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Computer Networks

CS F303
BITS Pilani Sanjay K. Sahay
Department of Computer Science and Information Systems
K K Birla Goa Campus

Module1 Lectures
Computer Networking: Why

Overcome geographic limits for le, hardware,


applica6on, etc. sharing.
Access remote data.
Separate clients and server.
Universal Communica6on (any to any).
User communica6on, VoIP, etc.
Design the cloud.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Computer Networks

A collection of computing devices connected


in order to communicate and share resources
viz. le, hardware, applica6on etc.

Connections between computing devices can


be physical using wires or cables or wireless
using radio waves or infrared signals.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Advantage of Networking

Connectivity and Communication.


Data Sharing.
Hardware Sharing.
Internet Access.
Internet Access Sharing.
Data Security and Management.
Performance Enhancement and Balancing.
Entertainment.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Disadvantage/Costs of Networking

Network Hardware, Software and Setup Costs.


Hardware and Software Management and
Administration Costs.
Undesirable Sharing.
Illegal or Undesirable Behavior.
Data Security Concerns.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Course Objectives

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Evaluation

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Text & Reference Books
Text Book:

Reference Books:

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Course Plan: Theory

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Course Plan: Theory

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Course Plan: Lab

Lab Manual will be uploaded in the course server.

Before coming to lab, you must read the manual and understand the
implementation/protocols of the lab session.
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Policies/Notices/Consultation
Lab:
Attendance will be recorded in each of the lab sessions.
The lab exams will be based on the regular lab sessions.
All the programming labs except NS2 labs will be conducted in C
programming language.
Make-Up:
No make-up for lab sessions. However, make-up for Tests/
Comprehensive/ Lab examination may be granted strictly on prior
permission and on justifiable grounds only.
Course materials/notices/information:
All course materials/notices/information will be available on the course
server and/or in CS/IS notice board.
Consultation Hours.
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Why Layering
dealing with complex systems:
explicit structure allows identification,
relationship of complex systems pieces
layered reference model for discussion
modularization eases maintenance, updating of
system
change of implementation of layers service
transparent to rest of system
e.g., change in gate procedure doesnt affect rest of
system
layering considered harmful?
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Layering of Airline Functionality

ticket (purchase) ticket (complain) ticket

baggage (check) baggage (claim baggage

gates (load) gates (unload) gate

runway (takeoff) runway (land) takeoff/landing

airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing

departure intermediate air-traffic arrival


airport control centers airport

layers: each layer implements a service


via its own internal-layer actions
relying on services provided by layer below

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


OSI Seven Layer Model
Open System Interconnection
(OSI) model defines a
networking framework to
implement protocols in seven
layers. In the OSI model,
control is passed from one
layer to the next, starting at the
application layer in one station,
and proceeding to the bottom
layer, over the channel to the
next station and back up the
hierarchy.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Why Layering
dealing with complex systems:
explicit structure allows identification,
relationship of complex systems pieces
layered reference model for discussion
modularization eases maintenance, updating of
system
change of implementation of layers service
transparent to rest of system
e.g., change in gate procedure doesnt affect rest of
system
layering considered harmful?
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Internet Protocol Stack
application: supporting network
applications
FTP, SMTP, HTTP application
transport: process-process data
transport
transfer
TCP, UDP network
network: routing of datagrams from
source to destination link
IP, routing protocols
link: data transfer between physical
neighboring network elements
Ethernet, 802.111 (WiFi), PPP
physical: bits on the wire
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
ISO/OSI Reference Model
presentation: allow applications to
interpret meaning of data, e.g., application
encryption, compression, machine- presentation
specific conventions session
session: synchronization, transport
checkpointing, recovery of data
network
exchange
link
Internet stack missing these layers!
physical
these services, if needed, must be
implemented in application
needed?
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Encapsulation
source
message M application
segment Ht M transport
datagram Hn Ht M network
frame Hl Hn Ht M link
physical
link
physical

switch

destination Hn Ht M network
M application
Hl Hn Ht M link Hn Ht M
Ht M transport physical
Hn Ht M network
Hl Hn Ht M link router
physical

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Computer Network and the Internet
Whats the Internet?

Whats a protocol?

Network edge; hosts, access net, physical media.

Network core: packet/circuit switching, Internet structure.

