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A. (2012, May 7). 21st century education. Retrieved from https://youtu.

be/nA1Aqp0sPQo

Created by the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership, this video

discusses the characteristics of a 21st century learner. Just as in HPL, we need to know

this new technologically experienced learner and meet those needs. This video keeps us

focused on the future of education. As leaders, we must be able to adapt to the changing

world around us. We need to focus on the learners of today, because their needs are

different.

Alyson, K. (2015, November 25). Days could be numbered for no child left behind. Retrieved

from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/12/02/days-could-be-numbered-for-no-

child.html

The US Department of Education is releasing some of its power on our educational

system. They are relinquishing it back to the individual state governments. Although it is

still considered standardized assessment, it is a small step in the right direction. It is

important to recognize all changes in education and how that affects learning. The

passing of power is a positive step to focusing on the individual.

Black, P., & Harrison, C. (2011, September 14). Principles of formative assessment. Retrieved

April 23, 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gXOMbXeQNNA#

In this video they discuss using formative assessment as a way to effectively assess

learning of students. Learners must find ways to be active and express their ideas using

feedback from the teacher and other learners - self-assessment and peer assessment. The

use of questioning is an essential component in formative assessment in getting students

to think. In HPL, formative assessment plays an important role in the classroom every

day. Students need to understand their own learning and how to apply that learning to
new concepts in the future. Formative assessment is such a strong component of HPL

and growth of an individual. Studies have shown that reflection through self and peer

assessments positively affect growth and change in the learner.

Blum, J., & Cameron, B. (2013, February 25). SelfDesign Foundation [Web log review].

Retrieved November 28, 2015, from

https://xapientia.wordpress.com/2013/02/25/selfdesign-foundation/

This document was written by a group of six students and was presented at a Rights of

the Child Conference in Victoria, BC and to the Minister of Education in June 1995.

Many times, we only think about the teacher's rights, but this declaration, just like in

HPL, focuses on the learner's rights and responsibilities. This is a great article to remind

me that not all leadership is a top-down approach. Learners should have an active voice

in their learning and we need to be open to hear it.

Blume, H., & Ceasar, S. (2013, October 01). L.A. Unified's iPad rollout marred by chaos.

Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2013/oct/01/local/la-me-1002-lausd-ipads-

20131002

An example of unclear implementation of technology. It shows that a clear vision and

structure needs to be in place to successfully ensure that all learners will be able to utilize

current technology. Initiatives like this, that are started too quickly can backfire. In HPL,

we must remember that a clear plan must be in place and students must be considered for

it to be done successfully. I left this case here to remind me that all changes need to be

clearly though out before implementation. By including all stakeholders into the process

of change, we are more likely not to encounter problems and waste money like the school

district in this article.


Boler, M. (2000). An epoch of difference: Hearing voices in the nineties. Educational Theory,

50(3), 357-381. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5446.2000.00357.x

The nineties were an age of technology. This decade highlighted the clear problem of

educational theorists theorizing and not problem-solving. Theories began to see the

difference between theory and the complexity of its application. Debates surround ideas

such as critical thinking, caring, and community, with little attention to race, sexuality,

class, or globalization. Feminist theories were a major influence in the nineties. The

uncertainty found within this era makes things seems bleak and tragic - however, this

unbalance is surely a sign of growth. Ive included the nineties because I believe this era

marked a change in education. Technology in education was in its infancy, while theories

were in question when it came to application. It still amazes me that even 20 years ago,

we were unable to see the learner as a whole.

Bunge, S. (2015, July 21). The Science of Learning. Lecture presented in Boston College ETC -

Center for Teaching Excellence, Boston. Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNpU3QkxY-k

Silvia gives a lecture to educators on how learning works in the brain. Learning depends

on brain health, motivation, memory, and attention. In HPL, cognitive neuroscience is

vital in understanding how learners learn. I included this video because it reminds us that

multiple things we cannot even see affects learning. In schools, we need to build upon

things such as healthy lunches and snacks, and keeping our students highly motivated.

