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Biophillic Design, Restorative Environments and





Ana Karinna Hidalgo
The University of Calgary


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environmental psychologists ban design historically relates the concept of well-being to suggest the use of natural features within urban spaces that comfort status that people obtain in public places. influences each individual differently. biomimicry. or the way people with psychological restorative experiences by releasing men. Burbano. psychological restoration. whereas. the Urban spaces are constantly changing over time. many de- sign approaches. what is common ground this is not the only direction that urban theories are taking. October 6-10. 2010. to promote people’s well-being. J.. Most of the theories developed by approaches different from urban design theory. vegetation. Desmet. faculty of environmental aBstraCt Well-being in cities can be addressed from the perspective of multiple disciplines. such as biophilic design. Appleyard. and in order Well-being has been studied from different perspectives. important inputs from environmental psychology and public health are also considered to understand people’s responses to different natural and built environments. enjoy outdoor activities (Jacobs. environmental psychology. restoratiVe eNViroNmeNts aNd Well-BeiNg ana karinna hidalgo phd student. WELL-BEING AND SUSTAINABILITY BiophiliC desigN. and tree lined boulevards. and perceive a space because of its Biophilic environments in urban spaces can provide people legibility (Lynch. tal fatigue and decreasing their levels of stress. 1976). and economic aspects of a city. All these variables identify a city Nowadays. biophilic design. Maya. The environment within urban places (Gehl. cultural. The uses of quality of the urban space. (Eds. 2014. and eco-cities can make a contribution to this topic. Madanipour. From these results.. culture. Salamanca. J. such as forest-like playgrounds.. ISBN: 978-958-774-070-7 535 . and age of the city. (2013) offer a and drivers of well-being where all users can be engaged in wide range of evidence from several research studies on natu- different ways (UN-Habitat. these elements may include natural water features. Ur. social. Ludden. Bogotá. this paper consists of an extensive literature review of these disciplines and approaches in order to provide designers with elements to be considered for the design of restorative environments. 2010. Public urban How people experience the environment and how they are re- spaces should be considered as restorative places where more lated to it is twofold. 2010). 2013b). field is in the search for promoting well-being and the under. tion process in turn improves people’s well-being. 2013). Ediciones Uniandes. this paper is focused on biophilic design as an urban design approach aimed at understanding connections between natural and built environments in relation to psychologi- cal restoration. P. restorative environments iNtroduCtioN related to well-being in public spaces refer to the way people understand. the built environment is a people could benefit from biophilic elements. keyWords: well-being. on the other. Gehl. However. who in turn are able to change the cultural aspects of cities and the interconnections of people environment both positively and negatively.. Bogotá.). G. and well-designed buildings to improve people’s well-being. 1960. This restora. Madanipour. experience. Proceedings of the Colors of Care: The 9th International Conference on Design & Emotion. university of Calgary  akhidalg@ucalgary. as a result of the wealth. This does can provide positive outcomes at different stages and for dif- not imply that this objective was always achieved. design good cities and to consider the streets as public spaces Kopec (2006). urban researchers are focusing on the social and and influence its residents. UN-Habitat (2013a) is challenging city leaders to based on experiments and evidence from this field. urban design can contribute to creating built environments within nature with tangible elements to provide psychological restoration that releases stress and mental fatigue. 2011). but that this ferent purposes. edible gardens. Gifford (2007) and Steg et al. These features are standing of the urban components of it. also takes part in people’s the historical. ral and built environments. urban spaces depend not only on their function but also on social issues. A. is the set of elements suggested by environmental psychology For instance. green roofs. perceptions (Steg et al. result of its physical characteristics. On one hand. to do so. 1961. natural light and colors. 2014.

refers to the experience of both psychological and physiological recovery that is activated in specific environ- ments (Joye & van den Berg. er more rapidly from a surgery if the window of their healing One of the factors that negatively impacts well-being is stress. Virtual and direct relation to nature and other features such as guage. and having social interactions of good quality (HRSDC.. 2014. (1991) lenging circumstances that affects people’s mental and even propose the SRT by focusing on stress reduction from an affec- physical health. music. and stress recovery theory (SRT). 535-544 . However. 2013). as from stress by being exposed to nature. some suggestions about further research are proposed. and deeper restoration experience. despite focusing on different aspects of and economics. 2006). selves. People’s pref- perception of the environment is above or below her capacity erences for natural landscapes. 2013). Ulrich et al. and discusses the positive outcomes from natural environments based on relevant evidence. 1991). cities. recovery). 1986) shows. and biophilic design. 2006. a person can be restored ly. (Diener.. it is important to define some and the main concern of urban design. 2006. ans. tion that people need during most of a workday. 1984. ample. recreationis = restoration. He finds that patients recov- development but also for the development of an equal society. and appropriate responses to urban stressors. According produce urban stressors that threaten the ability of people to Rachel Kaplan & Steven Kaplan (1989). and based on the definitions wall instead. refreshment. The capacity of people to Well-BeiNg. this tal perspective. This sec- disease risk. patients and visitors get benefits from the presence of The lack of well-being is an impediment not only for individual vegetation and green landscapes. pec. well-being (Joye & van den Berg. 2008). that even if healthcare facilities are stressful by them- The pursuit of well-being is a goal for people around the world. pp. 2000). The third section specific situation that challenges or threatens well-being (Ul- addresses the relationship between psychological restoration rich. Secondly. In this 2002). which challenges or threatens well-being (Ul. economic. contempla- mental or emotional chaos that results from adverse or chal. in for this theory (Ulrich et al. stress aNd restoratioN recover their health status from illness or stress in urban envi- ronments is related to a successful achievement of well-being For the purpose of this paper. 2011). shown by their choices about of adaptation. cal framework from an environmental perspective. Subjective well-being is defined as good men. 2013). restoration. A continuous exposure to stress stress in order to understand one of the factors that is threat- may influence and also affect physical health because of the ening people’s well-being. spiritual. for instance. Gifford. Stress is a process where the person responds tion presents the state of the art of this approach based on the psychologically. constitute the scientific evidence rich.uniandes. From a psychological perspective. Psychological restoration is. refers to people’s mood and emotions that re. and experience mental rejuvenation. are related to each other because restoration is sult from being exposed to events or stimuli of different nature a multi-faceted process (Roe & Aspinall. stress is a human response to the imbalance paper presents the definition of well-being and restoration between environment demands and the capability of human as outcomes to be achieved by design. 1986). physical. attention restoration tal states that include positive and negative self evaluations theory (ART). One of the main benefits of nature is the psychological restor- can reduce the level of stress (CMHA). stress and restoration will be considered water. for ex- urban design field. ecological cities (Register. physiologically and even behaviorally to a work by prominent researchers in the field. are considered reported by people about their lives and the affective reac. and specifically streets. the ability of a person to overcome stress and mental ration from stress occurs when it positively impacts people’s fatigue. Psychologists define two main theories about restorative en- Subjective well-being (SWB). tion. Restoration (from well as the need of an interdisciplinary approach to offer more Latin recreation. where they live and recover. Kopec. biomimicry Stress establishes links to health by affecting the immune (Benyus. Firstly. 2013). Well-being. being healthy from a psychological perspective (NWIA. Kellert et system and provoking psychological problems (Bilotta & Ev- al. people need to go to restore themselves from stress and mental fatigue (Ko. which will be later understood in the context of the stress they promote. From an environmen- ative effect that will be addressed in this paper. Final. the concept of biophilia biological processes or behavioral patterns that influence and biophilic urban design spaces will be provided. 1986. 2013). rooms shows green landscape compared to those that have a For the purpose of this paper. and the definition of response (Steg et al. SRT considers that resto- general. here in order to have inputs for the development of a theoreti- tions to their experiences (OECD. 536 DESIGN & EMOTION 2014 | SOCIAL INNOVATION | COLOMBIA http://de2014. Robert Ulrich (1984. 2010). 2013).. and colorful surfaces can be beneficial for psy- from a psychological perspective with insights from public chological and physical health because of the reduction of the health. 2013). His findings are acknowledged and used as a ba- from other fields. The ability to balance all aspects of life such as social. well-being is understood as the condition of sis for stress restoration theories (Kopec. Cities aim to provide people with environments that improve The ART focuses on the fatigue provoked by the active atten- their quality of life. Therefore both theories. | october. interdisciplinary keywords in order to maintain a common lan. Gifford. 2007). through four phases to overcome mental fatigue: fascination. 2011. stress is a state of directed attention to the fascinating environment. 2007. Cohen et al. isBN 978-958-774-070-7. and mental domains. widely employed in psychology vironments that. Psychological stress occurs when a person’s tive and aesthetic response to the environment. Joye & van der Berg. and biophilic design (Wilson. 2007). 2007.

. the innate urge of humans to affiliate with nature and other points out that there is wisdom in bringing nature back into the forms of life and life-like processes. The inclusion of social aspects can be vironment. ers are looking at is how natural environment and its complexity mimicking its mechanics. a changing is an integral part of the human development process and of palette of colors. an human beings to other living organisms’ (Wilson. the lead author of the biomimicry approach. look for opportunities to enjoy nature outside cities because these are places that are usually not offering this type of ref- uges. ing the spirit and sensibilities of a built environment. social place goes beyond the physical characteristics of the built en- sciences. The concept of mean- ing is incorporated into the concept of urban space where Historically the built environment has been integrated with thoughts. for example by considering buildings as living organisms (‘Cra- dle-to-Cradle’. Janine biophilia in his book Biophilia (1984). natural ventilation. experience and make a huge difference in the outcomes expected from a spe- curiosity of people in contact with nature. 1987) that challenges future development to Newman. However. the savannah of human ances. and life emerge and occur. activities. effects of nature on human’s well-being with special interest on how biophilic environments can provide people with res- toration. the specific group. daylighting. are used as they were before. These elements include or- (Wilson. and traditionally local materials and experience with the natural environment consists of views of processes constitute the local aesthetics and heritage of so. (‘Biomimicry’. spiritual cal mechanisms and interactions of living things. 2008). 1961. neither local materials nor local vegetation wards wildlife constitute part of this meaning (Gifford & Mc- that protects endemic flora and fauna. 2010). and spiritual reverence and affilia. Biophilia. 2013). Initiatives on closed-loop industrial cycles. and design. behaviors. Benyus. 2013). which in turn is related to the concepts of sense biophilic approach. These perspectives are aimed at From an urban design perspective. daylighting. Wilson the urban environment occur producing a variety of different (2008) is aware that this term unites disciplines as a cause. ‘the innately emotional affiliation of ganic forms and structures. whereas attitudes and emotions to- ciety. a dynamic palette of colors. He defines biophilia as Benyus (2008). Wilson. (2008) argue that biophilic design takes advantage of an intrinsic human affinity to incorporate natural and local sys. Specific urban places such as parks. p . even Edward O. and healing buildings usually provide restorative ex. 2002). Kellert. to provide people with stress recovery and mental fatigue re. each particular environment may have. One of the issues that urban environmental research- of its systems and structures. The concept of urban and-effect explanation. tems and processes into the design of the built environment. Nowadays. environment quiet enough to enjoy natural sounds. An approach that takes advan- tion ties (Kellert & Wilson. revolutionary approaches. 1984. such as tropical forests. 1993). WELL-BEING AND SUSTAINABILITY Restoration and well-being are concepts related to each other. natural ventilation. 1993. the temples. are just a few examples of these natural sounds. Biophilia aNd desigN According to Beatley (2011) biophilia shows that the evolution- ary and biological contact with nature cannot be avoided. for instance physical sustenance. al. Biophilic Urban Spaces tors (Heerwagen & Orians. As a consequence individuals bio-inspiration gardens. 2002). design is focused on environmental issues and psychological ment. hidalgo 537 . bringing working ecosystems indoors. The desire of having more building process by incorporating elements inspired by bio- livable habitats obeys this urge and is called aesthetic criteria philia into the built environment. coined the term if people believe that life without nature is feasible. which is vital to the Cunn. As part of the same biological design approach. a well-known biologist. The peculiarities of the natural and built environments functions. and the physical and mental growth. Gifford (2007) suggests that it is important to define the city. 1993). restoratiVe eNViroNmeNts aNd Well-BeiNg | a. tage of these concepts in a positive fashion is therefore biophil- ic design (Wilson. According to Macdonald (2011) the urban place is grounded on biophilia complexity by considering also cultural the public realm that needs to shift its direction in public val- and ethnic differences among individuals and communities ues in order to take advantage of ecological opportunities that (Soulé. An urban space is where the interactions between people and Even if biophilia has its origin in biological science. The the natural environment. McDonough & Braungart. for instance among biology. 1984). Gehl.31). Kellert et al. influence people’s well-being. Biophilic design in Different biological perspectives of design have been devel- urban places can help promote protect and strengthen favor- oped in the last two decades inspired by the Brundtland Report able climate and microclimate conditions in cities (Beatley & (United Nations. restorative spaces are ideal searching for energy efficiency. and tools to be used in order to study a People have given different values to nature according to its place. museums. clean industrial production. experiences (Jacobs. 2008). Benyus (2008) inspiration for mimicking natural structures and processes to suggests a set of biophilic design elements inspired in nature: develop efficient and aesthetic innovative designed objects organic form and structure. communication and expression. nature and landscapes. mimicking and BiophiliC desigN. biophilic include nature and the possibility to personalize the environ. environment itself is not the topic of study of these approach- periences. or biological In the quest for principles of biophilic design. the understanding cific site. Most of the elements that constitute these spaces es. 1993. product innovation and design methodology based on biologi- lease. A biophilic environment is about understand- grow sustainably. Kellert et of place and place attachment.