Performance: loss, delay, throughput.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Whats the Internet: Nuts & Bolt View
PC mobile network
Millions of connected computing
server devices:
wireless hosts = end systems global ISP
laptop
smartphone
running network apps
applications run on end system, home
but dont in packet switches network
regional ISP
(network core)
wireless
links
wired v Nodes are connected via
links communication links
fiber, copper, radio, satellite
transmission rate: bandwidth

v Packet
switches: forward packets
router (chunks of data) from one node institutional
to other network
routers and switches
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Internet Applications

Web-enabled toaster +
weather forecaster

IP picture frame
http://www.ceiva.com/

Tweet-a-watt:
monitor energy use

Slingbox: watch,
control cable TV remotely
Internet
refrigerator Internet phones

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Whats the Internet: Nuts & Bolts View
mobile network
Internet: network of networks
Interconnected ISPs global ISP
Loosely hierarchical
Public vs. private internet home
network
protocols control sending, regional ISP
receiving of msgs
e.g., TCP, IP, HTTP, Skype, 802.11
Internet standards
RFC: Request for comments
IETF: Internet Engineering Task
Force institutional
network

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Whats the Internet: Service View
Infrastructure that provides services to mobile network
applications:
Web, VoIP, email, games, e-commerce, social global ISP
nets,
provides programming interface to apps home
End system attached to the internet provides network
regional ISP
API
API specifies how a software piece running on
one end system ask the internet infrastructure
to deliver data to specific destination software
running on other end system
hooks that allow sending and receiving app
programs to connect to Internet
Define set of rules must follow. institutional
network
provides service options, analogous to postal
service
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Internet: A Service View
Most people know about the Internet (a computer network)
through applications like
World Wide Web
Email
Online Social Network
Streaming Audio Video
File Sharing
Instant Messaging

Different communication services provided to apps:


reliable/ unreliable (best effort) data delivery form source to
destination
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Whats a Protocol?
human protocols: network protocols:
whats the time? machines rather than
I have a question humans
introductions all communication activity
in Internet governed by
protocols
specific msgs sent
protocols define format, order
specific actions taken
when msgs received, or
of msgs sent and received
other events among network entities,
and actions taken on msg
transmission, receipt

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Protocol
Each protocol object has two different interfaces:
service interface: operations on this protocol
peer-to-peer interface: messages exchanged with peer

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Protocol
a human protocol and a computer network
protocol:
Hi TCP connection
request
Hi TCP connection
response
Got the
time? Get http://www.awl.com/kurose-ross
2:00
<file>
time

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


A Closer Look at Network Structure
mobile network
network edge:
hosts: clients and servers global ISP
servers often in data
centers home
network
v access networks, physical regional ISP

media: wired, wireless


communication links

v network core:
interconnected routers
network of networks institutional
network

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Network Edge
End systems (hosts):
run application programs at
edge of network e.g. Web,
email
client/server model
client host requests,
receives service from
always-on server e.g. Web
browser/server; email
client/server
q peer-peer model:
minimal (or no) use of
dedicated servers
e.g. Skype, BitTorrent

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Network Edge: Connection Oriented
Service
Goal: data transfer TCP service [RFC 793]
between end systems reliable, in-order byte-
handshaking: setup stream data transfer
(prepare for) data transfer loss: acknowledgements
ahead of time and retransmissions
Hello, hello back human flow control:
protocol
sender wont overwhelm
set up state in two receiver
communicating hosts
congestion control:
TCP - Transmission senders slow down
Control Protocol sending rate when
Internets connection- network congested
oriented service

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Network Edge: Connectionless Service
Goal: data transfer between Apps using TCP:
end systems
HTTP (Web), FTP (file
transfer), Telnet (remote
UDP - User Datagram
Protocol [RFC 768]: login), SMTP (email)
connectionless
unreliable data Apps using UDP:
transfer
streaming media,
no flow control
teleconferencing, DNS,
no congestion Internet telephony
control

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Access Networks and Physical Media
Q: How to connect end
systems to edge router?
residential access nets
institutional access
networks (school,
company)
mobile access networks

keep in mind:
bandwidth (bits per second)
of access network?
shared or dedicated?
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Access Network: Dial Up
User software actually
dials a ISP Phone
Number and makes a
traditional phone
connection with ISP.

