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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview of the study

Today, wherein technology is going to a period where innovations, experiments and


implementations are advancing to a higher level each of everyday. Engineers who are one of
the main contributor of this growing technology make projects that will help the world and to
make life easy. Eco-friendly innovations are the best target, things that have big importance
to the society and to life of the people but also green as possible. At this point of time,
engineers play an important role to the whole wide world on how they make advanced
technology more favorable and useful to the people and at the same time harmless to the
environment.

One of the best contribution is the implementation of regenerative shock absorber. It


could be a source of energy where vibration produce on the vehicle was converted into
electrical energy. When used in an electric vehicle or hybrid electric vehicle the electricity
generated by the shock absorber can be diverted to its powertrain to increase battery life.
Shock absorbers are built to absorb bumps, and height fluctuations in the road, to smooth out
the ride. These road fluctuations cause a natural up-down motion at the wheels. The motion,
loosely speaking, is vertical, and the shock absorbers smooth out the ride. They typically use
a two cylinder of different diameter with the smaller one inside a larger cylinder, and
sometimes a spring. The motion is a bit like a piston motion, except it is not rhythmic.
Capturing that vertical energy to produce electricity. It is very possible that shock absorbers
generates electricity through the concept of linear generators. [1]

Using regenerative shock absorbers on electric vehicles will be a big factor on saving
more power. It will help on charging the battery for a long battery life enable the vehicle to
travel on long distances. There are many loads on an electric vehicle that consumes power
which making the battery less efficient. These losses on the suspension system will help to
acquire more energy to supply the entire vehicle system. When a vehicle travels on rough
road, vibrations are produced. These vibrations have not been yet considered for energy
recovery and are wasted through conversion into thermal energy. Experiments have shown
that at 90 km/h on good and average roads, 100-400 watts average power is available to
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recover in the suspension system of a middle-size vehicle. Middle-size passenger vehicle
requires 180 watt power to operate continuous loads like ignition, fuel injection and 260 watt
power to operate prolonged loads like side & tail lights, head light main lamp etc. Total
power requirement of vehicle to operate its electrical components sum out to be 180 to 440
watts. If all the available vibration energy is recovered, it is possible to use regenerative
shock absorber to charge the battery of vehicle, instead of alternator. Thus alternator load on
vehicle engine can be decreased or removed completely. If say 3% of fuel efficiency of
vehicle is improved by this energy recovery scheme, by considering number of vehicles in
world, huge amount of fuel can be saved. Thus energy recovery from suspension system is
necessary to reduces fuel consumption. [2]

This technology can be a source of more efficient electric vehicles. Instead the
vibration energy on automobiles considered as loss on the suspension system, regenerative
shock absorbers will convert it into electrical energy to attain long battery life, to travel long
distances and to acquire less power shortage on the electric vehicle.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Automobiles have many different types of losses present during travel. Suspension
system losses is one of the factor that should be considered. In this study, which is related to
the suspension system loss where vibration energy was wasted in the system which we can
use it for generating electrical energy.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

To design, simulate, implement and evaluate a regenerative shock absorber


To generate output from the consumption of vibration energy wasted in the electric
vehicle suspension system
To utilize the suspension system loss of the electric vehicle
To calculate the efficiency of the existing e-trike with regenerative shock absorber

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1.4 Significance of the Study

The general purpose of this study will supplement the battery charging needs
supplying power the electrical system of the electric vehicle. Considered as a renewable
energy, it will help the solar charging to gain more power for charging the battery. With this,
the operation of the solar light vehicle will not be disturbed due to bad weather condition
where the solar panels could not harvest light energy for charging. Moreover, these shock
absorbers are not only for generating power but also to lessen the vibration of the vehicle to
gain more comfortable ride.

1.5 Scope and Limitation

The scope of the design and implementation of this study shall be proportional to the
solar light electric vehicle available at Mindanao University of Science and Technology. It
shall not be the main source of power to charge the system battery, thus it shall only be
supplemental. Also, this study focuses on the assembly and process of power generation
using shock absorbers. Lastly, this study is experimental and its prototype shall be operated in
small scale located within the campus premises.

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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction
The vehicle manufacturers have made costly strides to improve fuel economy.
Manufacturers use lighter material to reduce the weight of vehicle and ultimately to reduce
fuel consumption. Green manufacturing, also called environmentally conscious
manufacturing, is one of the most popular topics nowadays. The future of green
manufacturing technology is foreseeable, especially on vehicle industry.
In the past decade, regenerative braking systems have become increasingly popular,
recovering energy that would otherwise be lost through braking. However, another energy
recovery mechanism that is still in the research stages is regenerative suspension systems. In
this technology, when a vehicle travels on rough road, vibrations are captured or recovered
for generation of power. This chapter provides an overview of research done so far in the
field of regenerative shock absorbers.