Davis, M. (2011, March 17). Researchers tackle personalized learning. Education Week, 10.

Retrieved from http://edweek.org

Researchers are examining ways that using technology can create personalized learning
strategies. The hardest part about personalization is that it is so very different for the

individual which makes it hard to define. Data from the Project RED found that a

student-centered approach was vital in creating it. It also shows the need for more

professional development by teachers. This is a reminder that personalized learning takes

time and training. Teachers need to be trained on how to personalize learning with their

students, this will lead to creating learner centered environments where learning thrives.

Eck, R. V. (2015). Generation G and the 21st century. Econo Power How a New Generation of

Economists Is Transforming the World, 243-246. doi:10.1002/9781119196914.ch37

He discusses the history of experiential learning and play. Statistics are shown that

children in the age gap of 12-17 years old spend 81% of their time in online gaming. He

goes on to discuss the significant events which have occurred in this generation and how

it has shaped them. This generation of learners do care and are great team players, but

many of them have become dissatisfied with school - loss of engagement and motivation.

This has increased school dropout rates. Games in school can help by increasing

motivation, they are engaging, there is feedback and assessment, and they promote 21st

century skills. Games in education possess all the criteria we would see in an HPL

environment. Proven instructional strategies, along with other positives that I've already

mentioned, help foster this new classroom environment. This article reminds us of the

problems with not understanding the learners of today. Leaders need to be able to

incorporate gaming and learning to increase motivation and interest.

Edwards, C. P. (2002). Abstract. Retrieved November 28, 2015, from

http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v4n1/edwards.html

This article highlights three approaches to education in Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and
Reggio Emilia. In each approach, children are viewed as active authors of their own

learning. They all stress carefully considered learning environments, partnerships with

parents, and assessing children by other means, rather than traditional tests and grades.

They view teachers as nurturers, guides, and partners with children. All three look at child

development slightly different, however they all approach learning with the same goals in

mind - just like in HPL - it begins with the learner. This reminds us that we should be

open to new ideas. The United States should be looking at approaches adopted by other

communities to incorporate the positive approaches to learning that are not traditional

practices.

Tokuhama-Espinosa, T. (2014). Making classrooms better: 50 practical applications of mind,

brain, and education science. New York: W.M. Norton & Company.

Introducing Mind, Brain, and Science education through neuroscience, psychology, and

pedagogy, this book introduces this research. It also offers 50 applications for the

classroom that are evident-based and have a positive effect on student learning

outcomes. MBE allows us to understand the individuality of the learner. This resource

provides information for teachers and administrators on practical ways to improve student

learning. Just as in HPL, through research based practices, the focus is always on the

learner. This resource will stay as one of my favorites. It reminds us that not all learners

learn the same, however, there are strategies which increase learning in the classroom.

These strategies are based off current neuroscience research.


Essential conditions student-centered learning. (2015). Retrieved from

http://www.iste.org/standards/essential-conditions/student-centered-learning

International Society for Technology in Education describes planning, teaching, and

assessing based on the learner. Technology allows for personalized learning where

students can make decisions about their own learning. In an HPL environment, this idea

of empowering and motivating students is essential. This reminds us that technology is a

tool which can be used to create learning centered environments.

Geake, J., & Cooper, P. (2003). Cognitive neuroscience: Implications for education? Westminster

Studies in Education, 26(1), 7-20. doi:10.1080/0140672032000070710

This journal implies that education can learn from cognitive neuroscience. They propose

a "holistic bio-psycho-social framework" to be applied to an educational setting. They

state that biologically, it's better to learn fewer things in depth, then to learn more things

superficially. This would have a major implication for curricula and educators. They

speak of "adaptive plasticity," which highlights the need for reinforcement and the

curriculum issue of breadth and depth. They also propose a concept of "adaptive

plasticity. This states that concepts, rules, etc. must be repeated. The more times the

pathway of synapses are fired in learning, then the greater chance of successfully

retrieving that information. In HPL, these ideas help to create an environment and

curriculum which is more learner-centered. This journal covers all aspects of the learner

and reminds us that all 3 play an important part in learning.