Home Modem coverts


digital output from PC
to analog format and
Modem in ISP converts
back data from analog
to digital format.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Access Network: Dial Up

Drawback:
Up to 56Kbps direct access to router (often less)
Cant surf and phone at same time: cant be
always on

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Access Net: Digital Subscriber Line
central office telephone
network

DSL splitter
modem DSLAM

ISP
voice, data transmitted
at different frequencies over DSL access
dedicated line to central office multiplexer

v use existing telephone line to central office DSLAM


data over DSL phone line goes to Internet
voice over DSL phone line goes to telephone net
v < 2.5 Mbps upstream transmission rate (typically < 1 Mbps)
v < 24 Mbps downstream transmission rate (typically < 10 Mbps)

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Access Net: Cable Network
cable headend

cable splitter
modem

C
O
V V V V V V N
I I I I I I D D T
D D D D D D A A R
E E E E E E T T O
O O O O O O A A L

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Channels

frequency division multiplexing: different channels transmitted


in different frequency bands

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Access Net: Cable Network
cable headend

cable splitter cable modem


modem CMTS termination system

data, TV transmitted at different


frequencies over shared cable ISP
distribution network

v HFC: hybrid fiber coax


asymmetric: up to 30Mbps downstream transmission rate, 2
Mbps upstream transmission rate
v network of cable, fiber attaches homes to ISP router
homes share access network to cable headend
unlike DSL, which has dedicated access to central office
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Access Net: Home Network
wireless
devices

to/from headend or
central office
often combined
in single box

cable or DSL modem

wireless access router, firewall, NAT


point (54 Mbps)
wired Ethernet (100 Mbps)

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Enterprise Access Networks: Ethernet

institutional link to
ISP (Internet)
institutional router

Ethernet institutional mail,


switch web servers

typically used in companies, universities, etc


v 10 Mbps, 100Mbps, 1Gbps, 10Gbps transmission rates

v today, end systems typically connect into Ethernet switch

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Wireless Access Networks
shared wireless access network connects end system to router
via base station aka access point
wireless LANs: wide-area wireless access
within building (100 ft) provided by telco (cellular)
802.11b/g (WiFi): 11, 54 Mbps operator, 10s km
transmission rate between 1 and 10 Mbps
3G, 4G: LTE

to Internet

to Internet

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Physical Media
bit: propagates between twisted pair (TP)
transmitter/receiver pairs two insulated copper
physical link: what lies wires
between transmitter & Category 5: 100 Mbps, 1
receiver Gbps Ethernet
guided media: Category 6: 10Gbps
signals propagate in solid
media: copper, fiber, coax
unguided media:
signals propagate freely,
e.g., radio

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Physical Media: Coaxial Fiber
coaxial cable: fiber optic cable:
v glass fiber carrying light
two concentric copper pulses, each pulse a bit
conductors v high-speed operation:
bidirectional high-speed point-to-point
transmission (e.g., 10s-100s
broadband: Gpbs transmission rate)
multiple channels on cable v low error rate:
HFC repeaters spaced far apart
immune to electromagnetic
noise

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Physical Media: Radio
signal carried in radio link types:
electromagnetic spectrum v terrestrial microwave
e.g. up to 45 Mbps channels
no physical wire
v LAN (e.g., WiFi)
bidirectional 11Mbps, 54 Mbps
propagation environment v wide-area (e.g., cellular)
effects: 3G cellular: ~ few Mbps
v satellite
reflection Kbps to 45Mbps channel (or
multiple smaller channels)
obstruction by
270 msec end-end delay
objects geosynchronous versus low
altitude
interference

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


The Network Core
Mesh of interconnected routers
How the data transferred through
network?
Circuit switching: dedicated circuit per
call (guaranteed perfromance).
Packet switching: data sent through
network in discrete chunks.
Packet-switching: hosts break
application layer messages into packets
forward packets from one router to the
next, across links on path from source to
destination
each packet transmitted at full link
capacity
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Host: Send Packets of data
host sending function:
v takes application message
two packets,
v breaks into smaller chunks, L bits each
known as packets, of length L
bits
v transmits packet into access 2 1
network at transmission rate R R: link transmission rate
link transmission rate, aka host
link capacity, aka link
bandwidth

packet time needed to L (bits)


transmission = transmit L-bit =
delay packet into link R (bits/sec)

