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DETUNED FILTER

Calculationtochoosecapacitorunitssuitablefordetunedfilterin3steps
24KV
Example
Systemvoltageis400voltsandreactivepower
ofcapacitorunitis50kVAR400Vforeachstep.
Transformer

400V Un

Capacitors
Harmonic

Step1:inducedvoltagecalculation
WeassignUn,U1andptobesystemvoltage,thevoltageacrossthecapacitorafterdetunedreactor
installationandratiobetweenimpedanceofreactorandimpedanceofcapacitorrespectively.
Whenthecurrentispassingthroughreactor,
U1=Us/(1%p)
When (Us)iselectricsystem
(p)is%ofreactor

Andreactivepower Q1=Nc/(1%p)
When (Nc)isreactivepowerofcapacitorofsystem

24KV

Transformer

400V Un Ifyoubring6%reactorconnectedtocapacitorinseriesand
requirereactivepowerofeachstepequalto50kVARat400V,
Reactor 6% youcancalculateU1andQ1asfollows:
Voltageacrossthecapacitor(U1)=Un/(1p)
Harmonic U1=400/(10.06)=426V;whenp=6%or0.06
source Capacitors
400V50Kvar/Step Reactivepowerofcapacitor(Q1)=Nc/(1%p)
Q1=50/(10.06)=53Kvar
DETUNED FILTER

Step2:Harmoniccurrentflowingtocapacitorcalculation
Thevoltageacrossthecapacitor(U2)isoccurredfromharmoniccurrentflowingtocapacitor
inthefollowingIECstandard.Wewillfindimpedanceofcapacitor(Xc)afterreactorinstallationand
impedanceofreactor(XL)ateachfrequencyofeachharmonicorder.Referringtoelectricaltheory,
Xc=1/2fCandXL=2fLwhichCiscapacitanceofcapacitorinFaradandLisinductanceofreactorin
Henry.Thus,totalimpedanceofdetunedfilterofeachstepis|XLXc|.

Letsstarttocalculateimpedanceofcapacitor(Xc)andreactor(XL)forharmoniccurrentcalculation.
Xc=U12/Q2 Xc =4262/(53*1000)
=3.42Ohms
Reactor

usedetunedreactor6% XL =3.42*0.06
Capacitors =0.205Ohms

AfterweknowvalueofXcandXL,wehavetocalculateimpedanceofcapacitor(Xc)andreactor
(XL)oneachfrequencyofeachharmonicorder.YoucanfindanotherwaytocalculateXcandXLoneach
frequencyifyouknowthatfrequencyofharmonicorder5this250Hzor5x50Hz.Itmeansfrequencyof
harmonicorder5thismorethanfundamentalfrequency50Hzabout5times.Ifwehavealookinformula:
Xc=1/2fCandXL=2fLwhichfisfrequencyofeachharmonicorder,wewillfindthatiffrequencyis
higherthan5times,Xcwillreduce5timesandXLwillincrease5times.
Astheabovementionedreason,wecancalculateimpedanceofcapacitor(Xc)andreactor(XL)
oneachfrequencyofeachharmonicorderasbelow:

Harmonicorder1stf=50Hzfundamentalfrequency50Hz Xc1=3.420;XL1=0.205
Harmonicorder3rdf=150Hzincrease3timescomparedwith50Hz Xc3=1.140;XL3=0.615
Harmonicorder5thf=250Hzincrease5timescomparedwith50Hz Xc5=0.684;XL5=1.025
Harmonicorder7thf=350Hzincrease7timescomparedwith50Hz Xc7=0.488;XL7=1.435