Gewertz, C. (2015, November 9). Q&A: Misconceptions about formative assessment. Retrieved

from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/11/11/qa-misconceptions-about-formative-

assessment.html?qs=formative%2Bassessment
Richard Stiggins answers some tough questions on using formative assessment. Things

such as whether to grade formative assessments, how they look in a classroom, are

teachers prepared to effectively use them, are all described. In HPL, formative assessment

needs to be effectively used to help the learner on their learning journey, not hinder them.

It also calls for professional development for teachers to help them understand how this

assessment works. Again, this article reminds us of the importance of teacher

professional development. Being clear and consistent on the purpose and uses of

formative assessment are a must, for it to be affective.

Helmuth, L. (2011, May 19). Top ten myths about the brain. Retrieved November 23, 2015, from

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/top-ten-myths-about-the-brain-

178357288/?no-ist=

The top ten myths about the brain are answered. Some important discoveries such as: the

brain is plastic and can be "rewired", it's organized in a specific way (like a circuit board),

we actively receive information through our senses, and we have a limited ability to pay

attention. In an HPL environment, teachers must be aware of how and why the brain

works the way it does to better help the individual learners. This article serves as a

reminder that general held beliefs may in fact, be false. As leaders, we need to be aware

of the current research in order to make good decisions about education.

I-CANS Chapter 2 - Standardized tests: Their use and misuse. (n.d.). Retrieved from

http://www.literacynet.org/icans/chapter02/tests.html#top

The article "Integrating Curriculum for Achieving Necessary Skills" discusses the use of

standardized tests. They are relatively easy to administer and relay quantifiable data. The

arguments against these types of tests include things such as: they test sub-skills and
knowledge-theory is ignored. In an HPL environment, all aspects of the learner are

assessed, not just a trivial few. These tests do not tell us what a learner can do. Many

other types of assessment are needed to truly understand the individual. This article is a

reminder that standardized tests are not good at evaluating individual students, but instead

for the overall curriculum or gaps in it.

Learner-centered psychological principles: A framework for school redesign and reform. (1997,

November). Retrieved November 28, 2015, from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED411493

Introduction to learner-centered psychological principles. These principles are a

combination of research and practice in many areas of teaching and psychology. The 14

principles focus on the learner and their learning process. In an HPL environment, we

always consider the whole learner. These principles (only used together as a whole)

provide a framework for schools to utilize to focus on individual learners. This article is

a good resource for understanding the complexity in school reform aimed at learner-

centrality.

Leighton, J. P., & Gierl, M. J. (2007). Cognitive diagnostic assessment for education: Theory

and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Looking at cognitive psychology and how the mind works, the high stakes testing that we

do now does not accurately portray the cognitive abilities it seeks. They propose 7 areas

that test developers should consider when creating tests. Cognitive diagnostic tests are

informed by the psychology of learning, reasoning, and problem-solving. In HPL, real-

life experiences are used to unfold how the learner can think and problem solve in that

type of situation. This would give us an idea of how to plan and structure activities

toward a learning goal. This article gives more information about the first type of
assessment, diagnostic. This assessment is the tool that helps educators plan the

strategies and areas to concentrate on with learners. It indicates their strengths and

weaknesses so that we can individualize learning.

Lockledge, A. (1997). Portfolio assessment in middle-school and high-school social studies

classrooms. Social Studies, 88, 65-69. doi:10.1080/00377999709603749

How to use portfolios as an assessment in middle and high schools in Social Studies.

Portfolios offer a way of handing over instruction to the learner and allows for thoughtful

reflection. In HPL, students become owners of their learning by reflecting on it. This

article discusses portfolio use as a means of assessment. Portfolios are a truer indicator

of student growth, than a paper and pencil test.