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Packet Switching: Store-and-Forward

L bits
per packet

3 2 1
source des6na6on
R bps R bps

takes L/R seconds to transmit one-hop numerical example:


(push out) L-bit packet into link
at R bps L = 7.5 Mbits
store and forward: entire packet
R = 1.5 Mbps
must arrive at router before it one-hop transmission
can be transmitted on next link delay = 5 sec
v end-end delay = 2L/R (assuming
zero propagation delay)
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Packet Switching: Queuing Delay Loss
R = 100 Mb/s C
A
D
R = 1.5 Mb/s
B
queue of packets E
waiting for output link

queuing and loss:


v If arrival rate (in bits) to link exceeds transmission rate of
link for a period of time:
packets will queue, wait to be transmitted on link
packets can be dropped (lost) if memory (buffer) fills up

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Two Key Network-Core Functions
routing: determines source- forwarding: move packets
destination route taken by
packets from routers input to
routing algorithms appropriate router output

routing algorithm

local forwarding table


header value output link
0100 3 1
0101 2
0111 2 3 2
1001 1

dest address in arriving


packets header
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Alternative: Circuit Switching
end-end resources allocated to,
reserved for call between
source & dest:
In diagram, each link has four circuits.
call gets 2nd circuit in top link and
1st circuit in right link.
dedicated resources: no sharing
circuit-like (guaranteed)
performance
circuit segment idle if not used by call
(no sharing)
Commonly used in traditional
telephone networks
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Circuit Switching: FDM Vs. TDM
Example:
FDM
4 users

frequency

time
TDM

frequency

time

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Packet Switching Vs. Circuit Switching
packet switching allows more users to use network!
example:
1 Mb/s link
N

..
each user:
users
100 kb/s when active
1 Mbps link
active 10% of time

circuit-switching:
10 users
packet switching:
With 50 users, probability >
10 active at same time is less
than ~0.0093.
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Packet Switching Vs. Circuit Switching
is packet switching a slam dunk winner?
great for bursty data
resource sharing
simpler, no call setup
excessive congestion possible: packet delay and loss
protocols needed for reliable data transfer, congestion
control
Q: How to provide circuit-like behavior?
bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video apps

Q: human analogies of reserved resources (circuit switching)


versus on-demand allocation (packet-switching)?
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Internet Structure: Network of Networks

v End systems connect to Internet via access ISPs (Internet


Service Providers)
Residential, company and university ISPs
v Access ISPs in turn must be interconnected.
v So that any two hosts can send packets to each other
v Resulting network of networks is very complex
v Evolution was driven by economics and national policies
v Lets take a stepwise approach to describe current Internet
structure

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Internet Structure: Network of Networks
Question: given millions of access ISPs, how to connect them
together?

access
access
access
net net
net
access
access net
net
access
access net
net

access access
net net

access
net
access
net

access
net
access
net
access
net
access
net

access
net

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Internet Structure: Network of Networks
Option: connect each access ISP to every other access ISP?

access
access
net
access
net
net
access
access net
net
access
access net
net

connecting each access ISP


access
to each other directly doesnt access

net
scale: O(N2) connections. net

access
net
access
net

access
net
access
net
access
net
access
net

access
net

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Internet Structure: Network of Networks
Option: connect each access ISP to a global transit ISP? Customer and
provider ISPs have economic agreement.
access
access
net
access
net
net
access
access net
net
access
access net
net

global
access
net
ISP access
net

access
net
access
net

access
net
access
net
access
net
access
net

access
net

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Internet Structure: Network of Networks
But if one global ISP is viable business, there will be competitors .