2.2 Renewable energy

Generally defined as energy that is collected from resources which are naturally
replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal
heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation,
air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[3]

Based on REN21's 2016 report, renewables contributed 19.2% to humans' global


energy consumption and 23.7% to their generation of electricity in 2014 and 2015,
respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 8.9% coming from traditional biomass,
4.2% as heat energy (modern biomass, geothermal and solar heat), 3.9% hydro electricity and
2.2% is electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. Worldwide investments in
renewable technologies amounted to more than US$286 billion in 2015, with countries
like China and the United States heavily investing in wind, hydro, solar and
biofuels. Globally, there are an estimated 7.7 million jobs associated with the renewable
energy industries, with solar photovoltaics being the largest renewable employer.[4]

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Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist
over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a
limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency,
and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy
security and economic benefits. It would also reduce environmental pollution such as air
pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels and improve public health, reduce premature
mortalities due to pollution and save associated health costs that amount to several hundred
billion dollars annually only in the United States. Renewable energy sources, that derive their
energy from the sun, either directly or indirectly, such as hydro and wind, are expected to be
capable of supplying humanity energy for almost another 1 billion years, at which point the
predicted increase in heat from the sun is expected to make the surface of the earth too hot for
liquid water to exist. [4]

Climate change and global warming concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil,
and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation,
incentives and commercialization. New government spending, regulation and policies helped
the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors. According to a
2011 projection by the International Energy Agency, solar power generators may produce
most of the world's electricity within 50 years, reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases
that harm the environment.[4]

Renewable energy often displaces conventional fuels in four areas: electricity


generation, hot water/space heating, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services:

2.2.1 Power generation


Renewable hydroelectric energy provides 16.3% of the worlds electricity. When
hydroelectric is combined with other renewables such as wind, geothermal, solar,
biomass and waste: together they make the "renewables" total, 21.7% of electricity
generation worldwide as of 2013. Renewable power generators are spread across
many countries, and wind power alone already provides a significant share of
electricity in some areas: for example, 14% in the U.S. state of Iowa, 40% in the
northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, and 49% in Denmark. Some countries
get most of their power from renewables, including Iceland (100%), Norway (98%),
Brazil (86%), Austria (62%), New Zealand (65%), and Sweden (54%).

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2.2.2 Heating
Solar water heating makes an important contribution to renewable heat in many
countries, most notably in China, which now has 70% of the global total (180 GWth).
Most of these systems are installed on multi-family apartment buildings and meet a
portion of the hot water needs of an estimated 5060 million households in China.
Worldwide, total installed solar water heating systems meet a portion of the water
heating needs of over 70 million households. The use of biomass for heating
continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed
that of oil. Direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly. The newest addition
to Heating is from Geothermal Heat Pumps which provide both heating and cooling,
and also flatten the electric demand curve and are thus an increasing national priority.

2.2.3 Transportation
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced
in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, or sweet sorghum. Cellulosic
biomass, derived from non-food sources such as trees and grasses is also being
developed as afeedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for
vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additiveto increase octane
and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and
in Brazil. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually
used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide,
andhydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or
fats using transesterification and is the most commonbiofuel in Europe.
A solar vehicle is an electric vehicle powered completely or significantly by
direct solar energy. Usually, photovoltaic (PV) cells contained in solar panels convert
the sun's energy directly into electric energy. The term "solar vehicle" usually implies
that solar energy is used to power all or part of a vehicle's propulsion. Solar
power may be also used to provide power for communications or controls or other
auxiliary functions. Solar powered boats have mainly been limited to rivers and
canals, but in 2007 an experimental 14m catamaran, the Sun21 sailed the Atlantic
from Seville to Miami, and from there to New York. It was the first crossing of the
Atlantic powered only by solar. Solar vehicles are not sold as practical day-to-day
transportation devices at present, but are primarily demonstration vehicles and

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engineering exercises, often sponsored by government agencies. However, indirectly
solar-charged vehicles are widespread and solar boats are available commercially.

2.3 Transportation Vehicles


2.3.1 Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles
A heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually
air) in acombustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-
pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the
engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This
force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into
useful mechanical energy. [5]
The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which
combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-strokeand two-stroke piston
engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel
rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous
combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are
internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. Firearms
are also a form of internal combustion engine. [5]
2.3.2 Hybrid Vehicles
A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal
combustion engine+electric motor.[6]
2.3.3 Electric Vehicles

Uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric
vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle
sources, or may be self-contained with a battery or generator to convert fuel to
electricity. EVs include road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric
aircraft and electric spacecraft.

