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143157, 1999

1999 Elsevier Science Ltd

Pergamon PII: S 0 0 3 8 0 9 2 X ( 9 8 ) 0 0 1 3 9 X All rights reserved. Printed in Great Britain

0038-092X / 99 / $ - see front matter

OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT

M. MUSELLI, G. NOTTON and A. LOUCHE

Universite de Corse-URA CNRS 2053, Centre de Recherches Energie et Systemes,

` Route des Sanguinaires,

F-20 000 Ajaccio, France

AbstractA methodology is developed for calculating the correct size of a photovoltaic (PV)-hybrid system

and for optimizing its management. The power for the hybrid system comes from PV panels and an

engine-generator that is, a gasoline or diesel engine driving an electrical generator. The combined system is a

stand-alone or autonomous system, in the sense that no third energy source is brought in to meet the load. Two

parameters were used to characterize the role of the engine-generator: denoted SDM and SAR, they are,

respectively, the battery charge threshold at which it is started up, and the storage capacity threshold at which

it is stopped, both expressed as a percentage of the nominal battery storage capacity. The methodology

developed is applied to designing a PV-hybrid system operating in Corsica, as a case study. Various sizing

configurations were simulated, and the optimal configuration that meets the autonomy constraint (no loss of

load) was determined, by minimizing of the energy cost. The influence of the battery storage capacity on the

solar contribution is also studied. The smallest energy cost per kWh was obtained for a system characterized by

an SDM 5 30% and an SAR 5 70%. A study on the effects of component lifetimes on the economics of

PV-hybrid and PV stand-alone systems has shown that battery size can be reduced by a factor of two in

PV-hybrid systems, as compared to PV stand-alone systems. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights

reserved.

in Section 2, in which the detailed sizing meth-

As opposed to the PV-only system, the PV-hybrid

odology is also explained. Section 3 examines the

system consisting of a photovoltaic system

effect of the battery storage capacity on the solar

backed-up by an engine-generator set has

contribution and the effect of the engine-

greater reliability for electricity production, and it

generators operating strategy on the energy costs.

often represents the best solution for electrifying

Finally, an economic study is reported that com-

remote areas (van Dijk, 1996). The engine-

pares the roles of the various subsystems in

generator set (or simply engine-generator) reduces

determining the lifetime of the total system.

the PV component size, while the PV system

decreases the operating time of the generator,

reducing its fuel consumption, O&M, and replace- 2. SIZING METHODOLOGY

ment costs. This studys primary objectives have

been (i) to develop a sizing methodology for 2.1. System configuration

PV-hybrid systems that supply small and medium The system (Fig. 1) consists of a PV array, a

power levels to remote areas, and (ii) to study the battery bank, a back-up generator (3000 rpm or

influence of load profiles and of certain engine- 1500 rpm) driven by a gasoline- or diesel-engine,

generator parameters, such as their type, starting a charge controller, and an AC / DC converter.

threshold, and stopping threshold. A case study of The engine-generator will be used only as a

the approach developed is performed for Ajaccio, battery charger (this reduces its required rated

Corsica (418559N, 88399E). power), and so its rated power is directly linked to

A brief description of the overall sizing meth- the nominal battery capacity, Cmax .

odology is presented in Section 1. The paper gives

2.2. Description of the sizing method

The system must be autonomous, i.e. the load

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel.: must be totally met by the system at all times.

133-4-9552-4141; fax: 133-4-9552-41 2; e-mail: Such a constraint still permits an infinite number

muselli@vignola.univ-corse.fr of possible system configurations. From solar

143

144 M. Muselli et al.

radiation data and from assumed daily load pro- and have a higher price than conventional

files, the system behavior can be simulated, and a appliances.

system meeting the constraints can be sized. In our study, two possible hourly DC-load profiles

However, finding the best system must be done on have been chosen to represent the load. The first,

the basis of an overall systems approach. First, the Low Consumption profile (Fig. 2), is based

certain physical and technical constraints are used on adapted loads. It has a mean daily energy

to reduce the system parameters to a realistic consumption of 1.8 kWh per day and a peak

domain. Then minimizing the energy cost leads to

the optimal solution.

The sizing of PV-hybrid systems for Ajaccio

will be based on 19 years of hourly total irradia-

tion on a horizontal plane, collected at the site.

The PV modules will be tilted, and so hourly total

irradiation on tilted planes had to be computed,

and this was done using the models of Hay and

Davies (1980); Orgill and Hollands (1977). The

resulting errors (RMBE 5 1.4% and RRMSE 5 Fig. 2. Low Consumption load profile used in the study.

