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Grammar reference

Starter Unit comparativo superlativo


adjetivos cortos Se aade -er: Se aade the + -est:
Pronombres personales de sujeto/ old older old the oldest
objeto y adjetivos posesivos
adjetivos cortos Se duplica la Se duplica la consonante
pronombres pronombres terminados en vocal consonante final y se final y se aade the +
adjetivos + consonante aade -er: -est:
personales de personales de
posesivos big bigger big the biggest
sujeto objeto
adjetivos Se aade -r: Se aade the + -st:
I me my
terminados en -e safe safer safe the safest
you you your adjetivos Se elimina la -y y se Se elimina la -y y se
he him his terminados en -y aade -ier: aade the + -iest:
she her her happy happier happy the happiest
adjetivos largos more + adjetivo: the most + adjetivo:
it it its
interesting interesting the
we us our more interesting most interesting
you you your irregulares good better good the best
they them their bad worse bad the worst
Se utiliza un pronombre personal de Pronombres reexivos
sujeto para evitar repetir el nombre del
sujeto o cuando el nombre es evidente. I myself it itself
Olivia is Scottish. She lives in Edinburgh. you yourself we ourselves
(She = Olivia) he himself you yourselves
Olivia es escocesa. Ella vive en she herself they themselves
Edimburgo. (Ella = Olivia) Se utilizan los pronombres reexivos cuando la misma persona
Se utilizan pronombres personales de o cosa es a la vez el sujeto y el objeto de un verbo.
objeto para sustituir el objeto de un verbo She taught herself Italian, using a book and a video.
o de una preposicin. Los pronombres Aprendi italiano por s sola utilizando un libro y un vdeo.
personales de objeto van detrs del verbo o
El pronombre reexivo va justo detrs del verbo o despus de la
la preposicin. preposicin si hay una detrs del verbo.
Jane emailed Tom and Lucy yesterday.
Ayer Jane escribi un correo Pronombres indenidos
electrnico a Tom y Lucy. afirmativos negativos
Jane emailed them yesterday. personas someone everyone no one anyone
Ayer Jane les escribi un correo
electrnico. cosas something everything nothing anything
Se utilizan adjetivos posesivos junto con lugares somewhere everywhere nowhere anywhere
un nombre para indicar posesin.
Gregs mother is a teacher. = His mother Se utilizan los pronombres indenidos para referirse a personas,
is a teacher. cosas y lugares de forma genrica.
La madre de Greg es maestra.= Su madre I want to go somewhere at the weekend.
es maestra. El fin de semana quiero ir a algn sitio.
Adjetivos comparativos y Normalmente se utiliza un verbo afirmativo con no one, nothing
superlativos y nowhere.
Theres nothing to do here! No hay nada que hacer aqu!
Se utilizan los adjetivos comparativos
para comparar a una persona o cosa con otra: Normalmente se utiliza un verbo negativo con anyone, anything
Im older than my sister. y anywhere.
Soy mayor que mi hermana. I havent got anything to do today.
No tengo nada que hacer hoy.
Se utilizan los adjetivos superlativos para
indicar que una persona o cosa tiene el
mximo grado de una cualidad concreta.

84 Grammar reference
Grammar practice S
Subject and object pronouns Reexive pronouns
1 Complete the sentences with the words in 4 Complete the sentences with the phrases in
thebox. the box.

them it He us her me buy themselves calls himself defend myself


enjoy ourselves hurt himself sendyourselves
1 Thank you for the present. I love it ! talk to yourself teachherself turns itself on
2 Adam is from Germany. wants to wash themselves
learn Spanish.
3 Can you send an email later with 1 Mark fell off his bike and hurt himself quite
the information? badly.
4 Our teacher gives a lot of homework 2 The lamp automatically when
on Fridays. it starts to get dark.
5 Look at my new jeans! Do you like ? 3 My mums trying to some
6 You see Jenny at football practice can you ask Turkish, ready for her holiday in Istanbul next
to call me? summer.
4 We didnt at the party
Possessive adjectives the music was terrible and people werent very
friendly.
2 Complete the sentences with possessive 5 Im starting karate classes next week. I want to
adjectives. learn how to .
1 This is Charlotte, and this is her brother, 6 Do you ever ? I do
James. sometimes, if Im feeling nervous.
2 Julie, whats phone number? 7 Please can you all an email
3 Our dog is lovely, but eyes are about the meeting next week, so you dont forget it!
verysad. 8 My grandparents want to a
4 I like this programme. Its favourite. flat by the sea in Spain for their holidays.
5 Damian speaks Polish. mums from 9 His name is Tom, but on Twitter he
Poland. CoolBoy.
6 These are friends Lucas and Eric, and 10 Dogs arent clean like cats they dont
this is my cousin, Ely. very often!

Comparative and superlative Indenite pronouns


adjectives 5 Circle the correct word to complete the
sentences.
3 Circle the correct options.
1 They want to buy a house in Spain, but
1 My sister is older / the oldest than me.
theyre not sure where.
2 Driving is dangerouser / more dangerous
a anywhere b somewhere c everywhere
thanflying.
2 I havent got to wear to the party! Can I
3 This is the worse / worst holiday of my life.
borrow a dress?
Iwant to go home!
a anything b nothing c something
4 Ive got long hair, but Annas hair is more long /
3 The place is empty. Where is ?
longer.
a anyone b someone c everyone
5 You are the more / most intelligent person in
theclass. 4 The place is empty. Theres here.
6 Its the most funny / funniest film that Ive got a anyone b no one c someone
on DVD. 5 We looked , but we couldnt find the carkeys.
a anywhere b nowhere c everywhere
6 Can I have to eat? Im really hungry.
a everything b something c nothing