access
access
net
access
net
net
access
access net
net
access
access net
net
ISP A

access access
net ISP B net

access
ISP C
net
access
net

access
net
access
net
access
net
access
net

access
net

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Internet Structure: Network of Networks
But if one global ISP is viable business, there will be competitors .
which must be interconnected Internet exchange point
access
access
net
access
net
net
access
access net
net

access
IXP access
net
net
ISP A

access IXP access


net ISP B net

access
ISP C
net
access
net

access
net
peering link
access
net
access
net
access
net

access
net

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Internet Structure: Network of Networks
and regional networks may arise to connect access nets to
ISPS
access

access access
net net
net
access
access net
net

access
IXP access
net
net
ISP A

access IXP access


net ISP B net

access
ISP C
net
access
net

access
net regional net
access
net
access
net
access
net

access
net

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Internet Structure: Network of Networks
and content provider networks (e.g., Google, Microsoft, Akamai )
may run their own network, to bring services, content close to end users
access
access
net
access
net
net
access
access net
net

access
IXP access
net
net
ISP A

Content provider network


access IXP access
net ISP B net

access
ISP B
net
access
net

access
net regional net
access
net
access
net
access
net

access
net

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Internet Structure: Network of Networks
Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Google

IX IX IX
P P P
Regional ISP Regional ISP

access access access access access access access access


ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP

at center: small # of well-connected large networks


tier-1 commercial ISPs , national & international coverage
content provider network (e.g, Google): private network that connects it data
centers to Internet, often bypassing tier-1, regional ISPs
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
The Network Core
Mesh of interconnected routers
How the data transferred through
network?
Circuit switching: dedicated circuit per
call (guaranteed perfromance).
Packet switching: data sent through
network in discrete chunks.
Packet-switching: hosts break
application layer messages into packets
forward packets from one router to the
next, across links on path from source to
destination
each packet transmitted at full link
capacity
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Packet Switching: Store-and-Forward

L bits
per packet

3 2 1
source des6na6on
R bps R bps

takes L/R seconds to transmit one-hop numerical example:


(push out) L-bit packet into link
at R bps L = 7.5 Mbits
store and forward: entire packet
R = 1.5 Mbps
must arrive at router before it one-hop transmission
can be transmitted on next link delay = 5 sec
v end-end delay = 2L/R (assuming
zero propagation delay)
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Packet Switching Vs. Circuit Switching
Packet switching:
great for bursty data
resource sharing
simpler, no call setup
excessive congestion possible: packet delay and loss
protocols needed for reliable data transfer, congestion
control
Q: How to provide circuit-like behavior?
bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video apps
Q: human analogies of reserved resources (circuit switching: FDM,
TDM) versus on-demand allocation (packet-switching: Statistical
Multiplexing)?
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Internet Structure: Network of Networks

v End systems connect to Internet via access ISPs (Internet


Service Providers)
Residential, company and university ISPs

v Access ISPs in turn must be interconnected.


v So that any two hosts can send packets to each other

v Resulting network of networks is very complex


v Evolution was driven by economics and national policies

v Lets take a stepwise approach to describe current Internet


structure

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Interconnections of ISPs

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Internet connection & Traffic

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How do loss and delay occur
Due to packet queued in I/O queue at router buffers
Packet arrival rate to link (temporarily) exceeds output link capacity
Packets queue, wait for turn
packet being transmitted (delay)

B
packets queueing (delay)
free (available) buffers: arriving packets
dropped (loss) if no free buffers

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Four Sources of Packet Delay
transmission
A propagation

B
nodal
processing queueing

dnodal = dproc + dqueue + dtrans + dprop

dproc: nodal processing dqueue: queueing delay


check bit errors time waiting at output link
for transmission
determine output link depends on congestion
typically < msec level of router
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Four Sources of Packet Delay
transmission
A propagation

B
nodal
processing queueing

dnodal = dproc + dqueue + dtrans + dprop

dtrans: transmission delay: dprop: propagation delay:


L: packet length (bits) d: length of physical link
R: link bandwidth (bps) s: propagation speed in medium
dtrans = L/R (~2x108 m/sec)
dtrans and dprop dprop = d/s
very different
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Carvan Analogy
100 km 100 km
ten-car toll toll
caravan booth booth

cars propagate at time to push entire


100 km/hr caravan through toll
toll booth takes 12 sec to booth onto highway =
service car (bit transmission 12*10 = 120 sec
time) time for last car to
car~bit; caravan ~ packet propagate from 1st to
2nd toll both: 100km/
Q: How long until caravan is
(100km/hr)= 1 hr
lined up before 2nd toll
booth? A: 62 minutes
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Queuing Delay: Revisited

average queueing
R: link bandwidth (bps)

delay
L: packet length (bits)
a: average packet arrival
rate
traffic intensity
= La/R
v La/R ~ 0: avg. queueing delay small La/R ~ 0

v La/R -> 1: avg. queueing delay large


v La/R > 1: more work arriving
than can be serviced, average delay infinite!