Loyola, S. W. (2014, December 20). The most powerful tool in the classroom. Retrieved from

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sarah-wike-loyola/the-most-powerful-tool-

in_b_6012136.html

Comparing historically where information is found educationally, this article states the

importance of including technology in the classroom. Knowledge is no longer found only

in a textbook. Just like in HPL, the teacher's role must change and the classroom must

become more learner centered. Technology must be incorporated to allow the learner to

research and learn on their own. This article again reminds us of the learners today.

Technology is a part of their lives and must be incorporated into their learning.

McMahon, P. & Llewellyn, M. (2011). High performance learning defined. HPL 810, Module 2.

This is the definition of HPL as given by the university professors who developed it.

McMahon, P., Llewellyn, M., & Bisignani, A. (2013). High performance learning cognitive

arcs. HPL 810, Module 2.


These 4 cognitive arcs were developed by the university professors at Carlow University.

It shows the overarching ideas by which HPL was developed including the learner,

research, environments, and the scholar-practitioner.

Nisbett, R. E. (2013). Schooling makes you smarter. Retrieved from

http://www.aft.org/periodical/american-educator/spring-2013/schooling-makes-you-

smarter.

IQ tests measure fluid and crystallized intelligence, which can both be increased. IQ does

not differ to people in high socioeconomic statuses (because of the environment

provided), but there is a large range in children from a low SES. Biological and social

factors can affect intelligence. There is no significant difference between males and

females in their intelligence (except males having a higher mental rotation). There is no

difference IQ difference across cultures, except Asians tend to do better in math - thus

leading the author to believe it is the instruction that is superior, not IQ. In HPL this is

significant because it puts the facts into common stereotypes which might appear. When

in fact, like in HPL, social and environmental factors affect intelligence.

Peters, E. E. (2010). Shifting to a student-centered science classroom: An exploration of teacher

and student changes in perceptions and practices. Journal of Science Teacher Education,

21(3), 329-349. doi:10.1007/s10972-009-9178-z

This case study of 6th to 8th graders follow the process of moving from a teacher-

centered classroom to a student-centered one. This study focuses on Science. In HPL, we

must consider how teachers will change to a more learner-directed classroom. Teacher

preparation in learning theory and classroom environments are needed in transitioning to

a learner-centered environment. This article shows the accomplishments and challenges


when students are faced with making their own decisions in the classroom. This is

something that must be taught, because it is so different from what they are used to.

Pickering, T. (2015, August 11). Learner centered assessment. Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuIbvaZXG88

Cedar Rapids Community School District is moving away from letter grades. Two

schools in the district volunteered to pilot this program. They attended many workshops

throughout the summer preparing for this new way of assessing their learners. In HPL,

assessment needs to be more than a letter grade. This article reminds us that as schools

become learner-centered, then the types of assessments we use must also change. They

must be meaningful and tied directly to learning.

Powell, M. (2013, December 24). 5 ways to make your classroom student-centered. Retrieved

from http://www.edweek.org/tm/articles/2013/12/24/ctq_powell_strengths.html

Powell discusses 5 ways to make your classroom more learner-centered. She discusses

the importance of assessment, teacher-student relationships, classroom environments, and

the "new" role of the teacher. These principles are also part a high-performance learning

framework. This article describes how individual teachers can begin to make their

classrooms more learner-centered.

Rallis, S. F. (1995). Creating learner centered schools: Dreams and practices. Theory Into

Practice, 34(4), 224-229.

Rallis defines learner-centered theory and discusses the role and responsibility of both the

teacher and learner in this type of environment. She discusses many aspects, like in HPL,

including learning theory, assessment, and environment. She also predicts barriers that
must be overcome for it to succeed. This article describes how classrooms would look in

a true learner centered environment, along with the many obstacles that are in the way.

Self-Assessment and peer support. (2015). Retrieved from

https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/peer-teaching--2

This video shows strategies and demonstrations of student self-assessment and peer

support. A great way to incorporate both into the classroom. Student self-assessment and

collaboration are key to learning in a HPL environment. This article reminds us how

social the learner is. The most significant growth happens when students can assess

themselves and accept feedback from their peers.