7% for Hay and Davies model; RMBE 5 2

2.41% and RRMSE 5 8.81% for the Orgill and

Hollands model) have been shown to be quite

small (Poggi, 1995) for the site. In this way,

hourly values of solar irradiation, Ib (t), on the PV

array were calculated for a tilt angle of 308, and

this data provided the input data of the simula-

tions.

Two different types of load can be identified:

1. That provided by conventional appliances

available on the market that typically have a

low energy efficiency and have been optimized

not from an energy point of view, but rather

from a qualityprice point of view;

2. That provided by adapted or high efficiency

appliances that are rather scarce on the market Fig. 3. Standard load profile used in the study.

Design of hybrid-photovoltaic power generator, with optimization of energy management 145

power demand of 170 W, which occurs in spring and for these supports, the average price falls to

and autumn. The second, the Standard profile $US 0.83 / Wp (0.69 ECU / Wp).

(Fig. 3), is based on the French utility data Battery bank: The battery bank can be char-

(EDF), as reported by Eliot (1982). It has a daily acterized by its nominal capacity Cmax , its (maxi-

average load of 3.7 kWh per day and a peak mum) depth of discharge DOD, taken in this study

power of 680 W, the latter occurring in the to be 70% (Tsuda et al., 1994), and two conver-

summer. For each profile, the consumption is sion efficiencies rch and rdch , respectively, for

represented by a sequence of powers Pc (t), each charge and discharge, which were taken to equal

taken as constant over the simulation time-step, to 85% (Oldham France, 1992; Manninen and

Dt, which is normally taken as 1 h. Lund, 1989). The cost of the battery is quite

significant, because the initial investment is high

3.2. System characteristics and the battery has to be replaced several times

during the PV system lifetime. The battery bank

3.2.1. Photovoltaic subsystem. PV modules: typically accounts for about 40% of the total

For the PV subsystem, we assume a constant PV system cost (Notton et al., 1996a). Costs of

efficiency hPV of 10%. The PV power production batteries per kilowatt-hour stored capacity are

Pp (t) is then computed as the product of the PV plotted in Fig. 4, for the various battery types

efficiency, the hourly irradiation Ib (t) and the PV marketed by several French suppliers. The battery

module area, as has been proposed by several cost is strongly affected by its type; in particular,

works (Iskander and Scerri, 1996). The peak- whether it is the stationary type used in many PV

Watt (or Wp) price was used as a fixed econ- applications or the starter type more readily

omic parameter, as has been done by several available in developing countries. Frequently-en-

authors (Keller and Afolter, 1995; Biermann et countered are costs of $US 130 / kWh and $US

al., 1995). It was set equal to $US 5.8 / Wp (5 217 / kWh (110 and 183 ECU / kWh). Thus, an

ECU / Wp), in accordance with the prices of the average price of $US 180 / kWh (150 ECU / kWh)

French producer PHOTOWATT and others sup- may be used for estimating the battery cost. The

pliers. battery lifetime is linked to physical parameters,

Module supports: A literature survey shows such as the chargedischarge rate, temperature

that the costs of module supports are in the range and maximum discharge; it is very difficult to

$US 0.35 / Wp (0.28 ECU / Wp) to $US 1.9 / Wp correlate the lifetime with these parameters. Based

(1.5 ECU / Wp) (Imamura et al., 1992; Palz and on our own experiences, a battery lifetime equal

Schmid, 1990). Using data collected from four to five years has been considered in this work.

PV suppliers (Wind and Sun, Eurosolare, Photo- Charge controller: Regulator costs vary widely.

watt, Siemens), support costs per Wp versus the Not all regulators work on the same electronic

number of modules per frame are equal to $US principle, and they can include special options,

1.63 / Wp (1.28 ECU / Wp). However, generally such as lightning protection, digital displays, etc.

PV frames are used with four modules or more, We estimated the average price to be $US 0.65 /

Fig. 4. Price of battery storage as a function of the nominal battery storage capacity.

146 M. Muselli et al.

Wp (0.55 ECU / Wp) (Iskander and Scerri, 1996), where PG and Q v are the generator power (kW)

which is close to the GTZ value (Biermann et al., and the hourly consumption (l / h), P 0G and Q 0v are

1995), and we based our model on this price. respectively the rated power and the consumption

Photovoltaic subsystem installation cost: There at this rated power, and PCIv is the heating value

is considerable experience in the installation of of the fuel (PCIv / diesel 510.08 kWh?l 21 and

21

small PV systems. In some PV-system projects in PCIv / gasoline 59.43 kWh?l ).