EVs first came into existence in the mid-19th century, when electricity was
among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of
comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the
time. The internal combustion engine (ICE) has been the dominant propulsion method
for motor vehicles for almost 100 years, but electric power has remained

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commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types.
[7]

2.4 Vehicle suspension

In a vehicle, shock absorbers reduce the effect of traveling over rough ground, leading
to improved ride quality and vehicle handling. While shock absorbers serve the purpose of
limiting excessive suspension movement, their intended sole purpose is to damp spring
oscillations. Shock absorbers use valving of oil and gasses to absorb excess energy from the
springs. Spring rates are chosen by the manufacturer based on the weight of the vehicle,
loaded and unloaded. Some people use shocks to modify spring rates but this is not the
correct use. Along with hysteresis in the tire itself, they damp the energy stored in the motion
of the unsprung weight up and down. Effective wheel bounce damping may require tuning
shocks to an optimal resistance.[8]

Spring-based shock absorbers commonly use coil springs or leaf springs,


though torsion bars are used in torsional shocks as well. Ideal springs alone, however, are not
shock absorbers, as springs only store and do not dissipate or absorb energy. Vehicles
typically employ both hydraulic shock absorbers and springs or torsion bars. In this
combination, "shock absorber" refers specifically to the hydraulic piston that absorbs and
dissipates vibration.[9]

2.5 Regenerative shock absorbers

A type of shock absorber that converts parasitic intermittent linear


motion and vibration into useful energy, such as electricity. Conventional shock absorbers
simply dissipate this energy as heat.[10]

2.5.1 Shock Absorbers

A shock absorber is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb


and damp shock impulses. It does this by converting the kinetic energy of the shock into
another form of energy (typically heat) which is then dissipated. Most shock absorbers are a
form of dashpot.[11]

In their simplest form, shock absorbers are hydraulic (oil) pump like devices that help
to control the impact and rebound movement of your vehicle's springs and suspension. Along

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with smoothening out bumps and vibrations, the key role of the shock absorber is to ensure
that the vehicles tyres remain in contact with the road surface at all times, which ensures the
safest control and braking response from your car. [11]

Pneumatic and hydraulic shock absorbers are used in conjunction with cushions and
springs. An automobile shock absorber contains spring-loaded check valves and orifices to
control the flow of oil through an internal piston. [11]

One design consideration, when designing or choosing a shock absorber, is where that
energy will go. In most shock absorbers, energy is converted to heat inside the viscous fluid.
In hydraulic cylinders, the hydraulic fluid heats up, while in air cylinders, the hot air is
usually exhausted to the atmosphere. In other types of shock absorbers, such as
electromagnetic types, the dissipated energy can be stored and used later. In general terms,
shock absorbers help cushion vehicles on uneven roads. [11]

2.5.1.1 Twin-tube

2.5.1.1.1 Basic twin-tube

Also known as a "two-tube" shock absorber, this device consists of two nested
cylindrical tubes, an inner tube that is called the "working tube" or the "pressure tube", and an
outer tube called the "reserve tube". At the bottom of the device on the inside is a
compression valve or base valve. When the piston is forced up or down by bumps in the road,
hydraulic fluid moves between different chambers via small holes or "orifices" in the piston
and via the valve, converting the "shock" energy into heat which must then be dissipated. [12]

2.5.1.1.2 Twin-tube gas charged

Variously known as a "gas cell two-tube" or similarly-named design, this variation


represented a significant advancement over the basic twin-tube form. Its overall structure is
very similar to the twin-tube, but a low-pressure charge of nitrogen gas is added to the reserve
tube. The result of this alteration is a dramatic reduction in "foaming" or "aeration", the
undesirable outcome of a twin-tube overheating and failing which presents as foaming
hydraulic fluid dripping out of the assembly. Twin-tube gas charged shock absorbers
represent the vast majority of original modern vehicle suspensions installations. [13]

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2.5.1.1.3 Position sensitive damping

Often abbreviated simply as "PSD", this design is another evolution of the twin-tube
shock. In a PSD shock absorber, which still consists of two nested tubes and still contains
nitrogen gas, a set of grooves has been added to the pressure tube. These grooves allow the
piston to move relatively freely in the middle range of travel (i.e., the most common street or
highway use, called by engineers the "comfort zone") and to move with significantly less
freedom in response to shifts to more irregular surfaces when upward and downward
movement of the piston starts to occur with greater intensity (i.e., on bumpy sections of roads
the stiffening gives the driver greater control of movement over the vehicle so its range on
either side of the comfort zone is called the "control zone"). This advance allowed car
designers to make a shock absorber tailored to specific makes and models of vehicles and to
take into account a given vehicle's size and weight, its maneuverability, its horsepower, etc. in
creating a correspondingly effective shock. [14]

2.5.1.1.4 Acceleration sensitive damping

The next phase in shock absorber evolution was the development of a shock absorber
that could sense and respond to not just situational changes from "bumpy" to "smooth" but to
individual bumps in the road in a near instantaneous reaction. This was achieved through a
change in the design of the compression valve, and has been termed "acceleration sensitive
damping" or "ASD". Not only does this result in a complete disappearance of the "comfort
vs. control" tradeoff, it also reduced pitch during vehicle braking and roll during turns.
However, ASD shocks are usually only available as aftermarket changes to a vehicle and are
only available from a limited number of manufacturers. [15]