Grammar practice 85
Grammar reference
Unit 1 Normalmente se ponen las expresiones de
frecuencia despus del sintagma verbal, pero
Presente simple tambin pueden ir al principio o al final de la frase.
afirmativa negativa I see my friends twice a week.
Veo a mis amigos dos veces por semana.
I / We / You / live in I / We / You / dont live in
They Malaga. They Malaga.
Every weekend, they buy food from the market.
Cada fin de semana compran comida en el
He / She / It lives in He / She / it doesnt live mercado.
Malaga. in Malaga.
Se pueden utilizar una expresin de frecuencia y un
interrogativa adverbio de frecuencia en la misma frase.
Do I / we / you / they live in Malaga? I usually go on holiday once a year.
Does he / she / it live in Malaga? Normalmente voy de vacaciones una vez al ao.
respuestas cortas Presente continuo
Yes, I / we / you / they do. No, I / we / you / they dont. afirmativa negativa
Yes, he / she / it does. No, he / she / it doesnt. Im Im not
Se utiliza el presente simple para expresar hechos, He / She / It
He / She / Its
hbitos y rutinas. sleeping. isnt listening.
Some people prefer the country to the beach. We / You / They
We / You / Theyre
Hay gente que prefiere la montaa a la playa. arent
En frases afirmativas, se forma la tercera persona (he/ interrogativa
she/it) con -s, -es o -ies. Am I
It gets cold in winter. En invierno hace fro.
Is he / she / it sleeping?
Ava goes to the beach in August.
Are we / you / they
En agosto Ava va a la playa.
respuestas cortas
Las partculas interrogativas se ponen al principio
de la pregunta. I am. Im not.
Where do you go camping? Yes, he / she / it is. No, he / she / it isnt.
A dnde vais de acampada? we / you / they are. we / you / they arent.
Adverbios de frecuencia
Se utiliza el presente continuo para hablar de
always usually often sometimes hardly ever never acciones que estn pasando en el momento en el que
hablamos o cerca de este momento.
100% 0% Im doing an experiment this week.
Esta semana estoy llevando a cabo un
Los adverbios de frecuencia se utilizan para indicar experimento.
la frecuencia con que pasa alguna cosa.
Se ponen delante del verbo principal pero despus del Presente simple y presente continuo
verbo to be. Se utiliza el presente simple para hablar de hechos,
It hardly ever snows here. Aqu casi nunca nieva. hbitos y rutinas.
There are often snowstorms here in winter. Se utiliza el presente continuo para hablar de
En invierno, aqu hay tormentas de nieve a acciones que estn pasando en el momento en el que
menudo. hablamos o cerca de dicho momento.
Se utilizan adverbios de frecuencia (always, often,
Expresiones de frecuencia etc.) con el presente simple y at the moment y
every day / week / weekend / year now con el presente continuo.
My dad often plays computer games with me.
once / twice / three times a day / a week / a month / Mi padre juega a menudo a juegos de ordenador
a year conmigo.
My teacher is walking into the classroom now.
El profesor est entrando ahora en clase.

86 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 1
Present simple Present continuous
1 Complete the sentences. Use the affirmative 4 Complete the sentences with the correct form
and the negative form of the verb in brackets of the present continuous. Use the verbs in
in each sentence. the box.
1 The river doesnt freeze in spring,
it freezes in autumn. (freeze) not rain read not listen have wait sleep
2 Penguins in the Arctic,
they in the Antarctic. (live) 1 I m having dinner right now. Can I call
3 The Sun up in the east, you later?
it up in the west. (come) 2 Why we for Jessica?
4 The temperatures up in winter, She isnt coming.
they up in summer. (go) 3 You to me! I said Lets go out
5 People good friends to be this evening!
happy, they money. (need) 4 The baby at the moment,
6 We English class outdoors, sobe quiet!
we it indoors. (have) 5 It now, so we can go for
awalk.
2 Write the questions. 6 you a good book at
1 Ask Sylvia where she spends the school holidays. the moment?
Where do you spend the school holidays?
2 Ask Sylvia how long she goes to the beach for. Present simple and present
continuous
3 Ask Sylvia if her older sister goes with her.
5 Complete the conversation. Use the present
4 Ask Sylvia who her dog stays with in the summer. simple or the present continuous form of the
verbs in brackets.
5 Ask Sylvia what her parents do in the evenings. John: Hello. 1 Are you doing (you / do) anything
special at the moment?
6 Ask Sylvia if her dad likes doing karaoke. Katie: Right now, I 2 (look
after) my little brother. Why?
John: What time 3 (your
Adverbs and expressions of mum / get) home from work?
Katie: She 4 (work) late
frequency every Thursday, so at about half past eight.
3 Put the words in the correct order to make Why?
sentences. John: They 5 (show) the
new Miley Cyrus film at the cinema on Main
1 washes / the / Theo / never / car
Street. It starts at nine. My sister and I
Theo never washes the car. 6
(think) about
2 hardly / watch / TV / They / ever going. Are you interested?
Katie: Yes! Lets meet at the cinema at quarter to
3 late / sometimes / am / school / for / I nine!

4 a / shopping / We / week / go / twice

5 get / marks / exams / good / You / always / in

6 gym / goes / My / mum / every / to / day / the

Grammar practice 87
Grammar reference
Unit 2 Used to enfatiza que los estados, hbitos y acciones del
pasado ahora ya estn terminados.
Pasado simple: verbos regulares e irregulares There used to be a church here, but now theres a
afirmativa negativa museum.
Aqu haba una iglesia, pero ahora hay un museo.
I / He / She / It
stayed at home. didnt stay at home. No se utiliza used to para hablar de cosas que solo
We / You / They ocurrieron una vez, de cuntas veces pas una cosa ni de
interrogativa la duracin.
I / he / she / it They had three bad storms last year.
Did stay at home? They used to have three bad storms last year.
we / you / they
Tuvieron tres tormentas fuertes, el ao pasado.
respuestas cortas Tenan tres tormentas fuertes, el ao pasado.
Yes, I / he / she / it / we / you / they did. Pasado continuo
No, I / he / she / it / we / you / they didnt.
afirmativa negativa
Se utiliza el pasado simple para hablar de I / He / She / It was crying. wasnt crying.
acontecimientos y acciones terminados en el pasado.
We / You / They were crying. werent crying.
I watched a disaster film last night.
Ayer por la noche vi una pelcula de desastres. interrogativa
Para construir la forma afirmativa del pasado simple, se Was I / he / she / it
crying?
aade -ed o -d al infinitivo. Were we / you / they
help helped organise organised respuestas cortas
ayudar ayud organizar organiz
Yes, I / he / she / it was. No, I / he / she / it wasnt.
En los verbos que acaban en consonante + y, se elimina
la y y se aade -ied. Yes, we / you / they were. No, we / you / they werent.
study studied estudiar estudi
Se utiliza el pasado continuo para hablar de acciones
En los verbos que acaban en consonante + vocal + que estn pasando en un momento en el pasado.
consonante, se duplica la consonante final y se aade At seven oclock, I was waiting for the bus.
-ed. A las siete en punto estaba esperando el autobs.
drop dropped chat chatted
dejar caer dej caer charlar charl Pasado perfecto
Muchos verbos habituales son irregulares en el pasado afirmativa negativa
simple. Consultar la lista de verbos irregulares de la
I / You / He / I / You / He / hadnt
pgina 128. She / It / had She / It (had + not)
get got put put have had forgotten.
We / You / They We / You / They forgotten.
recibir recibi poner puso tener tuvo
interrogativa respuestas cortas
Siempre se ponen las partculas interrogativas al principio
I / you / he / I / you / he /
de la pregunta. Yes, had.
she / it / she / it
How did the fire start? Had forgotten?
Cmo se inici el fuego? we / you / we / you /
No, hadnt.
they they
used to
Se utiliza el pasado perfecto con otros tiempos de
afirmativa negativa pasado para hablar de acciones o estados que tuvieron
I / You / He / lugar antes de la accin o estado pasado principal.
used to live in
She / It / didnt use to live in Spain. I couldnt call you on Friday because I had left my
Spain.
We / You / They mobile at home.
interrogativa respuestas cortas No te pude llamar el viernes porque me haba
dejado el mvil en casa.
I / you / he / she / it / Yes, I / you / he / did.
Did we / you / they use to she / it / we /
be scared? No, you / they didnt.