La/R -> 1
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Real Internet Delays and Routes
what do real Internet delay & loss look like?
traceroute program: provides delay
measurement from source to router along end-
end Internet path towards destination. For all i:
sends three packets that will reach router i on path
towards destination
router i will return packets to sender
sender times interval between transmission and reply.
3 probes 3 probes

3 probes

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Real Internet Delays and Routes
traceroute: gaia.cs.umass.edu to www.eurecom.fr
3 delay measurements from
gaia.cs.umass.edu to cs-gw.cs.umass.edu
1 cs-gw (128.119.240.254) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms
2 border1-rt-fa5-1-0.gw.umass.edu (128.119.3.145) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms
3 cht-vbns.gw.umass.edu (128.119.3.130) 6 ms 5 ms 5 ms
4 jn1-at1-0-0-19.wor.vbns.net (204.147.132.129) 16 ms 11 ms 13 ms
5 jn1-so7-0-0-0.wae.vbns.net (204.147.136.136) 21 ms 18 ms 18 ms
6 abilene-vbns.abilene.ucaid.edu (198.32.11.9) 22 ms 18 ms 22 ms
7 nycm-wash.abilene.ucaid.edu (198.32.8.46) 22 ms 22 ms 22 ms trans-oceanic
8 62.40.103.253 (62.40.103.253) 104 ms 109 ms 106 ms
9 de2-1.de1.de.geant.net (62.40.96.129) 109 ms 102 ms 104 ms link
10 de.fr1.fr.geant.net (62.40.96.50) 113 ms 121 ms 114 ms
11 renater-gw.fr1.fr.geant.net (62.40.103.54) 112 ms 114 ms 112 ms
12 nio-n2.cssi.renater.fr (193.51.206.13) 111 ms 114 ms 116 ms
13 nice.cssi.renater.fr (195.220.98.102) 123 ms 125 ms 124 ms
14 r3t2-nice.cssi.renater.fr (195.220.98.110) 126 ms 126 ms 124 ms
15 eurecom-valbonne.r3t2.ft.net (193.48.50.54) 135 ms 128 ms 133 ms
16 194.214.211.25 (194.214.211.25) 126 ms 128 ms 126 ms
17 * * *
18 * * * * means no response (probe lost, router not replying)
19 fantasia.eurecom.fr (193.55.113.142) 132 ms 128 ms 136 ms
* Do some traceroutes from exotic countries at www.traceroute.org
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Packet Loss
queue (aka buffer) preceding link in buffer has finite
capacity
packet arriving to full queue dropped (aka lost)
lost packet may be retransmitted by previous node, by
source end system, or not at all
buffer
(waiting area) packet being transmitted
A

B
packet arriving to
full buffer is lost

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Throughput
throughput: rate (bits/time unit) at which bits
transferred between sender/receiver
instantaneous: rate at given point in time
average: rate over longer period of time

server,
server with bits
sends linkpipe
capacity
that can carry linkpipe
capacity
that can carry
file of into
(fluid) F bits
pipe Rs bits/sec
fluid at rate Rc bits/sec
fluid at rate
to send to client Rs bits/sec) Rc bits/sec)

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Throughput
Rs < Rc What is average end-end throughput?

Rs bits/sec Rc bits/sec

v Rs > Rc What is average end-end throughput?

Rs bits/sec Rc bits/sec

bottleneck link
link on end-end path that constrains end-end throughput

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Throughput: Internet Scenario

per-connection end-
Rs
end throughput:
Rs Rs
min(Rc,Rs,R/10)

R
in practice: Rc or Rs
is often bottleneck Rc Rc

Rc

10 connections (fairly) share


backbone bottleneck link R bits/sec
BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus
Network Topologies

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Physical Layer: Repeaters and Hubs

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Link Layer: Bridges and Switches

A network bridge connects and filters


traffic between two network segments.

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Network Layer: Routers

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Switched WAN

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Summary

Internet overview
Whats a protocol?
Network edge, core, access network
packet-switching versus circuit-switching
Internet structure
Performance: loss, delay, throughput
Layering, service models
Network topology

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus


Thanks!!!
Queries?

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus