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EAT 359 – WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

- LECTURE 1 –

by: SALWA MOHD ZAINI MAKHTAR

Where Does Water Come From ?

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The percentage of water resources.

Earth(World)

Land (30%) Water (70%)

Ocean
Freshwater (3%)
(97%)

Glaciers & Ice Caps Groundwater & Surface water
(68.75) (31.3%)

Can use (0.6%)

Cannot be used
(99.4%)

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Why is Water Important? 4 .

MALAYSIA’S WATER RESOURCES AVAILABILITY AND DEMAND 5 .

WHAT WE HAVE NOW : WATER AVAILABILITY IN MALAYSIA {Based on The Review of The National Water Resources Study 2000-2050} (2011) 6 .

000 m3/capita (Surface runoff) 7 . SCENARIOS OF WATER WHERE RESOURCES IN MALAYSIA THE RAINFALL GO? TOTAL WATER DEMAND IN ALL SECTORS 2010 2020 2050 PERLIS 306 299 281 KEDAH 2922 2976 2876 PULAU PINANG 765 829 894 • Water is abundant but it does not fall everywhere all the time • Blessed nation with plenty of water & almost free of natural disaster • Per capita volume : 17.

18 PADDY (BCM) JOHOR 715 881 1301 2020 17205 MCM SABAH 912 1356 1469 LIVESTOCK (BCM) 0.29 1.12 1.18 0.57 15.13 0.21 (BCM) SEMBILAN 2010 14785 MCM MELAKA 323 366 439 IRRIGATED NON.98 PAHANG 726 946 959 IRRIGATED PADDY NEGERI 340 361 374 8.18 1.59 1.11 7.29 WP LABUAN 18 24 29 FISHERIES (BCM) TOTAL M’SIA 14785 17205 818233 . 1.58 12.58 2050 18233 MCM SARAWAK 1054 2162 2247 1.27 9. Demand from Sectors TOTAL WATER DEMAND IN ALL SECTORS 2010 2020 2050 PERLIS 306 299 281 KEDAH 2922 2976 2876 PULAU PINANG 765 829 894 KELANTAN 1632 1619 1604 ESTIMATED WATER DEMAND OF VARIOUS SECTORS TERENGGANU 884 975 1026 BUDGET TOTAL WATER DEMAND ALL SECTORS PERAK 1949 1923 1811 SECTOR 2010 2020 2050 SELANGOR 2238 2491 2922 DOMESTIC (BCM) 10.

pond. water bodies & ground water Waterbodies : Aquifer.97 % of water supply for Domestic. natural or artificial and the resource therein 9 . wetlands. lake. estuary. RIVERS are the main source of WATER . coastal water and other water bodies. Industrial and Agriculture Water resources : Rivers.

Water Stress •Water Demand •Urbanization •Pollution Management •Industralization •Risks and Hazards •Population Growth •IWRM •Water Quantity & Quality 1. What are the Challenges Facing the Water Agenda? 5. Environment 2. Sustaining Biodiversity 4. NKEA •Sea Level Rise •Water Resource •Flood and Drought •Economic Generator •Extreme Weather •Societal Development •Climate Change Adaptations •Investments 10 . Green Technology •Ecosystem Preservation •Green Growth •Ecological Functions •Sustainability •Habitat Destruction •Renewable Energy •Technological Investment 3. Climate Change 6.

Water Supply Issues: •Infinite becomes a finite resource – spatially and temporally •Rapid urbanization and population growth •Inadequate infrastructure and escalating cost •High non-revenue water (NRW) •Low water pricing •Water pollution •Climate change – uncertainty and irreversibility 11 .

001 .000 38 27 Govt.001 . 0.001 .000 26 19 Commercial (Inclusive of 5 20.80.61 17 9 60. 1.10.000 35 25 35 m³ and above 2.000 44 31 Religious Places 0.57 6 2 2.23 Charitable Org.PAYMENT Annual Value Basic Charge (RM) Band (RM) (RM) (RM) Connected Septic Tank Domestic Usage 1 0 . 1.001 .28 8 50.58 6 Monthly Excess Charge * Condos/Apart.5.07 36 7 40.001 .001 .40. Quarters 12 .30.03 3 5.000 8 7 0-20 m³ 0.000 29 21 Public Swimming Pool) 6 30. Dept.000 20 14 35 m³ and above 2 4 10.001 .20.2.8 35 3 < 100 m < 200 m3 30 sen /m3 * Army Camps/ Estates/ 1 12 > 200 m3 45 sen/m3 Govt. 0.000 14 8 21-35 m³ 1.46 6 Ship 4.70.60.001 .001 .38 173 Water Usage Excess Charge * Low Cost Flats/ Apart.000 32 23 35 m³ 2.000 41 29 10 70.50. WATER TARIFF IN SELANGOR SEWERAGE CHARGES IN MALAYSIA 3 USAGE PRICE/m MIN.

