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**A DESIGN METHOD FOR MODIFIED PID CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR
**

MULTIPLE-INPUTIMULTIPLE-OUTPUT PLANTS TO ATTENUATE

UNKNOWN DISTURBANCES

**TAKAAKI HAGIWARA, Kou YAMADA, YOSHINORI ANDO,
**

IWANORI MURAKAMI, SATOSHI AOYAMA AND SHUN MATSUURA

Department ofMechanical System Engineering

Gunma University

1-5-1 Tenjincho, Kiryu, Japan

**ABSTRACT-The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller structure is the most widely
**

used one in industrial applications. However, PID controller cannot stabilize any plant. In order to

overcome this problem, Yamada and Hagiwara proposed a design method for modified PID

controllers such that the modified PID controller makes the control system for unstable plants stable

and the admissible sets of P-parameter, I-parameter and D-parameter are independent from each

other. When modified PID control systems are applied to real plants, the influence of disturbance in

the plant must be considered. In many cases, the disturbance in the plant is unknown. It is

comparatively easy to attenuate known disturbances, but it is difficult to attenuate unknown

disturbances. From a practical viewpoint, it is desirable to design a modified PID control system to

attenuate unknown disturbances. Recently, a design method for modified PID control systems for to

attenuate unknown disturbances was proposed. However, no paper examines a design method for

modified PID control systems for multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown

disturbances. In this paper, we propose a design method for modified PID control systems for

muItiple-inputimultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown disturbances.

Key Words: PID control system, Unknown disturbance, MuItiple-inputimultiple-output plant

1. INTRODUCTION

**The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller structure is the most widely used one in
**

industrial applications. Its structural simplicity and sufficient ability of solving many practical control

problems have contributed to this wide acceptance [1-3].

Several papers on tuning methods for PID parameters have been published [4-14], but these methods

do not guarantee the stability of a control system. Using these methods in [4-14], the PID control system is

not necessarily stable. If the admissible sets of PID parameters that would guarantee the stability of a

control system can be determined, we can easily design stabilizing PID controllers to meet control

specifications.

The problem to obtain the admissible sets of PID parameters to guarantee the stability of the control

system is known as a parameterization problem [3,15,16]. If there exists a stabilizing PID controller, the

parameterization of all stabilizing PID controller is considered in [3,15,16]. However, these methods in

[3,15,16] remain a difficulty. The admissible sets of P-parameter, I-parameter and D-parameter in [3,15,16]

are related each other. That is, if the P-parameter changes, then the admissible sets of I-parameter and D

parameter also change. From a practical point of view, it is desirable that the admissible sets ofP-parameter,

I-parameter and D-parameter are independent from each other. Yamada and Moki initially approached this

problem and proposed a design method for modified PI controllers for any minimum phase system such

that the admissible sets of P-parameter and I-parameter are independent from each other [17]. Yamada

expanded the results in [17] and proposed a design method for modified PID controllers for minimum

phase plants [18]. In addition, Yamada and Hagiwara gave a design method for modified PID controllers

for unstable plants [19]. In this way, the modified PID controller that can stabilize the control system has

been established. However, the modified PID controller in [17-19] remains two difficulties. One is that the

modified PID control system in [17-19] cannot specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance

attenuation characteristic separately. The other is that the modified PID control system in [17-19] cannot

attenuate unknown disturbances. From a practical viewpoint, it is desirable to specify the input-output

characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown

1

which cannot be stabilized using conventional PID controller C(s) in (2). the problem of obtaining a design method for modified PID control systems for multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown disturbances is important.N(s)Q(s)t.yes))' = (1) where G(s) E RPXP(s) is the plant. In addition. For easy explanation. this method in [24] cannot apply for multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants. the stability of the control system in (1) is not guaranteed. In this paper. = + (4) . 2.2 World Automation Congress disturbances effectively. Using the conventional PID controller C(s) in (2). which can stabilize any multiple-inputlmultiple-output plant. Ap. AI E RPxp is the I-parameter and AD E RPxp is the D-parameter. In order to overcome these problems. yes) E RP(s) is the output and des) E RP(s) is the disturbance. I-parameter AI and D-parameter AD are independent from each other [22]. However. C(s) E RPxp (s) is the controller. and the admissible sets of P-parameter Ap.Q(s)N(s)t (X(s) Q(s)D(s)) = + (X(s) D(s)Q(s))(Y(s). is written by: C(s) (Y(s). In order to overcome these problems. When the controller C(s) has the form written by: (2) then the controller C(s) is called the PID controller [1-16]. Almost all practical plants are multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants. AI and AD are settled so that the control system in (1) has desirable control characteristics such as the steady state characteristic and the transient characteristic. there exists the plant G(s) that cannot be stabilized using the conventional PID controller C(s) in (2). the modified PID controller. MODIFIED PID CONTROLLER AND PROBLEM FORMULATION Consider the control system written by: {yes) G(s)u(s) des) = + u(s) C(s)(r(s). proposed a design method for modified PID control systems for single-inputlsingle-output plants to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively [24]. Hagiwara and Yamada proposed a design method for modified PID controllers such that the modified PID controller can stabilize any multiple-inputlmultiple-output plant. the transfer function from the reference input res) to the output yes) in (1) is written by: It is obvious that when P-parameter Ap. According to [22]. Hagiwara et al. where Ap E RPxp is the P-parameter. I-parameter AI and D-parameter AD are settled at random. u(s) E RP(s) is the control input. we call the controller C(s) in (2) the conventional PID controller. r(s) E RP(s) is the reference input. we expand the result in [24] and propose a design method for modified PID control systems for multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown disturbances. It is assumed that des) is unknown.

S2 ds {yes).Xes).sN(s)tQ. However.Qo s {N(s )}ls=o J A1 d d s 'O � = d d '0 '0 (9) -X(O) . (10) Q3 ���r(S)AD(i5(S)+SN(S)ADt}.. (5) Xes) E RH!XP.Q3'0 + [( {Y{s )�s=o .Q3sN(S)} Q2 sl�oo � (Y(s) . Xes) E RH!XP and Yes) E RH!XP are functions satisfying: [-YeNs()s) -:D((s)S)][ND((Ss)) -Ye3s()S)] [I 10] = ° [ND((Ss)) -Ye3s()S)][-YN�s()s) -:D((sS))]. 3.Q. In addition. but cannot attenuate unknown disturbances. the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic cannot be specified separately. The problem considered in this paper is to propose a design method for modified PID control systems for any multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively. E R > O(i = 0. D(s) E RH !XP . = (11) 7:. MODIFIED PID CONTROL SYSTEMS TO ATTENUATE UNKNOWN DISTURBANCES In this section.A design method/or modified PID control systems/or multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown disturbances 3 where N(s) E RH!XP.i5(s)+s'Q. ! {i5(S)}} i5-I(S)T'] . = (6) (7) Y(O)N�-I(0)'0' Qo = (8) QI Qo. we propose a modified PID control system to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively. N(s) E RH!XP and D(s) E RH !XP are coprime factors of G(s) on RH satisfying: 00 G(s) N(s)D-l (s) = = B-1 (s)N(s). using the modified PID controller C(s) in (4). the modified PID controller C(s) in (4) of the control system in (1) can attenuate the step disturbance.1. Yes) E RH!XP .2 . .2) and 7:D E R > 0.Qo N(0)](N(0)A1 t � '0 = im[{(Y(s) .Q3sN(S))Ap .

1 is to specify the input-output characteristic. 1 is shown. the control system in Fig. 1 can attenuate unknown disturbances des) effectively. it is obvious that the control system in Fig. First. Modified PIO control system to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances Here. (14) From (14). Finally.1. 1 is stable is clarified. 1 is shown. The role of the controller C(s) and Q(s) is to specify the disturbance attenuation characteristic. 1. 1. The transfer function from the reference input res) to the output yes) is written by: yes) = (1 + G(s)C(s)t G(s)C(s) r(s). Therefore.4 World Automation Congress In order to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively. . the role of the modified PID controller C(s) in (4) of the control system in Fig. the disturbance des) is attenuated effectively if: (16) where OJ is the frequency component of the disturbance des) . � � = + (12) F2(S) = . Next. From (14) and (15). The transfer function from the disturbance des) to the output yes) is written by: yes) = (1 + G(s)C(s)t jj-1 (s){ 1 . we propose the modified PID control system shown in Fig.Q (s)N(s) (13) and Q(s) E RH!XP is any function. we clarify control characteristics of the modified PID control system in Fig. the role of the controller C(s) is different from that of C(s) and Q(s). (s) D(s) Q (s)D(s).N(s)C(s)(I + Q(s))}i5(s)d(s). This implies that when the controller C(s) is designed to satisfy (16). Fig. the disturbance attenuation characteristic of the control system in Fig. the input output characteristic of the control system in Fig. the role of the controller C(s) and Q(s) of the control system in Fig.. even if the disturbance is unknown.(s)E RPXP(s) and F2(S) E RPXP(s) are written by: F. F. The role of the modified PID controller C(s) is to specify the input-output characteristic. (15) From (15). 1 is stable if and only if following expressions hold. C(s) E RPXP(s) is the modified PID controller in (4). 1 is to specify the disturbance attenuation characteristic. C(s) E RPXP(s) is the controller to attenuate unknown disturbances. the condition that the control system in Fig.N(s). Next. From (14) and (15).