0 0

Corsica, the installation cost was 25% of the PV The ratio Q v /P G is the specific consumption,

panel cost, and this is in agreement with some defined as the fuel consumption required to

references (Illiceto et al., 1994; Paish et al., 1994; produce, at nominal power, one kilowatt-hour of

Abenavoli, 1991). Thus this percentage was used energy. Using a power law model for the con-

for the present study. sumption at rated power of gasoline engines we

Photovoltaic subsystem O&M cost: Concerning have:

the maintenance of the PV subsystem, we have 20.2954

considered an annual O&M equal to 2% of the Q 0v 5 0.7368.P 0G (3)

PV system investment, and a PV system lifetime

and assuming a constant value of 0.3 l / kWh

of 20 years (Notton et al., 1998).

(Thabor, 1988; Calloway, 1986) for diesel en-

3.2.2. Engine-generator subsystem. Engine-

gines, allows the determination of the reduced

generators may be compared using many different

consumption versus reduced power:

characteristics, including fuel consumption, motor

speed, continuous or periodic output, load factor, Qv PG

and noise level, etc. The higher the engine speed, 2 for diesel generators: ]0 5 0.22 1 0.78 ]

Qv P 0G

the faster the wear of the parts and the shorter the

lifetime; thus, a 3000 or 3600-rpm engine can (4)

only be used for a short time whereas a 1500 or Qv

1800-rpm engine can be used continuously. One 2 for gasoline generators: ]0 5

Qv

must also compare gasoline engines with 1500

and 3000-rpm diesel engines. In this study, just 10.2954 10.2954 PG

two parameters, SDM and SAR are used as

f1 2 0.576P 0G g 1 0.576P 0G ] (5)

P G0

indices of the engine-generators role, at least so

far as the simulations are concerned. SDM and As an example, g 50.22 and j 50.78 for all diesel

SAR are the thresholds in battery charge at which generators, and g 50.29 and j 50.71 for a 2-kW

the engine-generator is switched on or off, respec- gasoline engine. We note the presence of a

tively, each expressed as a fraction of the battery consumption at zero load: 20% and 30% of the

capacity. full load for diesel and gasoline back-up

Fuel consumption: A back-up generator is generators. These results are in agreement with

characterized by its efficiency hc and its consump- recent works (Beyer et al., 1995a).

tion in relation to the produced electrical power as By using data collected from back-up generator

follows: manufacturers, we have computed the efficiencies

for each type of generator, and summarize these

PG results in Table 1.

hc 5 ]]] (1)

PCIv Q v Engine-generator price: The engine price de-

pends on nominal power, the price per unit kW,

Q PG tending to decrease with increasing nominal

]v0 5 g 1 j ]

Qv P 0G power. To represent this scale effect, a power law

has been used:

F P 0G

5 1 2 ]]]]0 1 ]]]]0 ]

hc .PCIv .Q v

GFP 0G PG

hc .PCIv .Q v P G0

G CG 5 C0 (P 0G )2 a (6)

(2) where CG is the cost per kW of engine-generator

Minimum Maximum Standard Average

value (%) value (%) deviation (%) value (%)

Gasoline 16.5 30.9 3.4 21.1

Diesel 3000 rpm 29.8 44.6 4.8 35.3

Diesel 1500 rpm 22.3 40.2 3.2 29.9

Design of hybrid-photovoltaic power generator, with optimization of energy management 147

Table 2. Statistical coefficients for the prices of back-up generators (Eq. (6))

MBE RMSE RMBE RRMSE

Type C0 a ($US / kW) ($US / kW) (%) (%)

Gasoline 718.1 20.585 226.3 180.3 5.4 23.2

Diesel 3000 rpm 704.1 20.2626 210.8 100.6 2.3 22.0

Diesel 1500 rpm 3362.2 20.7184 212.3 145.8 1.5 17.2

capacity, C0 the cost coefficient, and a the scale way, 1986; Cramer et al., 1990; Energie Relais,

factor. The coefficients in this equation, obtained 1995; Sandia National Laboratories, 1990;

by fits to data provided by French suppliers, are Energelec, 1995) are very different; we used a

presented in Table 2. lifetime of 6000 h and 10 000 h for diesel 3000-

Components of the engine-generator: We have rpm and 1500-rpm engine generators respectively.

allowed for a fuel storage tank, at a price of $US Engine-generator installation cost: According to

1.7 / l (1.43 ECU / l), in accordance with literature Paish et al. (1994); Calloway (1986), the engine-

from the French manufacturer GENELEC. The generator installation cost is equal to 10% of the

storage capacity is taken to be the equivalent of initial investment for the engine-generator. This