2.5.1.1.5 Coilover

Coilover shock absorbers are usually a kind of twin-tube gas charged shock absorber
around which has been mounted a large metal coil. Though common on motorcycle and
scooter rear suspensions, coilover shocks are uncommon in original equipment designs for
vehicles, though they have become widely available as aftermarket add-ons. Coilover shocks
for cars have been considered specialty items for high performance and racing applications
where they allow for significant reductions in overall vehicle height, and though high-quality
aftermarket options with wide sturdy springs may provide improvements in vehicle

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performance, there is dispute over whether or not most aftermarket coilover shocks confer
any material benefits to most drivers and may in fact reduce performance over original
equipment installations. [16]

2.5.1.2 Mono-tube

The principal design alternative to the twin-tube form has been the mono-tube shock
absorber which was considered a revolutionary advancement when it appeared in the 1950s.
As its name implies, the mono-tube shock, which is also a gas-pressurized shock and also
comes in a coilover format, consists of only one tube, the pressure tube, though it has two
pistons. These pistons are called the working piston and the dividing or floating piston, and
they move in relative synchrony inside the pressure tube in response to changes in road
smoothness. The two pistons also completely separate the shock's fluid and gas components.
The mono-tube shock absorber is consistently a much longer overall design than the twin-
tubes, making it difficult to mount in passenger cars designed for twin-tube shocks. However,
unlike the twin-tubes, the mono-tube shock can be mounted either way it does not have any
directionality. It also does not have a compression valve, whose role has been taken up by the
dividing piston, and although it contains nitrogen gas, the gas in a mono-tube shock is
under high pressure (260-360 p.s.i. or so) which can actually help it to support some of the
vehicle's weight, something which no other shock absorber is designed to do. [17]

Figure 1. Diagram of the main components of a twin-tube and mono-tube shock


absorber

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2.5.2 Spring

A spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical energy. Springs are usually
made out of spring steel. There are a large number of spring designs; in everyday usage the
term often refers to coil springs. [18]

Small springs can be wound from pre-hardened stock, while larger ones are made
from annealed steel and hardened after fabrication. Somenon-ferrous metals are also used
including phosphor bronze and titanium for parts requiring corrosion resistance and beryllium
copper for springs carrying electrical current (because of its low electrical resistance). [18]

When a coil spring is compressed or stretched slightly from rest, the force it exerts is
approximately proportional to its change in length (this approximation breaks down for larger
deflections). The rate or spring constant of a spring is the change in the force it exerts,
divided by the change in deflection of the spring. Depending on the design and required
operating environment, any material can be used to construct a spring, so long as the material
has the required combination of rigidity and elasticity. [18]

2.5.2.1 Classification of springs

2.5.2.1.1 Tension/extension spring

The spring is designed to operate with a tension load, so the spring stretches as the
load is applied to it.

Extension springs, also known as a tension spring, are helically wound coils, wrapped
tightly together to create tension. Extension springs usually have hooks, loops, or end coils
that are pulled out and formed from each end of the body. The function of an extension spring
is to provide extended force when the spring is pulled apart from its original length. [19]

2.5.2.1.2 Compression spring

Is designed to operate with a compression load, so the spring gets shorter as the load
is applied to it.

Compression springs are open-coil helical springs wound or constructed to oppose


compression along the axis of wind. Helical Compression Springs are the most common

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metal spring configuration. Generally, these coil springs are either placed over a rod or fitted
inside a hole. When you put a load on a compression coil spring, making it shorter, it pushes
back against the load and tries to get back to its original length. Compression springs offer
resistance to linear compressing forces (push), and are in fact one of the most efficient energy
storage devices available. [20]

2.5.2.1.3 Torsion spring

Unlike the above types in which the load is an axial force, the load applied to a torsion
spring is a torque or twisting force, and the end of the spring rotates through an angle as the
load is applied. [21]

A torsion spring is a spring that works by torsion or twisting; that is, a


flexible elastic object that stores mechanical energy when it is twisted. When it is twisted, it
exerts a force (actually torque) in the opposite direction, proportional to the amount (angle) it
is twisted. [21]

2.5.2.1.4 Constant spring

Supported load will remain the same throughout deflection cycle. [22]

2.5.2.1.5 Variable spring

Resistance of the coil to load varies during compression [22]


2.5.2.1.6 Coil spring or helical spring

A spring (made by winding a wire around a cylinder) and the conical spring. These
are in turn of two types:

Compression springs

Are designed to become shorter when loaded. Their turns (loops) are not touching in
the unloaded position, and they need no attachment points. [23]

volute spring

Is a compression spring in the form of a cone, designed so that under compression the
coils are not forced against each other, thus permitting longer travel. [23]

Tension or extension springs

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Are designed to become longer under load. Their turns (loops) are normally touching
in the unloaded position, and they have a hook, eye or some other means of attachment at
each end. [24]

Figure 2. Mechanical spring

Figure 3. application of loads on a spring

2.5.2.2 Hooke's law

As long as they are not stretched or compressed beyond their elastic limit, most
springs obey Hooke's law, which states that the force with which the spring pushes back is
linearly proportional to the distance from its equilibrium length:

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F= -kx,
Where,
x is the displacement vector the distance and direction the spring is deformed from
its equilibrium length.
F is the resulting force vector the magnitude and direction of the restoring force the
spring exerts
k is the rate, spring constant or force constant of the spring, a constant that depends
on the spring's material and construction. The negative sign indicates that the force the
spring exerts is in the opposite direction from its displacement [25]

2.5.2.3 Types of Suspension Springs

2.5.2.3.1 Leaf Springs

Semi elliptic leaf springs are almost used in commercial vehicles. It is also used in
cars for rear suspension. The spring consist of a number of leaves called blades. The blades
vary in length and connected together as shown in the figure. These springs based on the
theory of beam of uniform strength.
This spring is mounted on the axle by the U bolt and the one end of spring is mounted
on the frame and other is connected with a shackle which allow to change in length between
eye of spring when the vehicle come across projection of road and upward movement of
wheel.
When there is wide range of loading on vehicle helper spring is also provided with the
leaf spring which increase the weight loading capacity of vehicle. These springs are made by
the Chrome-Vanadium Steel, Silico-Manganese Steel or Carbon Steel as per requirement.
These spring are noisey and does not used where luxuriousness is necessary [26]

2.5.2.3.2 Helical or Coil Spring

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The helical spring used is suspension system is same as we see. It is mainly used in
the independent suspension. It is also used in the conventional rigid axle suspension as they
can be well accommodated in restricted spaces. The energy stored per unit volume is almost
double in the case of coil spring than the leaf springs.
These spring do not have noise problems but they does not take torque reaction and
side thrust for which alternative arrangement have to be provided. [26]

2.5.2.3.3 Torsion Bar


It is simply a rod which acting under the torsion and taking shear stresses. It is often
used with independent suspension. One end of the bar is fixed to the frame and the other end
is fixed to the end of the wheel arm and supported in the bearing. The other end of the wheel
arm is connected to the wheel hub. When the wheel strikes a bump it start vibrating up and
down, thus torque on the torsion bar which acts as a springs. [26]

.2.5.2.3.4 Rubber Springs


The rubber springs are also used in suspension because it store greater energy per unit
weight than the steel. So it is more compact than other springs. It has also excellent vibration
damping property. One more advantage of using rubber is that it is not suddenly fail like steel
so there is less risk. [26]

2.5.3 Linear generator

In the simplest form of linear electric generator, a sliding magnet moves back and
forth through a solenoid - a spool of copper wire. An alternating current is induced in the
loops of wire by Faraday's law of induction each time the magnet slides through. This type of
generator is used in the Faraday flashlight. Larger linear electricity generators are used in
wave power schemes. [27]

2.6 Electromagnetism

A type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The
electromagnetic force usually exhibits electromagnetic fields, such as electric fields, magnetic
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fields, and light. The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental
interactions (commonly called forces) innature. The other three fundamental interactions are
the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation. [28]

There are numerous mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field.


In classical electrodynamics, electric fields are described as electric potential and electric
current. In Faraday's law, magnetic fields are associated with electromagnetic induction and
magnetism, and Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated
and altered by each other and by charges and currents. [28]

The theoretical implications of electromagnetism, in particular the establishment of


the speed of light based on properties of the "medium" of propagation
(permeability and permittivity), led to the development of special relativity by Albert
Einstein in 1905. [28]

2.6.1 Electromagnetic Coil

Is an electrical conductor such as a wire in the shape of a coil, spiral or helix.


Electromagnetic coils are used in electrical engineering, in applications where electric
currents interact with magnetic fields, in devices such as inductors, electromagnets,
transformers, and sensor coils. Either an electric current is passed through the wire of the coil
to generate a magnetic field, or conversely an external time-varying magnetic field through
the interior of the coil generates an EMF (voltage) in the conductor. [29]

A current through any conductor creates a circular magnetic field around the
conductor due to Ampere's law. The advantage of using the coil shape is that it increases the
strength of magnetic field produced by a given current. The magnetic fields generated by the
separate turns of wire all pass through the center of the coil and add (superpose) to produce a
strong field there. The more turns of wire, the stronger the field produced. Conversely,
a changing external magnetic flux induces a voltage in a conductor such as a wire, due

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to Faraday's law of induction. The induced voltage can be increased by winding the wire into
a coil, because the field lines intersect the circuit multiple times. [29]

2.6.1.1 Winding and taps

The wire or conductor which constitutes the coil is called the winding. The hole in the
center of the coil is called the core area or magnetic axis. Each loop of wire is called a turn. In
windings in which the turns touch, the wire must be insulated with a coating of
nonconductiveinsulation such as plastic or enamel to prevent the current from passing
between the wire turns. The winding is often wrapped around a coil form made of plastic or
other material to hold it in place. The ends of the wire are brought out and attached to an
external circuit. Windings may have additional electrical connections along their length; these
are called taps. A winding which has a single tap in the center of its length is called center-
tapped. [30]