Asourharmoniclimitlevelindicatedinabove,U1=6%,U3=0.5%,U5=5%andU7=5%Wewillkeepthis
valuestofindoutharmoniccurrentoneachorderinlater.
Harmoniccurrentatorderh Ih=Uh/(1.732*|XLhXch|)
whenUhisharmonicvoltage
Harmonicorder1st:U1=6%(6%offundamental)
I1 =1.06*Ic=1.06*72.1=76.5A
Harmonicorder3rd:U3=0.5%
I3 =0.005*400/(1.732*|1.140.615|)=2.2A
Harmonicorder5th:U5=5%
I5 =0.05*400/(1.732*|0.6841.025|)=33.76A
Harmonicorder7th:U7=5%
I7 =0.05*400/(1.732*|0.4881.435|)=12.18A
DETUNED FILTER

Irmsoftotalharmonic(Is) =I12+I32+I52+I72

=76.52+2.22+33.762+12.1832 =84.53A
Thus,maximumcurrentflowingtocapacitorunitis84.53A.and6%reactor,whichisinstalledwith
capacitor,shallbedesignedtowithstandmaximumcurrentabout1.05xIrms.
=1.05*84.53A =88.75A

Step3:Maximumvoltageacrosscapacitorcalculation
Nowweknowthatimpedanceof6%detunedreactoris0.205ohmsandinductancevalueis
0.653mH(XL=2fL).Moreover,itwillwithstandthecurrentabout88.75Aatleast.Forcapacitorunit,
itwillwithstandmax.currentabout84.53A.Inthenextstep,wewillchoosevoltagelevelsuitablefor
6%detunedfilter.Atfirst,wewillconcernthevoltageacrossthecapacitorunitbecauseimpedanceof
capacitor50kVAR400Vis3.2ohmsbutafterreactorinstallation,thevoltageacrosscapacitorandreactive
powerbecome426Vand53kVARrespectively.Therefore,impedanceofcapacitorwillbe3.42ohms.
Xc =V2/Q
=4262/(53*1000) =3.42Ohm

Sinceweknowvalueofharmoniccurrentofeachorderinstep2,wewilltakethosevaluesto
findoutharmonicvoltageacrosscapacitorofeachorder.Harmonicvoltageacrosscapacitorofeach
orderisequaltoharmoniccurrentofeachordermultipliedbyimpedanceofcapacitorofeachorder.
Thus,theharmonicvoltageorderh Uh=1.732*Ih*Xc/h
(Xcreducehtimeswhenfrequencyincreasehtimescomparedwithfundamentalfrequency50Hz)
Harmonicorder1st:U1=6% I1=76.5A U1=1.732*76.5*3.42 =453.2V
Harmonicorder3rd:U3=0.5% I3=2.2A U3=1.732*2.2*3.42/3 =4.35V
Harmonicorder5th:U5=5% I5=33.76A U5=1.732*33.76*3.42/5 =40.0V
Harmonicorder7th:U7=5% I7=12.18A U7=1.732*12.18*3.42/7 =10.3V

Themaximumvoltageacrosscapacitorisequalto453.2+4.35+40+10.3=508V
(systemvoltageplusinducedvoltagebyreactorandharmonicvoltageoccurredfromharmoniccurrentflowingtocapa
Weshouldchoosevoltageofcapacitormorethan508volts.InThailandmarket,thereare
powercapacitorforvoltagelevel525V.Ifwechoosethisvoltagelevelofcapacitor,wehavetobring
thisvoltageleveltofindoutreactivepower.Aselectricalformula
Q2=Q1x(V22/V12) =53x(5252/4262)=80.5Kvar
Summary
Asthementionedabove,ifyouusecapacitorunit50kVARforeachstepat400V,youwilluse
6%reactorthatimpedanceofreactor0.205ohmsor0.653mHandwithstandmax.currentabout88.75A.
Forcapacitorunitfordetunedfilter,itsvoltagelevelshallbemorethan508voltsanditsreactivepower
isnear80.5kVAR.(Pleasebeawareofreactivepowervalueofcapacitorunit.Becausethereactivepower
ismuchmoreorlessthanthecalculatedone,itcausesreactorwillberecalculatedandchanged.
Donotforget,impedanceofreactoris6%ofimpedanceofcapacitorunit