20 h of continuous engine-generator operation (in includes bedding, exhaust, and automatic control

fact the engine runs for only a few hours a day, on costs.

average). Engine generator subsystem O&M cost: While

The fuel price is strongly dependent on the the installation cost of an engine-generator system

energy policy of the country. A study (Hille and is relatively low, the annual O&M cost is rela-

Dienhart, 1992) illustrated the diversity of fuel tively high. It is often estimated as being propor-

prices. Prices range from $US 0.02 / l (0.016 tional to the total hardware cost (Biermann et al.,

ECU / l) to $US 0.75 / l (0.63 ECU / l), the last 1995; Paish et al., 1994; EGAT, 1990). The

figure representing that in developing countries. proportionality constant ranges from 5% to 20%.

Transport costs can increase the fuel price by $US However, such an hypothesis must be considered

0.12$US 0.23 / l (0.1 ECU0.19 ECU / l) for prudently, because the more an engine-generator

each 1000 kilometers of distance the fuel must be runs, the more costly is its annual maintenance;

moved by ground transport, and this is increased thus, it is good to take into account the annual

by a factor of nearly 40, if air transport is used. operating time of the engine-generator

We have considered a price of $US 0.55 / l (0.46 (Abenavoli, 1991; Calloway, 1986). Recently,

ECU / l) and $US 1.15 / l (0.97 ECU / l) for diesel some authors have calculated the maintenance

and gasoline fuels, respectively. cost as a fixed cost per kWh, thus linking it to the

Engine generator lifetime: The engine-genera- operating time (Benyahia, 1989).

tor lifetime is expressed as a function of the Faced with all these various assumptions in the

operating hours. Table 3 summarizes the predic- literature, we estimated the O&M cost based on

tions available in the literature. For gasoline the cost and occurrence of various maintenance

engines, in accordance with the great majority of operations; thereby, the O&M cost (including oil

authors (Sandia National Laboratories, 1990; changes) is linked to the operating time. Our

Energelec, 1995), we have used the mean value of assumptions are (i) that oil (costing 4.49 $US (3.8

the range, which is an engine lifetime equals to ECU) per l) is replaced every 100 h for all

3500 h. For diesel engines, the 1500-rpm diesel gasoline and all 3000-rpm diesel engines, and

lifetime is greater than the 3000-rpm diesel life- every 150 h for all 1500-rpm diesel engines; (ii)

time, because of the reduced rotational speed of that skilled laborer costs are $US 21.8 / h (18.5

the generator. The literature predictions (Callo- ECU / h); (iii) that each oil change, complete with

References Type Operating hours

Abenavoli (1991) Gasoline 15 000

Calloway (1986) Diesel 5000

Beyer et al. (1995a) Diesel 30 000

Energie Relais (1995) Diesel 1200

Sandia National Laboratories (1990) Gasoline 2000 to 5000

Sandia National Laboratories (1990) Diesel 6000

Energelec (1995) Gasoline 1800

Energelec (1995) Diesel 3000 8000

Energelec (1995) Diesel 1500 12 000

148 M. Muselli et al.

an air-filter cleaning, requires 40 min of skilled consumed energy L( T) over the same period.

labour, (14.80 $US or 12.5 ECU); (iv) that the oil Thus

filter (costing 9.10 $US or 7.7 ECU) is replaced

O P (t).dt 5 h

T

after every two oil changes; (v) that the air-filter L(T ) 5 .SRef .Hb (T ) (11)

c PV

(10.9 $US or 9.2 ECU), and the fuel filter (5.4

$US or 4.6 ECU for gasoline and 10.9 $US or 9.2

ECU for diesel engine) and the spark plugs (4.6 where Hb (T ) is the global daily irradiation inci-

$US or 3.9 ECU for gasoline engine) are changed dent on PV modules inclined with an angle b and

after four oil changes. Each of these operations the summation is taken over all the days in the

take 2 h (43.7 $US or 37 ECU). Accordingly, the period T. We then define the dimensionless PV

O&M costs (in ECU / h) are to be computed from area SDim as the ratio of the actual module area to

the following equations: the reference area SRef .