88 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 2
Past simple: regular and 3 She doesnt wake up very early now.

irregular verbs 4 She goes to school now.


1 Write the past simple form of the verbs.
1 be was/were 4 teach 5 She talks all the time now.
2 go 5 forget
3 bring 6 hit
Past continuous
2 Complete the sentences. Use the past simple
form of the verbs in the box. 5 Complete the sentences and questions. Use
the past continuous form of the verbs in
send spend make look drop brackets.
1 He wasnt playing basketball, hewas at
1 We looked around the museum, but it home. (not play)
wasnt very interesting. 2 We our homework, we were
2 I cant believe you all your money on chatting. (not do)
magazines and sweets! 3 I to school when you saw me.
3 My dad wanted to send me an email, but he It was Saturday. (not walk)
it to his boss at work by mistake! 4 You really badly, so Ihad to
4 Im sorry. I your favourite cup and put my fingers in my ears! (sing)
its broken. 5 Where when you saw
5 My brother dinner last night. It was them? (they / go)
surprisingly good.

3 Complete the conversation. Use the past


Past perfect
simple form of the verbs in brackets. 6 Circle the correct options.
Mick: What 1 did you do (you / do) at the 1 I didnt hear that the teacher asked / had asked
weekend? me a question.
Lucy: I 2 (go) to the new 2 She bought a new book because she has lost /
shopping centre with my cousin. had lost hers.
Mick: 3 (you / buy) anything nice? 3 They hadnt had / didnt had lunch so they were
Lucy: Well I 4 (see) some nice very hungry.
trainers, but I 5
(not have) 4 How long had you felt / have you felt ill before
enough money with me. you went to the hospital?
Mick: How 6 (you / get) there? 5 He didnt know that we had deciding / had
Lucy: We 7
(take) the bus. What decided to meet at 9 pm.
about you. 8 (you / enjoy)
the weekend? Past simple, past continuous
Mick: No, not much. I 9 (can not)
go out because I was ill! and past perfect
7 Complete the text with the past simple, past
used to continuous or past perfect form of the verbs
in brackets.
4 Rewrite the sentences using used to.
When I woke up, it 1 was raining (rain). I
My cousin, Kate, is six. When she was a baby, 2
(walk) to the bathroom, but
she was very different my brother 3 (have) a shower so I
1 She doesnt cry a lot now. 4
(go) to the kitchen. Dad
She used to cry a lot. 5
(finish) his breakfast and
2 She isnt scared of her uncle now. he 6 (wash) the plates.
7
you (sleep) well?
asked Dad. No, I said. I 8 (have)
a very strange dream.
Grammar practice 89
Grammar reference
Unit 3 have to/dont have to
should/shouldnt afirmativa negativa

afirmativa negativa I / We / You / have to


dont have to practise.
They practise.
I / He / She / It
should help. shouldnt help. has to
We / You / They He / She / It doesnt have to practise.
practise.
interrogativa interrogativa
Should I / he / she / it / we / you / they help? Do I / we / you / they
respuestas cortas have to practise?
Does he / she / it
Yes, I / he / she / it / we / you / they should. respuestas cortas
No, I / he / she / it / we / you / they shouldnt. I / we / you / I / we / you /
do. dont.
Yes, they No, they
Se utiliza should para indicar que creemos que es
una buena idea o que es importante hacer algo, para he / she / it does. he / she / it doesnt.
dar consejos y para hacer recomendaciones.
Se utiliza have to para decir qu es necesario hacer.
You should organise a party for your birthday. He has to wear a uniform at school.
Deberas montar una fiesta por tu cumpeaos. En el colegio debe llevar uniforme.
Amelia shouldnt stay out late. Se utiliza dont have to para decir que no es necesario
Amelia no debera salir hasta muy tarde. hacer algo pero que lo puedes hacer si quieres.
Should es igual en todas las formas. You dont have to help me with my homework.
Despus de should se utiliza un infinitivo sin to. No tienes que ayudarme con los deberes.
John should get more sleep. (X John should to get Las partculas interrogativas van al principio de la
more sleep.) pregunta.
John debera dormir ms. How much homework do you have to do every day?
must/mustnt Cuntos deberes tienes que hacer cada da?
afirmativa negativa be allowed to
I / He / She / It afirmativa / negativa
must go. mustnt go.
We / You / They Im (not)
You / We / Theyre (not) allowed to run.
Se utiliza must para decir que creemos que es
He / She / Its (not)
necesario hacer algo, para hablar de obligaciones y
para hacer fuertes recomendaciones. interrogativa respuestas cortas
I must start studying more. Am I Yes, I am. No, Im not.
Debo empezar a estudiar ms. you / we / Yes, you / we / No, you / we /
Se utiliza mustnt para decir qu creemos que es Are allowed
they they are. they arent.
to run?
necesario no hacer, para hablar de prohibiciones y he / she / Yes, he / she / No, he / she /
para aconsejar con intensidad en contra de algo. Is
it it is. it isnt.
We mustnt forget to buy her a present.
No debemos olvidarnos de comprarle un regalo. Se utiliza be allowed to para decir que tenemos
Las preguntas con must no son muy habituales permiso para hacer alguna cosa.
porque suenan muy formales. En vez de esto Were allowed to use my mums laptop.
tendemos a utilizar have to. Tenemos permiso para utilizar el ordenador
Must I go to bed so early? porttil de mi madre.
Tengo que ir a la cama tan pronto? Es habitual usar la contraccin del verbo be en frases
Must es igual en todas las formas. negativas.
Despus de must se utiliza un infinitivo sin to. They arent allowed to have mobiles in class.
No les permiten tener mviles en clase.
He isnt allowed to go to the party.
No le dejan ir a la fiesta.
90 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 3
should/shouldnt 4 Complete the sentences with the correct form
of must and the verbs in the box.
1 Complete the sentences with the correct form
of should and the verbs in the box. forget study get go buy help