05 13 .00/fitting Waterborne fee 0.2 Water Conservation Tax .28 For comparison sake : usage of 10m3 of water MALAYSIA SINGAPORE USAGE PRICE/m3 S$ (RM) Domestic Usage 0-20 m³ 5.4 Water Conservation Tax 30% Sanitary Appliance Fee 3.05 Waterborne fee /Sewerage 8 2.8 charges Sanitary Fee /others 0 9 Total/month 13. 3.17 >40m3 1. WATER PRICING IN SINGAPORE Usage Price/m3 S$ Water Tariff 0-40m3 1.7 10.7 25.

129 Johor 3.609 1.458 4.573 1.533 4.958 2.443 8.958 Labuan 88 101 110 115 118 East Malaysia 6.841 1.983 26.127 3.102 8.677 2.440 2.015 7.008 1.998 34.348 1.660 3.839 4.896 9.940 Sarawak 2.427 2.672 1.274 1.719 4.398 40.064 2.686 2.107 42.006 Kelantan 1.400 4.004 3. Malaysia: Population Projections Population (‘000) State 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Perlis 246 291 319 343 361 Kedah 2.015 8.317 Terengganu 1.149 1.050 2.383 31.441 2.294 Selangor & Kuala Lumpur 6.445 1.133 Perak 2.854 2.505 3.083 37.140 Pahang 1.195 Negeri Sembilan 1.177 3.078 1.981 29.117 Sabah 3.267 3.399 Melaka 785 925 1.065 Pulau Pinang 1.117 4.673 9.901 Peninsular Malaysia 22.193 Malaysia 28.879 5.434 32.951 8.867 2.906 3.874 4.970 7.203 2.043 2.104 2.810 3.032 1.133 14 .695 2.190 1.

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Water Demand Scenario Total Water Availability versus Consumptive Water Demand in Malaysia 16 .

Figure: Relationship between impervious cover and surface runoff. Urban . A portion of precipitation never reaches the ground because it is intercepted by vegetation and other surfaces.Impact on surface runoff Figure: Typical pathways for forest rainfall. As little as 10 percent impervious cover in a 17 watershed can result in stream degradation. Impervious cover in a watershed results in increased surface runoff. .

WATER SHORTAGES & DROUGHT 18 .

Sustaining Water Resources – Pollutants of Concern Point Source Pollution Non-Point Source Pollution Emerging Pollutants 19 .

Water Pollution Impacts 20 .

Water Pollution Status of Rivers in Malaysia (2005 – 2012) 21 .

institutional. Pollution Management Issues • Manage point. • Address trans-boundary water pollution issues. • Legislative. • Improved water quality monitoring network. 22 . policy and funding needs. • Carrying capacity of each river system and the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) it can assimilate without harming the environment. non-point pollution and emerging pollutants of concern. • Re-look at current water quality standards.

•Trans-boundary issues. and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems. Why is it important? •Increasing water abstraction from rivers results in less downstream flow. •Dam construction changes river condition. and human livelihoods that depend on these ecosystems. •Flushing of silt and pollutants from river system. Water and Ecological Sustainability Issues Environmental Flow: quantity. •Downstream communities depend on river. timing. 23 . •Obstruction to movement •Sensitive flora and fauna species depend on certain water habitat conditions to survive.

Water and Ecological Sustainability Issues Payment for Environmental Services: Market-based tools to enable financial incentives to be allocated by beneficiaries of ecosystem services to compensate individuals or organisations. 24 . conserving the natural resources.

M. Source: Virtualwater.EU Source: Hoekstra. (2011) The water 25 footprint assessment manual: Setting the global standard.M. evaporated or incorporated into the product) Grey water footprint: volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants and calculated as the volume of water that is required to maintain the water quality according to agreed water quality standards. M.. A.e. .e. A.Y. Chapagain. and Mekonnen. UK. Earthscan.K.. evaporated or incorporated into the product) Green water footprint: volume of rainwater consumed (i. M. Aldaya. London. Water and Ecological Sustainability Blue water footprint: volume of surface water and ground water consumed during production processes (i.

Water Resources Potential 26 .

Water Resources Potential 27 .

Integrated Urban Water Resource Management Issues 28 .

Wastewater Treatment Technology 29 .

Towards a Green Technological Moving towards a green economy – Are we ready? 30 .

Reduce. despise) 3) Advocacy – Tahu (Know). Sedar (Aware). advise.Its also our role 1) Self realisation . Conclusion : Water Resources Management is everybody business . Faham (understand) 4) Avoid eternalizing cost to every action and process including to our supplier 31 . Reuse and Recycle 2) Stewardship – take charge through 3 simple steps (action.

THANK YOU for your attention 32 .