of nature into the built environment. and bio-inspired gardens. cesses.uniandes. street. cial decision-makers should take part in the process of imple- place-based relationships. they affect to ture that can be applied to design products and artificial pro. light and | october. pp. Figure 1. 2014. Benyus design elements however constitute restorative compo- (2008) proposes physical elements and processes from na. and evolved human-nature rela. natural shapes community. and organic structures. 535-544 . The way in which animals and plants behave and adapt Using similar physical elements of nature to build the urban in wild environments are examples she uses to describe the space. Biophilic design elements inspired in Biomimicry (Benyus. He argues that both political and so- and forms. Not all of these biophilic not included in Bentley’s proposal. green elements and green urban spaces as components of a prehensive study of the context that includes historical. isBN 978-958-774-070-7. His proposal also incorporates a com. he proposes Kellert (2008) defines six elements and attributes that go the following levels for the elements of biophilic design in the from natural features to social relationships in cities. nents. Bentley (2011) focuses on strategies for the integration considered restorative elements (Figure 1). and region. neighborhood. elements consist of environmental features. some extent mental restoration. that provide restorative experiences such as diversity of color. 2008) 538 DESIGN & EMOTION 2014 | SOCIAL INNOVATION | COLOMBIA http://de2014. are people with their affiliation to nature. but as they are part of the urban space. Other biophilic components geographical. natural patterns and processes. and cultural components that affect individu. These urban environment: building. restorative landscapes. mentation of biophilic biophilic environment (Figure 3). block. To do so. al’s perceptions of the space and therefore the relationship of daylight. natural water features. This regional scale focuses on tionships (Figure 2).

hidalgo 539 . 2008) BiophiliC desigN. Biophilic design elements and attributes (Modified from Kellert. WELL-BEING AND SUSTAINABILITY Figure 2. restoratiVe eNViroNmeNts aNd Well-BeiNg | a.

From a psychological perspective. and a sense of place (Jacobs. sun and heat. wildness and nature of the cities are not only related to green bination of nature and urban design. Register. aquatic species. na. 2014. pp. the relationship between natural conditions and human well- shelter. vegetation. water quality. and animals (Beatley. being remains vital for people. Gifford & McCunn (2013) argue that the effect of places’ by Hippocrates establishes the relationship among having nature indoors can be negative in terms of the produc- climate. 2010). Figure 3. isBN by social and environmental psychologists who suggest that From an urban design perspective.. and a sce.uniandes. (Hippocrates. and hydrological features should be considered and showed in cities rather than hiding them restoratioN aNd Well-BeiNg as as is usual. Weather conditions and ture provides people with restorative experiences to overcome their effects on people’s behavior are currently widely studied stress and mental fatigue that improve their health status. the use of trees on streets. 2011) Biophilia focuses on natural elements to be incorporated into the way in which these characteristics affect people’s health urban environments. geography. How nature helps improve health and well-being is in fact Even if a consensus about the effects of nature on people’s a historical topic of interest. space. 2013). 2011. Register. these authors found that 540 DESIGN & EMOTION 2014 | SOCIAL INNOVATION | COLOMBIA http://de2014. Although having plants in the office could in- nic environment that can be perceived by an individual and crease people’s psychological health. The presence of nature also includes microorgan- a result of BiophiliC desigN isms. rooftops. n/ | october. Biophilic green urban design elements in cities (Adapted from Beatley. creeks. tivity of workers. 2010). Steg et al. 1961. A Greek text ‘Airs. courtyards. waters and health exist. According to Beatley (2011). 535-544 . It is important to mention that The richness of biophilic design therefore stems from the com. nature provides aesthetics.