then the disturbance des) in the frequency range OJ satisfying: (20) is attenuated effectively. 1 were clarified. p) are arbitrary positive integers to make N (s) proper. The role of the modified PID controller C(s) is to specify the input-output characteristic. CONCLUSIONS In this paper. 2. if the controller C(s) is selected as: r r (19) even if the disturbance des) is unknown. we describe a design method for the controller C(s) to specify the disturbance attenuation characteristic of the control system in Fig. C(s) E RH oo · 4. l"i E R(i 00 = 1.. 2. Control characteristics of the modified PID control system in Fig. Using the method in [21]. 5. The role of the controller C(s) is to specify the disturbance attenuation characteristic. there exists N (s) E RH satisfying: r oo (17) where Ni(s) E RH is an inner function of N(s) satisfying: oo (18) and Ni (0) = I.A design method/or modified PID control systems/or multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown disturbances 5 1. Results in this paper are summarized as follows: 1. . we proposed a design method for modified PID control systems for multiple input/multiple-output plants to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively. Using N (s) . No (s) E RH is an outer function. CONTROLLER DESIGN In this section. . . Modified PID control system for multiple-input/multiple-output plants to specify the input output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively was proposed as Fig. p).. 6. ai (i = 1.. 1 is shown. 1. We find that proposed modified PID control system in Fig. The modified PID controller C(s) makes the control system in (1) stable. 1 can specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately. A design method is summarized as follows: Q(s) E RH oo in (12) and (13) is settled to satisfy 1+ Q(s) E u.. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE Numerical examples will be presented in the conference on account of space consideration.

149.1950." Trans. No. Hazebroek and B.2. and S. 1953." Journal of the Franklin Institute. 571-576.P. T. "Control System Synthesis-A factorization approach-. 1967. Lopez. Kitamori. 17. 73. 46-53. Yamada. 759-768. Telecommunication. pp. Datta. pp. Y. 13. Miller. 64. K. van der Warden. Hagglund." Instrument Society of America. Murrill. 857-834. P. K. 14.1994. 21. 1980. "Theoretical Considerations on the Optimal Adjustment of Regurators. T." ICIC Express Letters. T. ASME. ASME. 16. 753-758. London. T. Cohen and G. Yamada and W. Smith and P. 72. and T. Volume II of II. Murrill. pp. Computer. W. I. 2006. 18. A. 1967. K." Trans. M. Ho. Zieglae and N. 6. pp. 14. pp. Vo1. We present a design method for the controller C(s) to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively. 24. ASME. "PID control. C. Chien. M.A." Intelligent Engineering System Through Artificial Neural Networks. van der Warden. 2003. 22.16. "Structure and Synthesis of PID Controllers." Proceedings of the American Control Conference 1997.Z. Reswick. Matsuura.L.4. pp. Y. ASME. pp. "A method of control system design based upon partial knowledge about controlled process. Bhattacharyya. "A design method for PI control for minimum phase systems. 2000. REFERENCES 1. T. "New state space design method of stable filtered inverse systems and their application.M.1950. "PID Controllers: Recent Tuning Methods and Design to Specification.6 World Automation Congress 3. Control and Information Engineers.B. P.16. "Theoretical Consideration of Retaeded Control. "Controller Setting for Optimum Control. pp. 14. No. C.W. K. 61-76.2." Springer Velag. 11. Nicholes. Hagiwara and K. 3922-3928. Hagiwara." MIT Press." Trans. 317-332." Intelligent Engineering Systems Through Artificial Neural Networks. Ando and S.T. "Parameter Plane Control Design for a Two-tank Chemical Reactor Systems. K. 1985. 549-555 (in Japanese). 23. ASME. "Optimum settings for automatic controllers. J. Hrones and lB. Imai and M. Murakami. Yamada. Cominos and N.L. Bhattacharyya. M. K. 4. Vidyasagar. A. 5. G." Trans. Smith and P. Lopez. 19-4. 175-185. An International Journal of Research and Surveys. pp.G. "A linear programming characterization of all stabilizing PID controllers." Controll Engineering. Munro. K. 72." Proceedings of the 17th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control. Hagiwara. Hagiwara. lA. "The Optimal Adjustment of Regulators. 1942. 2005. 75. Ando. pp.13. Yamada. Suda. 9. 5825-5830. 1992 (in Japanese). pp. 1951.W. 10.M. 74. Wolf. "Modified PID controllers for minimum phase systems and their practical application. Yamada. pp. pp.A. "Tuning Controllers with Error-Integral Criteria. Yamada and T.33lB-l." Trans. K. Vo1. pp. ASME. Murakami. 2008." Proceedings of The 2005 Electrical EngineeringlElectronics." Instrumentation Technology. Datta." Transactions of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers. 309-315. 2. Vo1. "PID controllers: Theory design. "A design method of modified PID controller for unstable plants. Hazebroek and B. 15. pp. 72-75." Trans." Journal of the Society of the Instrument and Congtrol Engineers. pp. . North Carolina. 1995. 2008. and tuning. 413-418. 85-93.1952. "The parameterization of all disturbance observers. "Design method for PID control systems." Asakura Shoten. 19.L. "A design method of modified PID controllers for multiple input/multiple-output plants. 2003." submitted. lA. and T. Coon. N. Astrom. P. Kitamori. pp. "On the Automatic Control of Generalized Passive Systems. Vo1. J. I.P." Transactions of the Institute of Systems. 52-62. 3.A. 1997.L.2002. 1979. 12. Yang.L. 20." lEE Proceedings. Yamada. 15-4. 382-391 (in Japanese). "A design method for modified PID control systems to attenuate unknown disturbances. J. A. 7. Ho and S. 421-426. pp. pp. A. Moki. Kinoshita. 457-460. Y.H. 8. and Information Technology (ECTI) International Conference. Kobayashi. Miller. "A Comparison of Controller Tuning Techniques.

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