listen forget make be look give up


1 A: Ive got an important exam tomorrow.
B: You must study tonight.
1 You shouldnt be scared to follow your
2 A: My calculator is broken.
dreams.
B: You a new one before the
2 You promises you cant keep.
Maths test.
3 You more, and speak less.
3 A: The water is very dangerous here.
4 You at yourself before you
B: You swimming.
criticise other people.
4 A: My brother wants us to tidy our room.
5 You that everyone has
problems. B: You him then!
6 You . Try again! 5 A: Im going to Mexico this summer.
B: You a passport.
2 Two friends are planning a party. Write 6 A: Its my sisters birthday tomorrow.
questions with should. Add a question word B: You to buy her a present.
when necessary.
1 we / ask your parents for permission? have to/dont have to
A: Should we ask your parents for permission?
B: I asked them yesterday.
5 Complete the sentences and questions with
the correct form of have to.
2 we / invite?
1 You dont have to phone. You can email for
A:
information.
B: Everyone in the class.
2 At my school, we play hockey,
3 they / bring some food and drink?
its optional.
A:
3 Doctors study for seven or
B: No, my mum is going to get everything. eight years.
4 everyone / arrive? 4 Why she
A: do the exam again?
B: About 8 pm. 5 My brother study much. Hes
5 I / wear? really clever.
A: 6 we take a
B: Your blue skirt and white T-shirt. sleeping bag with us?
6 I / bring some music?
A: be allowed to
B: Yes. Something we can dance to.
6 Complete the sentences with the correct form
of be allowed to and the verbs in brackets.
must/mustnt 1 Were not allowed to ask questions in the
3 Circle the correct options. exam. (not / ask)
1 You must / mustnt forget to call me tonight. 2 I my pocket money on
2 Students must / mustnt write in pen, not pencil. what I want. (spend)
3 You must / mustnt tell anyone. Its a secret. 3 The cat on the bed.
(not / sleep)
4 Tell them that they must / mustnt relax more
and not worry. 4 your sisters shoes?
(you / borrow)
5 We must / mustnt make a lot of noise. This is
the library. 5 You loud music after
11 pm. (not play)
6 I must / mustnt be late, because Dad gets angry.
6 a tattoo? (Peter / get)

Grammar practice 91
Grammar reference
Unit 4 Se utiliza be (been) para decir que alguien ha vuelto
de un lugar o de hacer alguna actividad.
Presente perfecto para un pasado Hes gone to the shop. (He is at the shop now.)
indenido Ha ido a comprar. (Est en la tienda ahora.)
afirmativa negativa Hes been to the shop. (He has returned.)
Ha estado comprando. (Ya ha vuelto.)
I / We / have havent
You / They passed passed Theyve gone to Japan. (They are in Japan now.)
the exam. the exam. Se han ido a Japn. (Estn en Japn ahora.)
hasnt
He / She / It has passed Theyve been to Japan. (They have returned.)
passed
Han estado en Japn. (Ya han vuelto.)
Se utiliza el presente perfecto para hablar de
Presente perfecto con just
acciones, experiencias y hechos del pasado cuando el
momento exacto no se menciona o no es importante. Se utiliza just con el presente perfecto para hablar
The school have organised a trip to Germany. de acontecimientos y acciones muy recientes.
La escuela ha organizado un viaje a Alemania. Ive just heard the good news. Its fantastic!
Acabo de or las buenas noticias. Es fantstico!
Cristiano Ronaldos played for Manchester Utd and
Real Madrid. Dads just got home and hes feeling tired.
Cristiano Ronaldo ha jugado en el Manchester Pap acaba de llegar a casa y est cansado.
United y en el Real Madrid. Presente perfecto: interrogativas
Ive seen some fantastic grati.
interrogativa
He visto unos grafitis fantsticos.
La estructura afirmativa se forma con sujeto + have/ Have I / we / you / they
passed the exam?
has + participio pasado. Has he / she / it
Ive bought tickets for the exhibition. respuestas cortas
He comprado entradas para la exposicin.
I / we / you / I / we / you /
Shes given me some good advice. have. havent.
Yes, they No, they
Me ha dado buenos consejos.
he / she / it has. he / she / it hasnt.
La estructura negativa se forma con sujeto + havent/
hasnt + participio pasado. Para hacer preguntas con el presente perfecto se
Max hasnt seen the mural. utiliza have/has + sujeto + participio pasado.
Max no ha visto el mural. Es frecuente el uso de ever en preguntas en presente
They havent asked me for help. perfecto para preguntar sobre toda tu vida hasta el
No me han pedido ayuda. momento.
Los participios pasados regulares acaban en -ed, -d Has she ever had piano lessons?
o -ied. Ha tomado alguna vez clases de piano?
want wanted believe believed worry worried Have you ever broken your arm or leg?
querer querido creer credo Te has roto alguna vez un brazo o una pierna?
preocupar - preocupado A menudo se utiliza never para indicar algo que
Presente perfecto: verbos irregulares nunca ha sucedido cuando se responden estas
preguntas.
Muchos verbos habituales tienen participios pasados
A: Has he ever met a famous person?
irregulares.
A: Ha conocido alguna vez a un famoso?
go gone put put see seen hear heard
ir ido poner puesto ver visto or odo B: No, never.
B: No, nunca.
Consultar la lista de participios pasados irregulares de
la pgina 128.
Se utiliza go (gone) para decir que alguien no ha
vuelto de un lugar o de hacer alguna actividad.

92 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 4
Present perfect for indenite Present perfect: questions
past time 4 Are the questions correct? Correct the
1 Complete the sentences. Use the present incorrect questions.
perfect form of the verbs in brackets. 1 Have you made dinner for your family ever?
1 I ve finished my homework. (finish) Have you ever made dinner for your family?
2 We a window because its 2 Has you ever done karaoke?
really hot today. (open)
3 Your birthday card from Uncle David 3 How many different countries you have been to?
. (not arrive)
4 You the shopping into the 4 Has your grandma ever sent you an email?
kitchen. (not carry)
5 They the museums and art 5 Where has your brothers gone?
galleries. (enjoy)
6 She Leo lots of times. (email) 6 Which of these DVDs have you saw?

Present perfect: irregular verbs


5 Look at the table. Write present perfect
2 Write the past participle form of these questions with ever and the correct answers.
irregular verbs. = yes and = no.
1 speak spoken 5 come
2 be 6 feel Charlotte Aiden and Milo Tom
3 take 7 meet climb a 1
3
5

4 see 8 write mountain
win a prize 2
4
6

Present perfect with just Has Charlotte ever climbed a mountain?
1
3 Complete the sentences. Use the present Yes, she has.
perfect with just and the phrases in the box. 2

have a message start have some juice


3
hear about it make some biscuits arrive

4
1 A: Do you want a drink?
B: No, thanks. I ve just had some juice .
5
2 A: What do you think of the news?
B: I dont know. I .
6
3 A: Mmm! Whats that smell?
B: Daisy .
4 A: Ben isnt answering his phone.
B: Really? I
fromhim.
5 A: Are your friends here?
B: Yes, they .
6 A: Sorry Im late.
B: Its OK. We .

