-300mm Zoom lens. We can also adjust the brightness of the lens flare by
dragging the Brightness slider left or right, but again, I'll stick with the default 100%. To position
the lens flare where we want it, simply click inside the preview area. The spot that we click on
becomes the center of the flare.

6. Saving the file

After done editing, ensure that the image had been saved. To ensure that all the image data is
preserved, save regular images in Photoshop (PSD) format for the first Save As. Multiple-page
creations are always saved in Photo Creations (PSE) format. These formats dont compress our
image data. The disadvantage of saving in PSD format is that the file size increases significantly
because the file is not compressed.

For the second Save As, save the image in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)
format. JPEG format is mainly retains all color information in an image but compresses file size
by selectively discarding data. We can also choose the level of compression. Higher compression
results in lower image quality and a smaller file size; lower compression results in better image
quality and a larger file size. JPEG is a standard format for displaying images over the web.

Below are the header product created by our group:




Finally, Adobe Photoshop elements remains one of the best easy-to-use image editing
applications for PCs and Macs. It is very easy application to handle when we already get used it.
Other than using in editing the digital image application, it also helps you improve the quality of
a photograph, assistant with the artists who rely on Photoshop to make the artwork and the
students can learn Photoshop in Image Editing classes. When you learn how to use Photoshop, it
can improve your skills. It is possible to clear up the blemishes and the imperfections in the
photos and you can remove and change the backgrounds in the photos. The images can be altered
to fix the faults. The photographs can be given a professional look when a standard camera is
used. New artwork images can be created and edited.


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