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# "STEPCOL" --- STEPPED COLUMN ANALYSIS

Program Description:

"STEPCOL" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analyzing stepped columns
typically used in mill-type buildings to determine the effective lengths and effective length K factors.

This program is a workbook consisting of three (3) worksheets, described as follows:

Worksheet Name Description
Doc This documentation sheet
Stepped Column Eff. Lengths Effective Lengths and Effective Length Factors (K)
References References "a", "b", and "c" (as an ebedded PDF file object)

Program Assumptions and Limitations:

1. This program is based on the following references:
a. "Calculation of Effective Lengths and Effective Slenderness Ratios of Stepped Columns"
by: John P. Anderson and James H. Woodward (AISC Engineering Journal, Oct. / 1972, pages 157-166)
b. "Calculation of Effective Lengths of Stepped Columns"
by: Krishna M. Agrawal and Andrew P. Stafiej (AISC Engineering Journal, 4th Quarter / 1980, pages 96-105)
c. "Calculation of Effective Lengths of Stepped Columns" (Errata)
by: Krishna M. Agrawal and Andrew P. Stafiej (AISC Engineering Journal, Third Quarter / 1981, page 126)
d. "Steel Design Guide 7 - Industrial Buildings, Roofs to Anchor Rods" (2nd Edition)
by: James M. Fisher (AISC / 2004, Appendix B, pages 89-98) (Note: does not include errata from Ref. "c".)
3. This program utilizes a simple iterative solution for determining the root, "Z", to each of the characteristic
equations shown below, per references "a" and "b" listed above. The program calculates an initial guess
(Zst) for "Z", evaluates the expression, increments the value of "Z" by a value equal to the initial guess, and
then evaluates the expression again, etc., etc. The results of each pair of evaluation iterations are multiplied
times each other to determine the location where the value passes through 0 (changes sign). Per the
references, the first (lowest) root is the desired/correct solution to the characteristic equation, although there
are multiple roots. Once the pair of iterations have been identified which locate the first (lowest) root, the
program performs a linear interpolation between those two values to determine the point where "Z" = 0.
The program performs up to a maximum of 4000 iterations to find the correct solution for "Z".
4. This program contains “comment boxes” which contain a wide variety of information including explanations
of input or output items, equations used, data tables, etc. (Note: presence of a “comment box” is denoted
by a “red triangle” in the upper right-hand corner of a cell. Merely move the mouse pointer to the desired
cell to view the contents of that particular "comment box".)

Characteristic Equations from References "a" and "b" listed above (solve for "Z"):

Case 1: For Pinned Bottom - Pinned Top
General: (1+PR)*(1+PR+PR/LR)*Z*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+PR*(PR*(1+LR)+LR)*Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B)-SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B) = 0
If P1 = 0: (2+1/LR-(LR*Z*B)^2/(3*IR))*SIN(Z*B)+LR*Z*B*COS(Z*B) = 0
If P2 = 0: Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B)+(Z/LR)*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B) = 0

Case 2: For Fixed Bottom - Free Top
General: (1+PR)*Z*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B)-LR*PR*Z*B*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B) = 0
If P1 = 0: COS(Z*B) = 0
If P2 = 0: Z*B*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)-(Z/LR)*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0

Fixed Top General: SIN(Z*B)*(2/PR-Z*SIN(Z)*((1+LR)/LR+1/PR)-COS(Z)*(PR/(1+PR)+2/PR))+COS(Z*B)*(-B*LR*SIN(Z)+ Z*B*COS(Z)*(1+LR-1/(1+PR))) = 0 If P1 = 0: SIN(Z*B)*(((Z*B*LR)/2*IR)-6*IR/(Z*B*LR)^2)-6*(1+(1/LR)))+2*Z*B*COS(Z*B)*((3*IR/(Z*B*LR)^2-LR) = 0 If P2 = 0: B*LR*COS(Z*B)*(SIN(Z)-Z*COS(Z)*(1+LR)/LR)+SIN(Z*B)*(COS(Z)+Z*SIN(Z)*(1+LR)/LR) = 0 Case 7: For Pinned Bottom .Case 3: For Fixed Bottom .Fixed Top General: ((1+PR)/PR)*Z*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)-LR*Z*B*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0 If P1 = 0: LR*Z*B*SIN(Z*B)-IR*COS(Z*B) = 0 If P2 = 0: Z*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)-Z*B*LR*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0 .Slider Top General: LR*Z*B*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+(1+1/PR)*Z*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0 If P1 = 0: SIN(Z*B)+(LR*Z*B/IR)*COS(Z*B) = 0 If P2 = 0: LR*Z*B*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+Z*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0 Case 5: For Fixed Bottom .Pinned Top General: 2*Z*B*SIN(Z)+(PR+1/PR)*Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B)+(PR+LR*(1+PR))*(Z*B)^2*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)- (1+1/PR)*(1+PR+PR/LR)*Z*Z*B*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B)+(1+PR)*(Z/LR)*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B) = 0 If P1 = 0: 2+(LR*Z*B+1/(LR*Z*B))*SIN(Z*B)-(2+1/LR-(LR*Z*B)^2/(3*IR))*COS(Z*B) = 0 If P2 = 0: Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B)+(1+LR)*(Z*B)^2*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+(Z/LR)*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B)- (1+1/LR)*Z*Z*B*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0 Case 4: For Fixed Bottom .Fixed Top General: -2*(1+PR)*Z*Z*B+2*Z*Z*B*COS(Z)-2*(1+1/PR)*Z*Z*B*COS(Z*B)+2*(1+PR+1/PR)*Z*Z*B*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B)- (1+PR)*((Z)^2/LR+(Z*B)^2*LR)*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+(PR+(1+PR)*LR)*Z*(Z*B)^2*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B)+ (1+1/PR)*(1+PR+PR/LR)*(Z)^2*Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B) = 0 If P1 = 0: 2+(LR*Z*B)^2/IR-(2-(LR*Z*B)^4/(12*IR^2)+LR*(1+LR)*(Z*B)^2/IR)*COS(Z*B)+(-Z*B+(LR*Z*B)^3/(3*IR)+ LR*Z*B/IR)*SIN(Z*B) = 0 If P2 = 0: (COS(Z)-COS(Z*B))*(Z*((1+LR)/LR)*SIN(Z)+COS(Z)-COS(Z*B))+(LR*SIN(Z)-Z*(1+LR)*COS(Z)+ SIN(Z*B)/B)*(SIN(Z)/LR+B*SIN(Z*B)) = 0 Case 6: For Pinned Bottom .

L1(eff) = 19.0016 1 = SQRT(P1/(E*I1)) (Lower L2. P2 = 69. E = 29000 ksi Fix Fix Fix Fix Pin Pin Pin End Condition Cases Results: For Fixed Bottom .2500 ft. L2 = 22. Zst = 0. L1 = 10. PT = 92. K1 = 1.08 ft.1 STEPPED COLUMN ANALYSIS For Determining Effective Lengths and Effective Length K Factors Job Name: Subject: Case 1 Job Number: Originator: Checker: Case 2 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Case 3 Input: Pin Free Pin Slider Fix Fix Slider Case 4 Case 5 End Condition Case = Case 3 Case 6 Upper Shaft. LR = 0.00 kips Mod.0330 Zst = 0.00 ft. PR = 0. L2(eff) = *L2/(Zrt*B) (for lower shaft) ### Effective Length Factors: (expressed relative to total stepped column length) Upper Shaft.1095 CK = IR Nomenclature DK = 0. of Elasticity. Lower Shaft. K2 = 0.2795 Z2 = 2*L2 CK = 0.322 K2 = L2(eff)/L2 (for lower shaft) Comments: 3 of 5 04/25/2017 15:15:58 .00 kips PT = P1+P2 Load Ratio.^4 Yes Upper Shaft.597 K1 = L1(eff)/(L1+L2) = L1(eff)/LT (for upper shaft) Lower Shaft. IR = 0.1095 IR = I1/I2 Total Load. solving for Z by iteration using following equation: General: 2*Z*B*SIN(Z)+(PR+1/PR)*Z*B*SIN(Z)*COS(Z*B)+ (PR+LR*(1+PR))*(Z*B)^2*SIN(Z)*SIN(Z*B)- (1+1/PR)*(1+PR+PR/LR)*Z*Z*B*COS(Z)*COS(Z*B) +(1+PR)*(Z/LR)*COS(Z)*SIN(Z*B) = 0 Effective Lengths: Upper Shaft.0 in.4207 B = (L2/L1)*SQRT(IR*(1+P2/P1)) Z1 = 0. L2(eff) = 29.2500 DK = P1/PT EK = 0. LT = L1+L2 (Upper L1. P1 = 23.902 K2 = L2(eff)/(L1+L2) = L2(eff)/LT (for lower shaft) Effective Length Factors: (expressed relative to upper and lower shaft lengths) Upper Shaft.25 ft. L1(eff) = *L1/Zrt (for upper shaft) Lower Shaft. Zrt = 1. K1 = 0.0 in.00 kips No Lower Shaft. 2 = 0.4659 LR = L1/L2 Shaft) I1 P2 Inertia Ratio.1967 Z1 = 1*L1 Z2 = 0.3178 EK = L1/LT Initial Guess.0011 2 = SQRT(PT/(E*I2)) Shaft) I2 B= 1.6730 Zrt = Z.2**EK*SQRT(DK*CK) Root of Equation. K2 = 1.^4 Lower Shaft. I2 = 2830.25 ft. Length Ratio.878 K1 = L1(eff)/L1 (for upper shaft) Lower Shaft. Case 7 Upper Shaft. "STEPCOL.xls" Program Version 1.Pinned Top P1 Solution Parameters: Total Length.3333 PR = P1/P2 LT 1 = 0. I1 = 310. LT = 32.

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