Sturgis, C. (n.d.). The art and science of designing competencies. A CompetencyWorks Issue

Brief, International Association for K-12 Online Learning, 1-15. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-

33164-3_5

Sturgis describes what a good competency is, and the art and science behind creating

them. He describes the essential characteristics of what they should contain. He also

discusses the people involved and process of putting competencies into place. In HPL, we

share the same vision of developing lifelong skills. It focuses on continual assessment

(mainly formative), tasks, and reflection toward reaching a competency (learning goal).

Performance-based assessments are another strong component of Competency Based

Education. Having multiple real-world assessments allows for an overall picture of the

learning that is happening. This article describes what competencies are and how to

successfully create them. I believe that competencies will only come when education

moves away from standardized grades/tests.


Tomlinson, C. (2015). Teaching for excellence in academically diverse classrooms. Society,

52(3), 203-209. doi:10.1007/s12115-015-9888-0

Tomlinson discusses 21st century learners and the diversity that they bring to education.

She discusses the failures of fixed groups and the benefits of heterogeneous grouping.

She discusses the idea of "teaching up", which is defined by several key principles. Many

of these principles are shared with HPL, and she uses learner-centered classrooms as an

example of the environment where teaching up would happen. This article describes how

learning can happen in any classroom. More specifically, where diversity exists. Gone

are the days of homogenous grouping. Learners are social and learn from their peers.

This means that when grouping students, they should be mixed.

US Department of Education. (n.d.). Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Retrieved from

http://www.ed.gov/esea

The United States Department of Education is a wealth of information. The Elementary

and Secondary Education Act (aka No Child Left Behind) started to make schools

accountable for what they are teaching. However, in a HPL model, not one size fits all.

This is a prime example of how government is not aligned with the individual learners,

but instead continues to try to standardize everyone into one model. This article is a

reminder that a top down approach to learning does not maximize learning. That is why

it must begin with the individual.

Weimer, M. (2012, August 8). Five characteristics of learner-centered teaching [Web log post].

Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/topic/articles/teaching-professor-blog/o

In her blog, Maryellen discusses her book Learner Centered Teaching. In her book, she

discusses 5 characteristics of teaching which make it learner centered. She talks about
what should be seen in this type of environment. Many times, educators and

administrators take on buzz words without fully implementing or understanding what

should be done. It helps a teacher to understand whether they have truly become learner

centered. It helps me in my class to visualize what this type of classroom would look like.

Maryellens article reminds us that sometimes-what administrators say, is not always

what they are doing. Many people like to throw buzz words around, without fully

understanding what they imply of mean. This translates into poor practices in the

classroom.

Wiliam, D. (2011). Embedded formative assessment. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

In his book, Dr. William makes a case for using formative assessment and strategies for

implementation. He also discusses the use of learning intentions to help students clearly

understand what is expected of them. He ties together these things with feedback and

student self-assessment. This is related to HPL clearly in formative assessment by using

checks and balance to see where the learner is on his journey. These things mentioned,

collaboration, self-assessment, and feedback are all focused on the learner. This book is a

good reminder that formative assessment is a tool that is used to understand where the

learner is, in their own learning.

Wolf, M. A. (2012, May). Culture shift: Teaching in a learner-centered environment powered by

digital learning. Retrieved from http://all4ed.org/reports-factsheets/culture-shift-teaching-

in-a-learner-centered-environment-powered-by-digital-learning/

Culture Shift was written in response to an educational system which is not working. It

focuses mainly on defining learner centered education and tying those concepts to the

developing needs of the of the 21st generation student. It discusses teaching and
instruction which will need to change. The roles of the teacher and student will change

and support will be needed to help them both succeed. Finally, recommendations are

provided for all stakeholders on how to move to a learner-centered environment. High

Performance Learning goes hand in hand with learner-centered teaching. This article is

still my favorite. If a student failed a test, wouldnt we be worried that something went

wrong? Then why do we keep doing the same thing in education, when our students are

failing? This reminds us that there is a definite need for change in the current educational

system.