We also define a dimensionless storage capacity

(i) for gasoline engines, CO & M 5 (0.4005 C, which is expressed in terms of days of

1 0.1532.Pgene ) 3 15.2 1 120.1 / 400 (7) autonomy. C is obtained by dividing the actual

storage capacity by the annual mean of the daily

(ii) for 3000 rpm diesel engines, CO & M load consumption:

C 5 ]] (12)

(8) L daily

(iii) for 1500 rpm diesel engines, CO & M 3.4. PV-hybrid system behavior. Simulation

calculations

5 (0.242 1 0.3505.Pgene ) 3 15.2 1 120.8 / 600

The system simulation is performed by consid-

(9) ering a Loss of Load Probability equal to 0%; in

Notton et al. (1997) have shown that the above other words, the system reliability is 100%,

costing hypothesis is consistent with the findings leading to autonomy for the system.

of several earlier studies. Given the values of irradiation on tilted planes

Battery charger: The nominal power of the and the consumption patterns previously de-

battery charger is related to its nominal storage scribed, the system behavior can be simulated

capacity. One must take into account that the using an hourly time step-several workers (Man-

electrical current produced by the generator must ninen and Lund, 1989; Beyer et al., 1995b)

not be greater than one fifth of the ampere-hour having shown that the simulation of PV systems

capacity of the battery (Sandia National Lab- requires only an hourly series of solar data. Based

oratories, 1990): on a system energy balance and on the storage

continuity equation, the simulation method used

0 Cmax here is similar to that used by others (Sidrach de

P charger 5 ]] (10)

5 Cardona and Mora Lopez, 1992; Kaye, 1994).

A battery chargers efficiency hcharger is equal to Considering the battery charger output power

90% according to the manufacturers MASTER- Pcharger (t), the PV output power Pp (t) and the load

VOLT and PRIMAX. For its cost, a power law power Pc (t) on the simulation step Dt, the battery

relationship was used. The different parameters energy benefit during a charge time Dt 1 is given

and the statistical errors associated are as follows: by (Dt 1 ,Dt):

C0 51099, a 5 20.691, MBE5 2113 $US / kW,

RMSE5418 $US / kW, RMBE5 20.5% and

RRMSE519%. C1 (t) 5 rch E [P (t) 1 P

p charger (t) 2 Pc (t)] dt (13)

Dt 1

3.3. Relevant dimensionless variables

Two dimensionless variables characterize the The battery energy loss during a discharge time

PV-hybrid system: the PV module surface and the Dt 2 is given by (Dt 2 ,Dt):

battery storage capacity; both are independent of

the daily load. For the PV area, we first define a

reference area, Sref as the PV module area (m 2 ) S DE

1

C2 (t) 5 ]]

rdch

Dt 2

[Pp (t) 1 Pcharger (t) 2 Pc (t)] dt

that will produce, over the simulation period T

(say 19 years), an electrical energy equal to the (14)

Design of hybrid-photovoltaic power generator, with optimization of energy management 149

The state of charge of the battery is defined SOC is compared with the intrinsic parameters

during a simulation time-step Dt by: (maximum and minimum capacities). If SOC(t),

Cmin the system is failing and if SOC(t).Cmax ,

C(t) 5 C(t 2 Dt) 1 C1 (t) 1 C2 (t) (15) the system produces wasted energy.

If C(t) reaches SAR by an energy benefit C1 (t) By simulating many PV-hybrid systems having

during the charge period with the engine-genera- the same load, one can, in principle, find an

tor working, the generator has to be stopped and infinite set of physical solutions, each solution

the charge time Dt 1 during Dt is calculated being characterized by a PV module area SDim , a

assuming a linear relation: storage capacity Cmax , and a nominal engine-

generator power. Each solution defines a pair

Dt

U

SAR 2 C(t 2 Dt)

]1 5 ]]]]]

Dt C1 (t) U (16)

(SDim , Cmax ). Several technical constraints, for

example, the available products, reduces the

infinite number of solutions to a finite number of

Moreover, if during the discharge period when the configurations. For each configuration, some

engine generator is stopped, C(t) reaches SDM, physical variables are calculated by simulations:

the motor is started and the discharge time Dt 2 the wasted energy, the working time and the fuel

during Dt is calculated by a linear relation as: consumption of the engine- generator, and the

times when certain subsystems need replacement.

Dt

Dt U

C(t 2 Dt) 2 SDM

]2 5 ]]]]]

C2 (t) U (17) The energy cost is then computed for each pair,

and the minimization of this parameter yields the

As an input of a simulation time-step Dt (taken as optimal operating configuration.