Coils can have more than one winding, insulated electrically from each other. When
there are two or more windings around a common magnetic axis, the windings are said to
be inductively coupled or magnetically coupled. A time-varying current through one winding
will create a time-varying magnetic field which passes through the other winding, which will
induce a time-varying voltage in the other windings. This is called a transformer. [30]

2.6.1.2 Magnetic core

Many electromagnetic coils have a magnetic core, a piece of ferromagnetic material


like iron in the center to increase the magnetic field. The current through the coil magnetizes
the iron, and the field of the magnetized material adds to the field produced by the wire. This
is called a ferromagnetic-core or iron-core coil. A ferromagnetic core can increase the
magnetic field of a coil by hundreds or thousands of times over what it would be without the
core. A ferrite core coil is a variety of coil with a core made offerrite, a ferrimagnetic ceramic
compound. Ferrite coils have lower losses at high frequencies. [31]

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A coil without a ferromagnetic core is called an air-core coil. This includes coils
wound on plastic or other nonmagnetic forms, as well as coils which actually have empty air
space inside their windings. [31]

2.6.2 Magnets

A material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible
but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on
other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets. [32]

2.6.2.1 Temporary Magnets

Temporary magnets are those which act like a permanent magnet when they are
within a strong magnetic field, but lose their magnetism when the magnetic field disappears.
Examples would be paperclips and nails and other soft iron items. A temporary magnet is a
magnet that stays magnetized only for a relatively short period of time. Non-
electromagnetic temporary magnets tend to be made of soft magnetic materials. [33]

2.6.2.2 Electromagnets

An electromagnet is a tightly wound helical coil of wire, usually with an iron core,
which acts like a permanent magnet when current is flowing in the wire. The strength and
polarity of the magnetic field created by the electromagnet are adjustable by changing the
magnitude of the current flowing through the wire and by changing the direction of the
current flow.

Electromagnets are widely used as components of other electrical devices, such


as motors, generators, relays, loudspeakers, hard disks,MRI machines, scientific instruments,
and magnetic separation equipment. Electromagnets are also employed in industry for
picking up and moving heavy iron objects such as scrap iron and steel. [34]

2.6.2.3 Permanent Magnets

Unlike electric charges (such as those observed when amber is rubbed against cloth),
magnetic objects possessed two poles of opposite effect, denoted north and south after
their self-orientation to the earth. Each resulting piece possessed its own pair of poles:

19
Fig. 3. Permanent magnent cut into half

Like electric charges, there were only two types of poles to be found: north and south (by
analogy, positive and negative). Just as with electric charges, same poles repel one another,
while opposite poles attract. This force, like that caused by static electricity, extended itself
invisibly over space, and could even pass through objects such as paper and wood with little
effect upon strength. [35]

2.7 Switching Controls

2.7.1 MOSFET

Metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor, is a special type of field-effect


transistor ( FET ) that works by electronically varying the width of a channel along which

20
charge carriers ( electron s or hole s) flow. The wider the channel, the better the device
conducts. The charge carriers enter the channel at the source, and exit via the drain. The
width of the channel is controlled by the voltage on an electrode called the gate, which is
located physically between the source and the drain and is insulated from the channel by an
extremely thin layer of metal oxide. [36]

2.7.2 Microcontrollers

A microcontroller is a self-contained system with peripherals, memory and a


processor that can be used as an embedded system. Most programmable microcontrollers that
are used today are embedded in other consumer products or machinery including phones,
peripherals, automobiles and household appliances for computer systems. Due to that,
another name for a microcontroller is "embedded controller." Some embedded systems are
more sophisticated, while others have minimal requirements for memory and programming
length and a low software complexity. Input and output devices include solenoids, LCD
displays, relays, switches and sensors for data like humidity, temperature or light level,
amongst others. [37]

2.8 Power Converters

2.8.1 Rectifier

Rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which


periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The
process is known as rectification. Physically, rectifiers take a number of forms,
includingvacuum tube diodes, mercury-arc valves, copper and selenium oxide
rectifiers, semiconductor diodes, silicon-controlled rectifiers and other silicon-based
semiconductor switches. Historically, even synchronous electromechanical switches and
motors have been used. Early radio receivers, called crystal radios, used a "cat's whisker" of
fine wire pressing on a crystal of galena (lead sulfide) to serve as a point-contact rectifier or
"crystal detector". [38]

Rectifiers have many uses, but are often found serving as components of DC power
supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems. Rectification may serve
in roles other than to generate direct current for use as a source of power. As

21
noted,detectors of radio signals serve as rectifiers. In gas heating systems flame
rectification is used to detect presence of a flame. [38]

2.8.2 Inverter

Is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating


current (AC).The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling
depend on the design of the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not produce any
power; the power is provided by the DC source. [39]

Power inverters produce one of three types of power wave signals. Each signal
represents a quality of power output. The first set of inverters made which are now obsolete
produced a Square Wave signal. Square Wave signals produced power that was not reliable or
consistent. [40]