Grammar practice 93
Grammar reference
Unit 5 for y since
Se utilizan for y since con el presente perfecto
Presente perfecto con still, yet y already
para indicar durante cunto tiempo se ha producido
A menudo se utiliza still, yet y already con el unhecho.
presente perfecto. She hasnt gone climbing for three years.
Jacks already been to Australia three times. Hace tres aos que no va a escalar.
Jack ya ha estado en Australia tres veces.
Ive lived here since I was seven.
I havent had time to go shopping yet. Vivo aqu desde que tena siete aos.
An no he tenido tiempo para ir a comprar.
Se utiliza for con periodos de tiempo.
We still havent decided where to go on holiday. Liams had a new mobile for three days.
Todava no hemos decidido dnde iremos de Hace tres das que Liam tiene un mvil nuevo.
vacaciones.
My parents have been married for twenty-one years.
Se utiliza already para explicar que algo ha pasado Hace veintin aos que mis padres estn
antes de lo que esperbamos o para enfatizar que ha casados.
pasado. Normalmente se pone already entre have y
Se utiliza since con una referencia a un momento
el participio pasado.
concreto.
Shes already packed her suitcase.
Ya se ha hecho la maleta. Ive known her since 2009.
La conozco desde 2009.
Theyve already seen that film.
Ya han visto esa pelcula. Emma and Anna havent spoken since the party.
Emma y Anna no han hablado desde la fiesta.
Se utiliza yet en frases negativas para enfatizar que
algo que esperbamos que pasase no ha pasado. Se Presente perfecto y pasado simple
pone yet despus del sintagma verbal completo. Se utiliza el pasado simple cuando el momento en
John hasnt arrived yet. que pasa algo ya se ha terminado. Normalmente no
John an no ha llegado. se menciona el momento en que ha pasado porque ya
I havent asked my parents for permission yet. est claro.
An no he pedido permiso a mis padres. I went to Liverpool in June. (Its now July.)
Se utiliza yet en estructuras interrogativas para
Fui a Liverpool en junio. (Ahora es julio.)
preguntar si algo ha ocurrido antes de este momento. They began the exam two minutes ago. (Its now
Se pone al final de la pregunta. 10.02, not 10.00.)
Have you bought the train tickets yet? Han empezado el examen hace dos minutos.
Ya has comprado los billetes de tren? (Ahora son las 10:02, no las 10:00.)
Has Amelia told you about the party yet? Se utiliza el presente perfecto cuando algo comenz
Amelia ya te ha hablado de la fiesta? o tuvo lugar en el pasado y sigue teniendo lugar en
el momento actual. Se puede decir durante cunto
En respuestas cortas negativas se utiliza not yet.
tiempo ha tenido lugar un hecho pero no cundo
A: Have you made lunch?
empez.
A: Has hecho la comida?
B: Not yet. Ive been to Liverpool. (When isnt specified, but it
B: Todava no. continues to be true.)
He estado en Liverpool. (No se especifica
Se utiliza still en frases que expresan que algo que se cundo, pero sigue siendo cierto.)
esperaba no ha pasado, pero que nos imaginamos
que pasar en el futuro. Se pone still justo despus
Theyve begun the exam. (And the exam hasnt
del sujeto.
finished.)
My uncle still hasnt telephoned. Han empezado el examen. (Y el examen no se ha
Mi to an no ha llamado. acabado.)
Its 4 oclock and we still havent had lunch.
Son las 4 y an no hemos comido.

94 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 5
Present perfect with still, yet, 4 Circle the correct options.
already 1 Ive had my mobile for / since a year.
2 Weve been here for / since this morning.
1 Complete the sentences with still, yet or 3 She hasnt spoken to me for / since months.
already. 4 It hasnt rained for / since April.
1 You still havent bought me a birthday 5 Lauras been my friend for / since we were six.
present. 6 They havent seen each other for / since
2 I havent seen the new Superman film twelveweeks.
.
3 Harrys broken his new computer.
Present perfect and past simple
4 They havent asked their parents for permission
. 5 Circle the correct options.
5 Sorry, but Ive made plans for this 1 out with your friends last weekend?
weekend. a Have you gone b Did you go
6 Lucy hasnt decided what she wants 2 I when we went to the beach.
to do at university. a ve been happy b was happy
3 in Spain all your life?
2 Put the words in the correct order to make
a Have you lived b Did you live
sentences.
4 Eric golf before.
1 already / the news / have / I / heard
a has never played b never played
I have already heard the news.
5 She still the monkeys.
2 tidied / yet / you / Have / your bedroom / ?
a hasnt seen b didnt see

3 me / hasnt / She / phoned / still 6 Complete the conversation. Use the present
perfect or the past simple form of the verbs
4 home / already / He / has / gone inbrackets.
Mum: Sam, 1 have you seen (you / see) Julia?
5 arrived / still / havent / They Sam: No, I 2 (not see) her
since last night. We 3
6 yet / he / the book / read / Has / ? (watch) TV when she came home. She was
tired, so she 4 (go)
to bed early. Why?
for and since Mum: She isnt here, and she
5
(not go)
3 Complete the table with the words in the box. to school this morning. Her teacher
6
(just call).
three weeks Monday 2008 Christmas Sam: I dont know. 7
a long time two hours (you / ask) Dad?
Mum: I rang the office, but he
for since
8
(still not reply)
to my message.
three weeks
Julia: Hi!
Mum: Julia! Where 9
(you / be)?
Julia: Sorry, Mum. I 10
(not feel) very well when I woke up, so
I 11 (make) an
appointment to see the doctor.

Grammar practice 95
Grammar reference
Unit 6 We get the exam results in December.
Nos dan los resultados del examen en
be going to diciembre.
afirmativa negativa Consultar en la pgina 86 cmo se forma el
presente simple.
I m going m not
Cantidad: a few, a little, a lot of/lots of,
He / She / It s to tell isnt going to tell him.
him.
How many, How much
We / You / They re arent
interrogativa contables incontables