appropriate contact with other people . and.irritability Table 1. im- reflecting the intrinsic human affinity for nature (Wilson 1984.attractive.with privacy Can produce . 2013).less mental fatigue UNFAVORABLE SETTINGS . in several urban case studies and psychological experiments. drivers can experience road tures of a preferred natural forest can improve human psy. and health depends on the distance condition for commuters nor by neighbors.distress . proves people’s health status and social aspects of life. The proximity to open green spaces in urban areas is as.. 2006). an pecially among children. a place-based or vernacular dimension biophilic approach considers these natural elements in both that considers the culture and ecology of a specific geographi. explore it (Lynch. an organic or naturalistic dimen. 2011). Social support and sense of community need to be addressed ity.well-being . that includes flora and fauna.smaller social networks . FAVORABLE SETTINGS TO MENTAL HEALTH . and how satisfaction . The way in which designed buildings (Gifford & McCunn. safe places ..anxiety . Kopec.ability to concentrate . Gifford.quality of life . 2006.reduced social ties among neighbors . by design. Kopec. However. that high rise and between the location of nature and people. A restorative environment. Register. & Chang. multifamily housing may cause anxiety and depression. stormwater ponds. the increasing length of the commutes. 2013). and im- design paradigm where a low-environmental impact strategy prove their quality of design that can be measured by the ex- could avoid damage to the natural environment. nect humans to nature. well-maintained. 2008. 2011. turn contribute to aggression and violence (Sullivan & Chang.creative play in children . 2006). and built environments that include well sociated with the reduction of stress levels. WELL-BEING AND SUSTAINABILITY having many plants could decrease people’s labor productiv. Faggi et al. BiophiliC desigN. 2008). 2011. Groenewegen et al. as shown sion of design (Papanek. 1991... White et withdrawal . 1984. that living near heavy traffic is not a desired well-being. and edible gardens and parks negative outcomes as suggested below (Table 1).. emotions. Favorable and unfavorable settings to mental health Source: Modified from Sullivan & Chang. sion. However. that includes shapes and forms in the built environment Since the use of nature. and where tent at which a city is legible. The impact of nature on people’s ing. which in ers (Korpela et al. or that the daylight is important to indirect contact of people with nature could be enough to avoid seasonal affective disorder (Sullivan & Chang. the built environment can such as vegetation and forest-like landscapes (Ulrich et al.diminished social and motor skills in children .noisy places Can produce . the indoor and outdoor built environment in order to recon- cal location that constitutes the social and ecological dimen. 2011). 2001. 2010. 2010). (Beatley. 2003. rage because of support . Even though this paper is not focused in indoor spaces. 1993). They can do so by consider- to be taken into account. 2011). The conditions of modern life decrease people’s ability to keep can be provided with natural elements (see Table 1 above) focused on daily activities. and riv- Mental fatigue can affect anxiety and depression. Sullivan mensions in this paradigm. the use of local environmental settings are designed can produce positive or materials. or biophilic design. hidalgo 541 .contact with green space . 1960. natural light and its relation to color and shadows (Kaplan. Beatley & Newman. natural ing social ties that facilitate recovery from mental fatigue. water features such as wetlands.crowded places . community identity. There are two di. es- cally impoverished a particular environment is.legible places .. prioritize walking and biking. 2008). restoratiVe eNViroNmeNts aNd Well-BeiNg | a. 2007. A legible city provides residents a positive environmental impact. Other facts include the following: the lack of quality in urban The use of windows with a green landscape view or even pic. Designers can promote social interaction within it is clear however that other studies can provide insights urban spaces and protect people from crowding that may about possible outcomes in different environments that need cause stress and depression. for example. 2013).dangerous places . promote psychological health and well-being by also increas. as well as difficulties associated to chological conditions. Cities need to reduce Restorative environmental design can be considered as a new automobile commutes. Hartig et al. brings with a sense of emotional security as well as an invitation to benefits to human health (Kellert. have a restorative experience (Heerwagen & Orians. the Kellert. design can produce distress.