1 h), several variables must be determined: PV

output power, load power, battery state of charge,

and back-up generator state (ON or OFF) in the 4. SIMULATION RESULTS

previous time-step. A battery energy balance

indicates the operating strategy of the PV-hybrid 4.1. Operating mode

system: charge (energy balance positive) or dis- To illustrate the battery energy state evolution

charge (energy balance negative). Some tests are as a function of the engine-generator thresholds,

necessary to study the SOC variations as com- we have plotted in Figs. 5 and 6, which show,

pared to the starting and stopping thresholds. If respectively, the energy stored and the engine-

SOC(t) falls below SDM, the motor is started; and generator operating hours as a function of time,

if SOC(t) exceeds SAR, it is stopped. So, the over five days. Assumed parameter settings for

charge and discharge times (Eqs. (16) and (17)) the figures are as follows: C5two days, the initial

must be calculated on the simulation time-step in charge on the battery5100% of capacity, dimen-

order to compute the different energy flows in the sionless PV module surface50.94, SDM530%

system (Eqs. (13) and (14)). Then, the battery and SAR550%, 70% and 100%. Also, the Low

Fig. 5. Evolution of the battery state of charge for several assumed values of the thresholds (SDM, SAR) governing the operation

of the engine-generator.

150 M. Muselli et al.

Fig. 6. Plot of the back-up generator operating time for several assumed values of the thresholds (SDM, SAR) governing the

operation of the engine-generator.

Consumption load profile was used, and a nominal engine-generator power is undersized and

gasoline engine was assumed. the autonomy constraint is not respected. Thus, in

the remainder of this paper, only batteries with

4.2. PV-hybrid system sizing curves capacities greater than to two days will be consid-

Fig. 7 presents the solar contribution (defined ered.

as the percentage that the PV production is of the Fig. 8 presents the sizing curve, as obtained

total energy production) versus dimensionless assuming the Standard load profile, the SDM and

storage capacities (one to six days). These plots SAR are equal to 30% and 80%, respectively, and

have been parameterized using dimensionless PV a gasoline-driven engine. The existence of some

areas ranging from 0.81 to 1.44. We concluded discontinuities in Fig. 8 are due to the number of

that it was not necessary to consider a PV-hybrid changes of the engine-generator with the decrease

system with a storage capacity greater than two or in dimensionless PV areas. The optimal configura-

three days of autonomy. Sidrach de Cardona and tion, i.e., the one corresponding to the lowest

Mora Lopez (1992) have obtained the same energy cost, is determined for each sizing curve.

conclusion considering a PV-hybrid system in In Figs. 9 and 10 (which apply to Low Consump-

which the back-up generator was applied directly tion and Standard profiles respectively), we

to the load and to a battery charger, at the same have plotted the sizing curves parameterized by

time. The simulations demonstrate that for a the storage capacities (two to six days) for

system with only one day of autonomy, the SDM530% and SAR580%.

Design of hybrid-photovoltaic power generator, with optimization of energy management 151

Fig. 8. Sizing curve of PV-hybrid systems for a gasoline engine, Standard load profile, and SDM and SAR equal to 30% and

80%, respectively.

The lowest points on the curve define the (SDim 50.97, 0.95 and 0.73 for the three cases in

optimal configuration. Although the locations of Fig. 11). The optimal size of the engine generator

the lowest points are indistinct around the optimal is easily deduced from the optimal capacity (two

point, the optimal configuration is always ob- days) and from Eq. (10), by dividing the battery

tained when the storage capacity equals two days charger rated power by the charger efficiency

of autonomy. These findings have been confirmed hcharger .

for other values of the starting and stopping For the combinations of SDM and SAR and for

thresholds. the optimal pairs (SDim , Cmax ) of Fig. 11, we have

To make these results more general, a sensitivi- combined the solar contribution curves obtained

ty analysis of the energy costs to various parame- for a battery capacity of two days to deduce

ters must be performed. A short sensitivity study optimal solar and fossil fuel contributions for each

presented in a previous paper (Notton et al., engine-generator type, and these are given in

1998) confirmed the main conclusions shown Table 4.

here. In previous works in our laboratory Notton et

al. (1996b) applied such an optimization to a

4.3. Influence of the back-up generator hybrid-system, but without including the engine-

operating strategy generator behavior in the system simulation. In

In accordance with the above results, a storage that work, the stand-alone PV system without the

capacity of two days will be used for the analysis engine-generator had been sized for several loss-

of the back-up generator operating strategy. Also, of-load probabilities, and then the energy deficit

the energy cost has been calculated for various was supplied by the engine-generator. This con-

combinations of SDM and SAR, by varying them figuration has led to identical optimal contribu-

by steps of 10%, (i.e., SDM[[30%; 90%] and tions (75% solar and 25% fossil), whichever the