Am I a few a little

Is he / she / it going to tell him? a lot of / lots of a lot of / lots of

Are we / you / they How many How much

respuestas cortas Se utiliza a little y a few para expresar cantidades


I am. Im not. pequeas.
Yes, he / she / it is. No, he / she / it isnt. Ive got a few emails that I need to reply to.
Tengo unos pocos correos electrnicos por
we / you / they are. we / you / they arent.
responder.
Se utiliza be going to para hablar de acciones que hemos Theres a little chocolate ice cream, but there
decidido llevar a cabo en el futuro. isnt any strawberry.
After we finish school, Im going to do the university Hay un poco de helado de chocolate pero no
entrance exams. queda de fresa.
Cuando terminemos el colegio har los exmenes de Se utiliza a lot of/lots of para hablar de
acceso a la universidad. cantidades mayores. Se suele utilizar a lot of/lots
Se utiliza la forma adecuada del presente de be (not) + of en frases afirmativas en lugar de many/much,
going + to + el verbo. que suenan muy formales.
Im going to wear my new jeans and my red T-shirt. Se utiliza how much/how many para hacer
Me pondr los pantalones nuevos y la camiseta roja. preguntas sobre cantidades.
Las preguntas se forman con be + sujeto + going + to + How much money have you got?
el verbo. Cunto dinero tienes?
When are you going to start studying for the exams? How many books are there?
Cundo vas a empezar a estudiar para los Cuntos libros hay?
exmenes? Cantidad: too much, too many, enough,
Is she going to get here before 9 oclock? not enough
Llegar antes de las 9? Se utiliza too much/too many para indicar que
Presente continuo y presente simple para el una cantidad es excesiva.
futuro There are too many books for one person to carry.
Se utiliza el presente continuo para hablar de planes de Hay demasiados libros para que los cargue
futuro que tienen una fecha fijada. una sola persona.
Theyre getting married this summer. They eat too much fast food.
Se casan este verano. Comen demasiada comida basura.
She isnt coming to the party. Shes spending the day Se utiliza enough para indicar que una cantidad
with her cousins. es suficiente, y not enough para indicar que una
No va a venir a la fiesta. Va a pasar el da con sus cantidad es insuficiente.
primos. Weve got enough players to make two teams.
Consultar en la pgina 86 cmo se forma el presente Tenemos suficientes jugadores para hacer
continuo. dos equipos.
Se utiliza el presente simple para hablar de horarios, I didnt have enough time to answer all the
programas y calendarios. questions.
The bus arrives at 12:17. No tuve tiempo suficiente para responder a
El autobs llega a las 12:17. todas las preguntas.
96 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 6
be going to Quantity: a few, a little, a lot of/
1 Complete the sentences and questions. Use lots of, How many, How much
the correct form of be going to and the verbs 3 Circle the correct options.
in brackets.
1 We havent got much / many time. Be quick or
1 I m going to look up some of these new words in well be late!
a dictionary. (look up)
2 Have you got a few / a little minutes to help me?
2 She her parents what
3 There are a lot of / a few options, but not many.
happened because they worry. (not tell)
4 Theyve got a little / a few nice T-shirts in your
3 Jessica and Bea dance
size. What about this one?
classes. Are you interested? (start)
5 A lot of / A little people say that its a nice place,
4 Where on holiday this
but I havent been there yet.
year? (Harry / go)
6 How much / How many money have you got?
5 I for a new one. It was
7 They had a pizza because they didnt have
broken when you gave me it. (not pay)
a lot of / a little time to cook.
6 Noah the swimming
team. Hesays hes scared of water. (not join)
7 We an email to the Quantity: too much, too many,
school. Ihope they answer. (write) enough, not enough
8 at home this weekend?
(you / relax) 4 Are these sentences correct? Correct the
incorrect sentences.
1 I havent got too many time to do all my
Present continuous and present schoolwork.
simple for future I havent got enough time to do all my schoolwork.
2 There were too much people at the concert.
2 Complete the sentences and questions with
the correct form of the present continuous or
the present simple. Use the verbs in the box. 3 I dont think we have money enough.

nish leave travel get 4 Do you think Ive got too many friends on
start not go stay Facebook?

1 My cousin s getting married in June. Im really 5 We have too much homework and not enough
excited! free time.
2 The train at 8.20 and arrives
at 10. 6 I dont think Ive had enough sleep. Im so tired!
3 The film starts at 7.10 and at
9, so we can go for a pizza after.
4 We camping this weekend
because they say its going to rain.
5 What day school
after the summer holidays?
6 How long you
in Germany for, Mia?
7 she by
plane or by train?

Grammar practice 97
Grammar reference
Unit 7 Se utiliza will/wont cuando se tiene seguridad sobre
la accin que se est llevando a cabo, y may (not)/
will, may y might might (not) cuando no se est tan seguro.
afirmativa negativa
Theyll be answering questions online between
7 pm & 9 pm.
I / He / She / It will / may / wont (will not) / Estarn respondiendo preguntas entre las
We / You / They might help. maynot / might not help. 7 y las 9 de la noche.
interrogativa We might be having dinner at 9 pm, so can I text you
Will I / he / she / it we / you / they help? later to confirm?
respuestas cortas A las 9 de la noche puede que estemos cenando;
te puedo escribir despus para confirmarlo?
Yes, I / he / she / it / we / will / may / might.
you / they Primer condicional
No, wont / may not / might not.
situacin consecuencia
Se pueden utilizar will, may y might para dar
opiniones sobre el futuro. (if + presente simple) (will/wont, may/might (not))
Se utiliza will y wont cuando se est seguro de una my parents will / may / might
If I pass all my exams,
accin o acontecimiento futuro, y may o might (not) buy me a present.
cuando no se est tan seguro pero se cree que es If I dont pass all my I wont / may not/ might not go
posible. Might puede indicar menos seguridad por Unless I exams, on holiday.
parte del orador que may.
consecuencia situacin
Youll forget to call me you always do!
Te olvidars de llamarme, como siempre! (will/wont, may/might (if + presente simple)
Gavin may know the answer. (not))
Gavin quizs sepa la respuesta. My parents will / may /
if I pass my exams.
I might not be online tonight because Im going to might buy me a present
the cinema. My parents wont buy if I dont pass all my
Esta noche puede que no me conecte porque ir me a present unless I exams.
al cine. interrogativa
Normalmente se utiliza will para hacer preguntas
Will my parents buy me
sobre el futuro. Aparte de para hacer peticiones, es if I dont pass all my exams?
a present
extrao que las preguntas se hagan con may y con
might, pueden sonar bastante formales. Se utilizan oraciones con el primer condicional para
Futuro continuo hablar de situaciones posibles en el presente o en el
futuro y para decir cul creemos que ser el resultado.
afirmativa / negativa A menudo se utiliza if + presente simple para
I / You / He / will / wont describir la accin o acontecimiento posible.
be lying on the beach Well get tickets if we go online at 9 oclock tonight.
She / It / We may / may not
this time next week. Conseguiremos entradas si nos conectamos
/ You / They might / might not
interrogativa respuestas cortas esta noche a las 9.
Yes, I / you / he / she / Se puede utilizar unless + presente simple en vez de
be lying on
I / you / he / it / we / you / they will. if not.
the beach
Will she / it / we /
this time
Unless we hurry up, well miss the train.
No, I / you / he / she / it /
you / they
next week? Si no nos damos prisa, perderemos el tren.
we / you / they wont.
Se utiliza will/wont + innitivo cuando se est
Se puede utilizar el futuro continuo para hablar seguro del resultado, y may o might + innitivo
de acciones que estn teniendo lugar en un punto cuando no se est tan seguro.
temporal del futuro. If we dont leave now, we wont catch the 8:30 bus.
My sister will be living in London next year. Shes Si no salimos ahora, no llegaremos al autobs de
going to study there. las 8:30.
El ao que viene mi hermana estar viviendo en I might go on the rollercoaster if it isnt too big.
Londres. Va a estudiar all. Si no es muy grande, a lo mejor subo a la
montaa rusa.
98 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 7
will, may and might Future continuous
1 Complete the sentences with the correct form 3 Complete the sentences with the future
of will and the verbs and phrases in thebox. continuous. Use the verbs in brackets.
1 Jake will be studying all weekend because hes
not sell out not believe it was you doing his final exams. (will / study)
nd the way understand pass easily 2 We anything for Dads
love it birthday this year. He didnt enjoy last years
surprise party. (wont / do)
1 A: Im worried about the exam. 3 you at the
B: Dont worry! You ll pass easily . airport, or is she taking a taxi here? (will / meet)
2 A: I hope Sally doesnt get lost. 4 Ellie her red skirt, so Im going
B: Im sure she wont! She to wear jeans. (might / wear)
. Shes got 5 They this summer. Theyre
amap. thinking of spending the summer at the beach.
3 A: Ive bought Luke and Harry a birthday present. (may not / come)
B: Im sure they .
4 A: Im afraid David thinks I told everyone his First conditional
secret.
B: He . Youre 4 Correct the mistake in each sentence.
best friends. 1 If I wont go to bed now, Ill be tired tomorrow.
5 A: Im nervous about telling Dad I broke his MP3 If I dont go to bed now, Ill be tired tomorrow.
player. 2 She will lend you the book unless you ask her.
B: Dont worry! He
it was an accident. 3 You dont have any friends if you talk to people
6 A: I hope theyve got tickets tomorrow. like that.
B: Relax! The concert .
Thestadium is really big. 4 If my grandparents come, they give me some
money.
2 Match the sentence halves.
1 Where are you going tonight? c 5 I wont finish my homework unless you will
2 Where are you going to meet Megan? helpme.
3 When is Paula going to see Eric?
4 Are you going to email me this weekend?
5 Can your mum cut my hair this weekend? 5 Complete the sentences with the correct form
6 Are you watching the football tonight on TV? of the phrases in the box.
a I think she might see him on Thursday. not listen carefully tell him to call you
b We havent decided. We may meet at the train go to the park send you a friend request
station. remind them
c Im not sure. I might go to the cinema.
d Im going to the country, so I might not have an 1 If its sunny tomorrow, we ll go to the park for
Internet connection. sure.
e I cant, but I may watch it online. 2 I promise that if we see him, we
f Shes working so she may not have time. .
3 If you , you wont understand.
4 They might not do it unless you
.
5 She may today if she goes on
Facebook.