The second wave signal is the Modified Square Wave also known as the Modified
Sine Wave. Modified Square Wave Inverters are the most popular and produce efficient stable
power that can run most standard electrical equipment. [40]

Pure Sine Wave inverters produce the most reliable and consistent power wave signal.
This makes them the most expensive to acquire. Some equipment that are sensitive such as
rechargeable tools and medical equipment require Pure Sine Wave inverters. [40]

2.8.3 DC-to-DC Converters

A DC-DC converter is a type of electronic circuit that takes the DC source and then
converts it from the current voltage into another voltage. In some instances, one may have to
increase or decrease the voltage. This is actually very common when it comes to automobiles.
Some devices you might use in your vehicle. Too much power and it could destroy the
devices. Too little power and it would not run. Since the device needs to draw from the
vehicles battery, and the battery might be too powerful, there needs to be a conversion of
power. However, it needs to remain DC voltage. To accomplish this, a variety of different
types of DC-DC converters is available. [41]

22
The converters will actually take the power from the battery and cut it down to a
usable level. In the cases of devices that might need more power, a converter can step up the
power. Many of the devices that you use in the vehicle come with adapters that you can plug
into the vehicle. The adapters will convert the power to ensure your device works
appropriately. It is important to make sure you are always using the right adapter with the
device though. Otherwise, it could be drawing too much power, which could seriously
damage the electronics. [41]

2.8.4 Voltage Regulator

Voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A


voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative
feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic
components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or
more AC or DC voltages. [42]

A voltage regulator generates a fixed output voltage of a preset magnitude that


remains constant regardless of changes to its input voltage or load conditions. [42]

2.8.4.1 Linear Regulator

Employs an active (BJT or MOSFET) pass device (series or shunt) controlled by a


high gain differential amplifier. It compares the output voltage with a precise reference
voltage and adjusts the pass device to maintain a constant output voltage. [42]

2.8.4.2 Switching Regulator

Converts the dc input voltage to a switched voltage applied to a power MOSFET or


BJT switch. The filtered power switch output voltage is fed back to a circuit that controls the
power switch on and off times so that the output voltage remains constant regardless of input
voltage or load current changes. [42]

2.8.5 Switched-mode Power Supply

The various types of voltage regulators, used in Linear Power Supplies (LPS), fall in
the category of dissipative regulator, as they have a voltage control element usually transistor
or zener diode which dissipates power equal to the voltage difference between an unregulated
input voltage and a fixed supply voltage multiplied by the current flowing through it. The
switching regulator acts as a continuously variable power converter and hence its efficiency is

23
negligibly affected by the voltage difference. Hence the switching regulator is also known as
non-dissipative regulator. In a SMPS, the active device that provides regulation is always
operated in cut-off or in saturation mode. [43]

2.8.6 Transformer/Autotransformer

Is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without
changing frequency. Since there is no rotating or moving part so transformer is a static
device. Transformer operates on ac supply. Transformer works on the principle of mutual
induction. [44]

It is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits
through electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction produces an electromotive
force within a conductor which is exposed to time varying magnetic fields. Transformers are
used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power applications. [44]

2.8.7 Cycloconverter

A cycloconverter is a device that converts AC, power at one frequency into AC power
of an adjustable but lower frequency without any direct current, or DC, stage in between. It
can likewise be acknowledged as a static recurrence charger and holds silicon-regulated
rectifiers. Cyclo-converters are used in very large variable frequency drives with ratings from
few megawatts up to many tens of megawatts. [45]

2.9 Power Storage

2.9.1 Batteries

A battery is a self-contained, chemical power pack that can produce a limited amount
of electrical energy wherever it's needed. Unlike normal electricity, which flows to your
home through wires that start off in a power plant, a battery slowly
converts chemicals packed inside it into electrical energy, typically released over a period of
days, weeks, months, or even years. [46]

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with


external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones,
and electric cars. [47]

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2.9.2 Capacitor

The capacitor is a component which has the ability or capacity to store energy in the
form of an electrical charge producing a potential difference (Static Voltage) across its plates,
much like a small rechargeable battery. [48]

In its basic form, a capacitor consists of two or more parallel conductive (metal)
plates which are not connected or touching each other, but are electrically separated either by
air or by some form of a good insulating material such as waxed paper, mica, ceramic, plastic
or some form of a liquid gel as used in electrolytic capacitors. The insulating layer between a
capacitors plates is commonly called the Dielectric. [48]

2.9.3 Supercapacitors

The supercapacitor, also known as ultracapacitor or double-layer capacitor, differs


from a regular capacitor in that it has very high capacitance. A capacitor stores energy by
means of a static charge as opposed to an electrochemical reaction. Applying a voltage
differential on the positive and negative plates charges the capacitor. This is similar to the
buildup of electrical charge when walking on a carpet. Touching an object releases the energy
through the finger. [49]

Rated in farads, which is thousands of times higher than the electrolytic capacitor.
The supercapacitor is used for energy storage undergoing frequent charge and discharge
cycles at high current and short duration. [49]