SAR[[40%; 100%]). For each combination, we engine type. In this study, the results have been

computed the optimal pair leading to the lowest found to depend on the engine type. The varia-

energy cost. Fig. 11 presents the results for each tions in the contributions for the diesel 1500-rpm

engine type and for both load profiles. The type can be linked to its longer lifetime, which

optimal configuration is obtained when SDM5 leads to reduced replacement costs. The results

30% and SAR570%, regardless of the load are very dependent on the lifetime and mainte-

profile and the engine-generator type. nance of the engine, and have been calculated by

Thus we have now demonstrated that the optimizing these two parameters (Notton et al.,

optimal size of the battery capacity is two days 1997).

and the best energy management is obtained when

SDM and SAR are respectively equal to 30% and 4.4. Wasted energy

70% of the nominal storage capacity. The optimal We have also studied, over a given time period,

PV area for each configuration is close to unity say T, the influence of the engine-generator

152 M. Muselli et al.

Fig. 9. Sizing curves obtained for a storage capacity ranging from 2 to 6 days of autonomy, for each engine type (The Low

Consumption load profile is assumed).

Design of hybrid-photovoltaic power generator, with optimization of energy management 153

Fig. 10. Sizing curves obtained for storage capacities ranging from 2 to 6 days of autonomy, for each engine type (Standard load

profile is assumed.)

154 M. Muselli et al.

Fig. 11. Influence of back-up generator operating strategy according to engine type.

Design of hybrid-photovoltaic power generator, with optimization of energy management 155

Optimal contributions

Motor type Load profiles Solar source (%) Fossil source (%)

Gasoline Low consumption / standard 75 25

Diesel 3000 rpm Low consumption / standard 80 20

Diesel 1500 rpm Low consumption / standard 65 35

operating strategy on the wasted energy WE(T ) subsystem during its lifetime. The results are

produced by the system, presented in Fig. 13. For hybrid systems using

gasoline and 3000-rpm diesel engine-generators,

O

T

the PV contribute 35% and the engine contributes

WE(T ) 5 [Pp (t) 2 Pc (t)] dt (18)

P p (t ).P c (t ) 40% of the total cost. The total investment cost is

C(t ).C max made up of the following: PV modules about

30%, engine-generator about 20%, PV support

For example, for a gasoline engine the influence about 4%, O&M for the engine-generator about

of the stopping threshold (SAR[[40%; 70%]) on 5%, and the charge controller about 3.5%. With

the wasted energy for a given starting threshold the lifetime of a gasoline engine being lower than

(SDM530%) is shown in Fig. 12. We found a the lifetime of a 3000-rpm diesel engine, the

trivial result: increasing the PV module increases gasoline engine must be replaced during the

the energy excess. On the other hand, the charge hybrid-system lifetime, whereas the diesel engine

strategy represented by the SAR variation is not does not. Moreover, the fuel consumption cost is

significant. The increase of SAR causes an in- greater for the gasoline engine, because its fuel

crease from 2 to 4% of the energy surplus over all consumption and its fuel prices are higher than

PV area ranges. We note that, considering the those for a 3000-rpm diesel engine. For the

optimal configurations previously given (SDim 5 system using the 1500-rpm diesel engine, the

0.97 for gasoline engine), the energy surplus is initial costs are more important: the PV and

inferior to 5%; this demonstrates the competitive- engine-generator investment (about 20% and

ness of hybrid-PV systems, as compared to stand- 50%), PV support parts (about 3%), the O&M

alone PV/ battery systems with an energy excess back-up generator (about 3%), and the charge

about 50%. controller investment (about 3%). We note that the

battery contribution to the cost is about 20%

4.5. Economical study on the PV-hybrid system (made up of about 9% for investment and 11% for

lifetime replacement) regardless of the engine type. This

From optimal configurations previously de- result agrees with previous findings (Notton et al.,

scribed (SDM530% and SAR570%), for each 1996a) relating to stand-alone PV/ battery sys-

engine type and for the Low Consumption load tems, for which the storage represents 40% on the

profile, we have determined the investment, total lifetime cost. Thus the addition of a back-up

maintenance and replacement costs for each generator to a traditional PV system cuts the

Fig. 12. Influence of the stopping threshold on the energy excess (SDM set equal to 30%).