Grammar practice 99
Grammar reference
Unit 8 Se pueden utilizar was o were con I, he, she e it en
la parte de la oracin donde est el if.
Segundo condicional: afirmativas y Id be quiet and not say anything if I were/was you.
negativas Yo de ti me estara callado y no dira nada.
situacin imaginaria posible consecuencia If my sister wasnt/werent at university, Id still
have to share a bedroom.
(if + pasado simple) (would + infinitivo)
Si mi hermana no fuera a la universidad, seguira
If you woke up earlier, you would arrive on time. teniendo que compartir habitacin.
If she didnt bully people, she wouldnt get detention. Cuando se utiliza if para comenzar una frase, hay que
poner una coma entre las dos partes.
Se utilizan oraciones con el segundo condicional
If I had more money, Id buy a new mobile.
para hablar de situaciones imaginarias y de las posibles
Si tuviera ms dinero, me comprara un mvil
consecuencias. Las partes pueden ser afirmativas,
nuevo.
negativas o una combinacin de ambas.
Wed be in Burgos now if there was a direct train. Segundo condicional: interrogativas
(armative, armative)
situacin imaginaria posible consecuencia
Ahora estaramos en Burgos si hubira un tren
directo. (afirmativa, afirmativa) (if + pasado simple) (would + infinitivo)
If he didnt go to work, he wouldnt be so tired. If I helped you with your would you lend me your
(negative, negative) homework, video games console?
Si no fuera a trabajar, no estara tan cansado. If you asked him, would your dad take us to
(negativa, negativa) the concert?
I wouldnt speak to her if I saw her again. (negative,
armativee) Se pueden hacer preguntas sobre los resultados
No le dira nada si la volviera a ver. (negativa, imaginarios de situaciones imaginarias utilizando if
afirmativa) + pasado simple, would(nt) + sujeto + verbo.
Las partes pueden ser afirmativas, negativas o una
Id be very lonely if I didnt have you as a friend. combinacin de ambas.
(armative, negative) If I told you a secret, would you promise not to tell?
Me sentira muy solo si no te tuviera a ti como (armative, armative)
amiga. (afirmativa, negativa) Si te contara un secreto, me prometeras que
Se utiliza if + pasado simple (afirmativo o negativo) no se lo diras a nadie? (afirmativa, afirmativa)
para describir la situacin imaginaria.
Wouldnt life be better if we had five-day weekends?
I wouldnt say no if you wanted to borrow my blue (negative, armative)
skirt. No sera mejor la vida, si tuviramos fines de
Si me pidieras la falda azul no te dira que no. semana de cinco das? (negativa, afirmativa)
If I didnt have a dog, Id like to have a cat. If I didnt reply to your messages, wouldnt you get
Si no tuviera un perro, me gustara tener un angry? (negative, negative)
gato. Si yo no te respondiera los mensajes, no te
Se utiliza would (not) + innitivo para expresar un enfadaras? (negativa, negativa)
resultado imaginario del que se est seguro. Cuando
A menudo se utilizan partculas interrogativas del
would es afirmativo, normalmente se contrae (d).
tipo Wh- delante de would + sujeto + verbo para
Habitualmente, la forma negativa es wouldnt.
pedir informacin.
Theyd get better grades if they spent more time If you had a dog, what would you call it?
studying. Si tuvieras un perro, cmo le llamaras?
Si pasasen ms tiempo estudiando sacaran
mejores notas. Where would you live if you could choose any place in
the world?
If she didnt like you, she wouldnt send you texts Si pudieras escoger cualquier lugar del mundo,
and Tweets. dnde viviras?
Si no le gustaras, no te mandara mensajes de
texto ni Tweets

100 Grammar reference


Grammar practice 8
Second conditional: affirmative 4 Complete the sentences using the second
and negative conditional.
1 Mark doesnt study. He gets bad marks.
1 Match the sentence halves. Mark would get better marks if he studied .
a if people didnt use 2 Ana likes swimming. She goes to the pool every day.
1 If he went to India,
their cars every day. If Ana didnt .
2 Wed live in a bigger
b hed make lots of 3 Im not going to his house. I dont have time.
house
friends. If I had .
3 There would be less
c if we had enough 4 You dont wear your glasses to read. Your eyes hurt.
pollution
money.
4 If I was a teacher, Your eyes wouldnt .
d if I told you.
5 You wouldnt 5 We live in the city. We dont have a horse.
e hed visit the
believeme If we didnt .
TajMahal.
6 If he joined the 6 They arent on Twitter. I dont follow them.
f I wouldnt give any
football team, I would .
homework.

2 Complete the second conditional sentences. Second conditional: questions


Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1 If I had (have) enough time,
5 Complete the questions with the correct form
d learn of the verbs in the box.
I (learn) to play the guitar.
2 She (not be) late for school if take go say can have need
she (get up) earlier.
3 If they (know) the answer,
1 If you had a dog, what would you call it?
they (tell) you.
2 If you didnt feel ill, where you
4 Mr Jones (help) you if you
today?
(ask) him nicely.
3 What time would we arrive if we
5 If I (meet) Will Smith,
the earlier train?
I (ask) for his autograph.
4 If you be a character from a film,
6 Our English (get) better if we
who would you be?
(move) to New York.
5 If he asked you to go out, you
3 Are the sentences correct? Correct the yes?
incorrect sentences. 6 Who would you ask if you to
borrow some money?
1 I dont do that if I were you.
I wouldnt do that if I were you.
6 Write second conditional questions with the
2 If he liked you, hed calls you. prompts.
1 if we / share a bedroom / how often / we argue / ?
3 Your bedroom would look nice if you would paint If we shared a bedroom, how often would we argue?
it blue.
2 if you / find some money / you keep it / ?