2.10 Literature Reviews

2.10.1 DESIGN AND STATIC MAGNETIC ANALYSIS OFELECTROMAGNETIC


REGENERATIVE SHOCK ABSORBER, 1Rahul UttamraoPatil, 2Dr. S. S. Gawade
[50]

25
This paper presents design and finite element analysis of an electromagnetic energy
regenerative shock absorber which can efficiently recover the vibration energy wasted
in vehicle suspension system.
In this paper, design process of electromagnetic energy regenerative shock absorber is
explained with due consideration to space limitations in commercial vehicle. A static
magnetic analysis is used to analyze magnetic field distribution and to obtain
optimum design
The overall conclusion of this research work is that it is possible to harvest energy
from vehicle vibrations travelling on a bumpy road.

2.10.2 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC SHOCK ABSORBER BY Oly D. Paz,


B.S. Universidad del Zulia, 1990,DEC-2004 [51]

The major goal of the project is to design and analyze the operation of an electric
shock absorber.
The results obtained from the dynamic simulation of the electricshock absorber with
the modified output electric circuit show that the oscillations attenuate to zero after
disturbance appears. Therefore, the electric shock absorber modified circuit.

2.10.3 REGENERATIVE SHOCK ABSORBER FOR HYBRID CARS BY C. M.


Pramodh, S. R. Shankapal Department of Automotive & Aeronautical Engineering, M. S.
Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bangalore-58 [52]

The objective of this project is to design a regenerative shock absorber which can
harness the energy. In the present work, a regenerative shock absorber is modeledand
analysed for emfgenerated using AnsoftMaxwell and a physical model was built to
validate the model.
From the above simulation and validation study it is evident that recovering energy
from the kinetic energy of shock absorber is very well possible.
The simulation results show that by using NdFeBmagnets as core material can yield a
voltage of 12 V AC
But the voltage being generated with the technology demonstrator is very limited to 2
V AC. The reason for this could be using steel as core material.
voltage is not sufficient to charge the 12V battery which is used in automobiles.

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2.10.4 ENERGY REGENERATIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLES BY
Zhang Jin-qiu, PengZhi-zhao*, Zhang Lei, Zhang Yu [53]

The conventional vehicle suspension dissipates the mechanical vibration energy in the
form of heat which waste considerable energy.
In conclusion, only combining vibration reducing performance and energy harvesting
efficiency can there generative suspensions have a promising prospect.
Conventionally, the vibration energy of vehicle suspension is dissipated as heat by
shock absorber, which wastes a considerable number of resources. Regenerative
suspensions bring hope for recycling the wasted energy. All types of regenerative
suspension, especially electromagnetic suspension, and their properties are reviewed
in this paper.

2.10.5 Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorber with a Mechanical Motion RECTIFIER BY


ZhongjieLi, Lei Zuo*, JianKuang, and George LuhrsDepartment of Mechanical Engineering,
State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY, 11794 [54]
Energy-harvesting shock absorber is able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in
the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppress the vibration induced by road
roughness. It can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator.
An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with
the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and
reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation.
In this paper, we proposed a motion rectifier base design of electromagnetic energy
harvester for enhanced efficiency and reliability for potential application of vibration
energy harvesting from vehicle suspensions. motion rectifier can transfer the
oscillatory motion of vehicle suspension into unidirectional motion of the electrical
generator, thus enabling the generator operating in a relatively steady speed with
higher efficiency.

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter presents on what are the procedures on how to design regenerative shock
absorbers. Methods and techniques are introduced to provide solution to the problem in this
study. Implementation of this project will meet the objectives regarding on the loss on the
suspension system of the existing e-trike in Mindanao University of Science and Technology.

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3.2 Flow Chart

Start Data
Gathering

Design and IF NO
Simulation
Is the output
acceptable?
Implement
ation of
Design

IF YES

Performanc
e
Evaluation

Conclusion End

3.3 Data Gathering

The researcher will gather data on what are the components should be used in this
regenerative shock absorber. Considering on what material will suit on the electromagnetic
part of the study which can attain more efficiency for charging the battery

3.4 Design and Simulation

Regenera Power Supercapa Voltage


tive Converter citor Regulato
Shock r 29
Absorber
Battery

3.5 Implementation of Design

Application and testing of the prototype will take place. The fabricated shock absorber
will be placed on the existing e-tricycle located at the suspension area of the vehicle.
Experimentations will be done during this part. At this point, the researcher will try to harvest
output in different load, driving in concrete or rough roads and driving in this different
scenario with respect to the distance travelled.

3.6 Performance Evaluation

Evaluation of the data and results will be gathered. The results collected on the
different experimentations will be showed in this part, also the efficiency of the regenerative
shock absorber will be deliberated

3.7 Conclusion

The researcher will conclude relatively with the objectives of the study. Also, based
on the results on the application and the efficiency of the vehicle with regenerative shock
absorber.

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