2008). mental fatigue release. Cole & Hall (2010) study the restorative ef- fects of wilderness on people’s well-being that is negatively People need to preserve nature and the health of ecosystems impacted by urban stressors such as crowding. consider nature as a main element to improve people’s mental people have a stronger identification with objects that provide health. seasonal characteristics. the result of well-designed urban spaces that include natu- ral and built features (Gifford. should provide city residents with refuges and be with nature during ten minutes. in particu- solved and then reflect about them while walking in contact lar streets. This paper highlights the strong relationship between ies cast doubt on the implicit and innate connection of people the benefits of the natural environment. Since the achievement of well-be- evidence from environmental psychology. to constant Biophilic design consists mainly of providing not only strate- insecurity about natural disasters in vulnerable places. At the personal level. Gifford (2008) argues that the extensive spaces where people live. environmental psychology and public health have provided enough evidence According to Ulrich (1993.uniandes. these stud- ment. ing. should be considered in bio- security. It is ironic that urban designers seek to incorporate nature ronments shows that the exposure of participants to nature into built environments. and congestion. whereas the stress with nature during spring and autumn. mainly studied material realizations. Mayer et al. but that there exist positive and negative proposed elements and components. prevalent recovery theory suggests that people can recover from stress activities in different seasons are associated with seasonal because of an affective and aesthetic response to the environ- animals’ behavior. ban design are still not connected to each other. Moreover. They point out that further designed by considering both the positive and negative out- research on the impact of different lengths of exposure to comes from nature. by environmental psychology. because it is the built environment results in restorative experiences. nature is needed in order to understand what people require to solve major issues. Com. the built environment provides urban residents with their ability to reflect on minor problems. On the other hand. Urban spaces. The effect of weather. The social dimension of people’s behavior. pp. well-known benefits of natural settings. social. and the principles of that natural hazards and other natural forces do not provide biophilic design. that historical evidence on city development and the continu. and the scenic beauty of streets are tion of urban design. 1961). losing the and mental rejuvenation. biophilic researchers have wrong or inexistent. based on field and ing is a public goal. and envi- Much of the organization of a society depends on the function. to provide spaces that address people’s needs. According to their study. human den. the required process- with nature or the ‘biophilia hypothesis’. to maintain and improve their emotional health and well-be- sity. walkability. social life. (2009) ar. The challenge for between biophilic design and restorative effects needs more designers is to incorporate these theories and evidence into research. people with restorative effects. Moreover. a comprehensive understanding of well-being. their levels of well-being make the difference between a single solution with a blind depend to a large extent on what the city has to offer. arguments do not imply that restorative impacts of nature are As shown throughout this paper. the understanding of the link on the link between nature and well-being. while they show a positive association a process to help release mental fatigue. Gifford (2008) argues es and responses of restorative and possible of weather make sense. However. In order to improve people’s mental health. as well as the quality and quantity. therefore. and space attributes to create better places for people’s | october. from phobia to bugs. health status. The attention restoration theory requires fascination as shelter during winter. and individual outcomes are remains also an open question for future research. Restoration theories mentioned in this paper es in nature for people’s behavior. on how the environment and people relate to each other may ties on a daily basis and. they produce biophobia at different levels. Psychological restoration can also be a result of the benefits CoNClusioN of recreation. the design of public spaces as restorative lab experiments. Further research on how these elements can help the restora- ous search of people to be protected from extreme conditions tion process. and outcomes to be considered when working with nature. Economic. 535-544 . angle. Duffy & Verges The components of the natural and built environment that (2010) also suggest that further research is required to explore provide psychological restoration are studied by environmen- people’s connection to nature and the role of seasonal chang- tal psychology. 2007). just a few contributors to well-being. These gies but also a set of principles to design built environments. and environmental quality constitute components philic strategies. that was incorporated into nature in the first place. Urban residents become users of city ameni. Their experiment in wilderness envi. favorable settings. gue that brief exposures to nature can help people improve however. This is the 542 DESIGN & EMOTION 2014 | SOCIAL INNOVATION | COLOMBIA http://de2014. For Duffy and Verges (2010). 2014. leisure time. on the contrary. can constantly inform environmental design places should be urgently addressed by urban designers. Whether city amenities increase or reduce the level of people’s well-being should be The results of research from different disciplines related to ur- the main concern of urban design. combinations of them in different public landscapes is need- ed. The participants in a more comfortable life by protecting them from environmen- this experiment were asked to think about minor issues to be tal conditions and natural hazards. isBN 978-958-774-070-7. Moreover. ronmental conditions on people’s perception and experience ing of cities and even on how streets function in a daily basis of the environment in relation to restoration and well-being (Jacobs. and a complex solution where interdisciplinary ap- proaches can reduce risks in the proposal and implementa- muting time.

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