4 If they talked about the problem, theyd find a


3 What / his parents say / if they / know / ?
solution.

4 if you / can have a superpower / what / it be / ?


5 If Id knew his number, Id text him.

5 if you / live in London / you / earn more money / ?


6 Youd look great if you grew your hair long.

6 if you / be me / what / you do / ?

Grammar practice 101


Grammar reference
Unit 9 Oraciones indirectas
Presente simple pasivo discurs directe discurs indirecte
presente simple: I want pasado simple: He said (that) he
afirmativa negativa
some new trainers. wanted some new trainers.
This bottle is made of isnt made of pasado simple: I had a pasado perfecto: She said (that)
These toys are plastic. arent plastic. great time. shed had a great time.
interrogativa respuestas cortas presente perfecto: pasado perfecto: She said (that)
this Weve just seen a film theyd just seen a film about an
Is it is. it isnt. about an earthquake. earthquake.
bottle made of
Yes, No, presente continuo: pasado continuo: He said (that)
these plastic? they
Are they are. Were growing our they were growing their own
toys arent.
own vegetables. vegetables.
Se utiliza la forma pasiva para describir acciones y will: Theyll need to would: She said theyd need to
procesos cuando no nos interesa o no sabemos quin bring a camera. bring a camera.
es el responsable de la accin o proceso. can: You can do it. could: He said (that) I could do it.
Para formar el presente simple pasivo se utiliza is/ must: We must buy had to: She said (that) we had to
are (not) + participio pasado. some milk. buy some milk.
The streets are cleaned on Sundays.
have to: I have to had to: she said (that) she had to
Las calles se limpian los domingos. wear school uniform. wear school uniform.
Las preguntas se forman con is/are + sujeto +
participio pasado. Cuando se informa a alguien de lo que ha dicho una
Is the main square decorated at Christmas? persona, a menudo hay que cambiar las formas de los
Se decora la plaza mayor por Navidad? verbos; ver la tabla anterior para saber cmo cambian.
Con frecuencia hay que cambiar tambin los
Pasado simple pasivo
pronombres en estilo indirecto.
afirmativa negativa You have to arrive before 7 pm.
The rubbish was wasnt
He said we had to arrive before 7 pm.
thrown thrown
The old chairs were away. werent away. Tenis que llegar antes de las 7 de la tarde.
Dijo que tenamos que llegar antes de las 7
interrogativa respuestas cortas de la tarde.
the it it
Was
rubbish was. wasnt.
Peticiones, instrucciones, ofertas y
thrown sugerencias indirectas
Yes, No,
the old away? they they
Were
chairs were. werent. estilo directo estilo indirecto
peticiones: ask + Can you turn She asked me to
Se utiliza el pasado simple pasivo para describir
alguien + (not) to + the computer turn the computer
acciones y procesos del pasado.
infinitivo on, please? on.
Para formar el pasado simple pasivo se utiliza was/
were (not) + participio pasado. instrucciones: tell + Stop talking, The teacher told
The first Disney film was made in 1937. alguien + (not) to + Harry! Harry to stop
La primera pelcula Disney se rod en 1937. infinitivo talking.

Para formar preguntas se utiliza was/were + sujeto + ofertas: offer + (not) I can carry the She offered to carry
to + infinitivo bag for you. the bag for me.
participio pasado.
Were the instructions written in Spanish? sugerencias: suggest Lets get the He suggested
Las instrucciones estaban escritas en + (not) -ing bus. getting the bus.
castellano?
Para informar sobre peticiones, instrucciones, ofertas y
Pasiva + by sugerencias se utilizan verbos distintos. A cada verbo
Se utiliza by con la pasiva para mostrar quin lleva a le sigue una estructura especfica. Ver la tabla anterior.
cabo la accin.
Facebook was started by Mark Zuckerberg.
Facebook fue creado por Mark Zuckerberg.
102 Grammar reference
Grammar practice 9
Present simple passive 4 Complete the sentences using the past simple
passive and by.
1 Rewrite the sentences using the present 1 The Wright brothers built the first plane.
simple passive.
The first plane was built by the Wright brothers .
1 They clean the windows every month.
2 Alfred Nobel invented dynamite.
The windows are cleaned every month .
Dynamite .
2 They dont update their blog every day.
3 Jack Dorsey started Twitter in 2006.
The .
Twitter .
3 People take a lot of photos on mobile phones.
4 A school teacher wrote the song Happy Birthday.
A .
The song Happy Birthday
4 The hotel serves breakfast from 710 am. .
Breakfast . 5 Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks created Mickey Mouse.
5 They give students a certificate at the end of Mickey Mouse .
theyear.
Students .
6 People ask a lot of questions in my class.
Reported statements
A . 5 Complete the reported speech sentences.
1 My grandparents grow their own vegetables.
2 Use a word from each box to complete the Emily said her grandparents grew their own
sentences. Use the present simple passive. vegetables .
2 We must learn to save more energy.
bananas spaghetti cakes tea sh chocolate
Daniel said .
3 Theyre thinking of installing solar panels.
drink catch cook bake make grow Zoe said .
4 She doesnt have to come.
1 Tea is drunk in most countries. Lucas said .
2 from cocoa beans. 5 Ill switch off the lights.
3 in an oven. Richard said .
4 in rivers and at sea. 6 I didnt have time to take the rubbish out.
5 in the Canary Islands. Laura said .
6 in boiling water.
Reported requests, instructions,
Past simple passive offers and suggestions
3 Complete the text with the past passive form
6 Complete the sentences with the verbs in
of the verbs in brackets.
brackets. Use me where necessary.
Modern text messages, or SMS, 1 were invented
1 Jeffrey told me to meet him at the beach.
(invent) in 1992. Early messages 2
(meet)
(not write) on a mobile phone, they could only be
sent from a computer to a phone. The first message 2 Tom asked a hat for him.
in the UK said Merry Christmas. In 1993, the first (bring)
mobile-to-mobile SMS service 3 3 Ellie suggested for a swim.
(introduce) in Sweden. It wasnt popular immediately, (go)
but by 2011, an average of 17.9 billion texts 4 Jack told on more sun block.
4
(send) every day. However, (put)
technology always moves forward, and in the same 5 Sandra suggested directly in
year, SMS messages 5 (replace) as the sun. (not sit)
the most popular way of sending texts. Chat apps, 6 They offered me an ice
such as WhatsApp, 6 (use) to send cream. (buy)
19 billion texts a day. Experts think this number is
going to double in the next two years!

Grammar practice 103