156 M. Muselli et al.

Fig. 13. Breakdown of the contributions (investment, maintenance, replacement) of each subsystem in determining the PV-hybrid

system lifetime.

batterys contribution to the total cost by a factor FOSSIL, the contribution of fossil in the latter

of two. Previously, Notton et al., 1996b showed combination being higher, because of the longer

that the energy cost produced by a PV hybrid lifetime of a diesel engine. The work has demon-

system is half of a traditional PV/ battery stand- strated the competitiveness of PV-hybrid systems,

alone system. which can work with an energy excess as low as

5% and a battery storage half of that of the

traditional stand-alone PV system, based on the

5. CONCLUSIONS system lifetime. In conclusion, the approach

In this paper, we have studied the behavior of a presented here appears to be a valuable tool for

stand-alone PV-hybrid (PV and engine-generator) the design and evaluation of PV-hybrid systems

system. We have considered the sizing of PV supplying power in remote areas.

systems by using hourly total irradiation values on

tilted surfaces and hourly load profiles taken as NOMENCLATURE

constant over the seasons. The study has shown

that the optimal configuration, i.e., the configura- C Dimensionless battery storage

capacity

tion that minimizes the energy cost, is obtained C(t) Battery state of charge Wh

with a battery storage capacity of two days. The C1 (t) Battery energy benefit during the Wh

influence of the engine-generators operating period Dt

strategy has also been studied. It was found that C2(t) Battery energy loss during the Wh

period Dt

an optimal configuration is one where the engine-

C0 Cost coefficient $US

generator is switched on when the battery charge CG kW price $US

is at 30% of maximum battery capacity and where Cmax Nominal storage capacity Wh

it is turned off when the battery charge is 70% of Cmin Minimal storage capacity Wh

maximum battery capacity. The study has de- DOD Depth of discharge %

Hb (T ) Solar irradiation received by PV Wh?m 22

termined optimal contributions for both solar and

modules on a tilted plane

fossil fuel energy sources. For gasoline powered Ib (t) Hourly solar irradiation on tilted Wh?m 22

engine-generators, the combination of 75% plane

SOLAR with 25% FOSSIL are the most econ- L(T ) Energy consumed by load in the Wh

omical solutions, and 3000-rpm diesel powered period T

Pc (t) Instantaneous power to the load W

engine-generators, 80% SOLAR and 20% FOS-

PCIv Heating value of fuel kWh per l

SIL are the most economical solutions. For 1500- PG Generator power W

rpm diesel powered engine-generators, the opti- Pc (t) Instantaneous power represent- W

mal combination is 65% SOLAR with 35% ing the load

Design of hybrid-photovoltaic power generator, with optimization of energy management 157

P 0charger Nominal power of the battery W systems for decentral electricity generation in developing

charger countries. In Proceedings of the 11 th European Photo-

voltaic Solar Energy Conference, pp. 15591563, Mon-

Pcharger(t ) Power of the battery charger W

treux.

available at the instant t Illiceto A., Previ A. and Zuccaro C. (1994) Experiences of

P 0G Rated power of the engine W rural electrification in southern Italy by means of PV plants.

generator In Proceedings of the 12 th European Photovoltaic Solar

Pp (t) Instantaneous PV produced W Energy Conference, pp. 210211, Amsterdam.

power Imamura M.S., Helm P., and Palz W. (1992) In Photovoltaic

Qv Back-up generator consumption l/h System Technology: An European Handbook, Stephen H. S.

per h and Associates (Eds), Commission of the European Com-

Qv

0

Consumption of the motor at l/h munities, Bedford.

Iskander C. and Scerri E. (1996) Performance and cost

this rated power per h

evaluation of a stand-alone photovoltaic system in Malta.

SAR Stopping threshold Wh World Renewable Energy Congress 8, 14, pp. 437440,

SDim Dimensionless PV surface Denver, Colorado.

SDM Starting threshold Wh Kaye J. (1994) Optimizing the value of photovoltaic energy in

Sref PV Reference surface m2 electricity supply systems with storage. In Proceedings of

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a Scale factor pp. 431434, Amsterdam.

hc Back-up generator efficiency % Keller L. and Afolter P. (1995) Optimizing the panel area of a

hcharger Battery charger efficiency % PV system in relation to the static inverterpractical results.

hPV PV array efficiency % Solar Energy 55, 17.

Manninen L.M. and Lund P.D. (1989) Dynamic simulation

rch , rdch Charge and discharge battery %

and sizing of photovoltaic and wind power systems. In

efficiencies Proceedings of the 9 th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy

Dt Simulation time-step h Conference, pp. 546549, Freiburg.

Dt 1 Battery charge time during the h Notton G., Muselli M., Poggi P. and Louche A. (1996)

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Dt 2 Battery discharge time during h parameters on the sizing: simulation time-step, input and

the period Dt output power profile. Renewable Energy 7, 353369.

Notton G., Muselli M. and Louche A. (1996) Autonomous

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a case study in a Mediterranean island. Renewable Energy

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