UNIT 5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

LEAD-IN
1. Which of these environmental problems are the most serious for our planet?
2. What can be done to prevent them?

• deforestation

• acid rain
• overfishing

• flood

• drought

• overpopulation

• famine
• pollution

• greenhouse effect

• destruction of the ozone layer

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. Why should we recycle? 5.. Global warming is causing more and more disasters these days... For the last forty years. housing and timber. Who do you think is more responsible for pollution.. In spite of the precautions... a.... environmental problems started to threaten the world... 2..... Whenever we burn gas and oil. Why is it important to protect the environment? B.............. Read the text and underline the main environmental problems. other parts of the world are suffering from droughts and forest fires................................ The ozone layer depletion lets more UV-B rays from the sun into the atmosphere..... deforestation and global warming are among the most threatening environmental problems.. Deforestation is another problem that the earth faces... we contribute to global warming.... How is life being threatened? 2.... people are still destroying them for different reasons such as land.............. The carbon dioxide in the air is responsible for that.......READING & SPEAKING A. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth... oil spills............. the extinction of species and habitat loss? ... C........... Read the text carefully and match the two halves.......... toxic substances... causes a rise in the sea level? ..  3...... However......................................... 1... How can we protect the environment and at the same time improve people’s standard of living? 27 .... For example.......... According to the latest statistics..... d... which causes a rise in skin cancer............ with the industrialization........ the hole in the ozone layer and acid rain are still threatening the Earth. This desertification will damage the flora and fauna.. Find which problem mentioned in the text. Despite the strict precautions taken by the government in order to save the forests... Whenever we produce carbon dioxide......... What can be done so as to overcome these problems? Isn’t there any hope for the future? Governments and individuals should spend great efforts so that they can avoid further disasters and environmental problems. Wherever you go.. While there are floods in some parts of the world. the effects of these problems have increased in such a disastrous way that they are accepted as not only local but also global.... A GLOBAL CHALLENGE The earth was much healthier and cleaner years ago..... 1.. individuals or the government? 3......  2........... D.... Acid rain increases the amount of acid in rivers and lakes........ as a result. one-fifth of the human population is in danger because the areas where these people live will become deserts in a short time.... The toxic substances from factories or nuclear plants and oil spills cause birth defects and serious health problems.... Pollution is a serious problem......... E..... b.. all the living creatures in these waters are at risk...... 3....... 1... 5... 4... What can we do to protect forests? 4. we produce carbon dioxide which traps the warmth of the sun and makes our atmosphere hotter......... ice caps are melting and this makes the sea level higher.. What are some ways to reduce pollution in Turkey? 2. Work in groups and discuss the following........ you see that pollution. in order that they can avoid environmental problems... People are still chopping down the trees.......... so all the living creatures in these dirty waters are under threat.  4. causes a rise in skin cancers and changes in climates? .... a reduction of fish reserves in the waters and changes in climates. is a threat to living creatures in rivers and lakes? ..... Every individual should keep their environment clean..... causes erosion.. in spite of the strict precautions taken by the government.......  1............ It affects trees and plants badly and pollutes clean drinking water.... and will cause erosion which takes billions of tones of soil from the Earth every year... is a great danger for one-fifth of the human population? . c.. The amount of acid in rivers and lakes has increased.....................

C............. READING & SPEAKING A.... B.... ............ I shouldn’t drop litter... the majority of forest fires in Turkey are caused by people. Tell about the things that people in your town are doing to help the environment....... Causes ....................... The Forest Service is responsible for fire prevention and control activities........ ............. only 20...................... .... What are the causes of fires? B.......... Complete the paragraph to tell about your individual responsibilities for environmental problems...... D.. D.... First...................079 million hectares... FOREST FIRES IN TURKEY Although Turkey is a country with a land mass of 77.. 60% to carelesness..................... According to a survey conducted by the Forest Service in 2003............ There are lots of things we can do for a better environment......... ................. Listen and number the pictures in the order you hear them................... and 22% to unknown causes...... Read the text and find the reason for the fire which is not caused by people... Percentage 100—-- - —--- - 90—--- - —--- - 80—--- - —--- - 70—--- - —--- - 60—--- - —--- - 50—--- - —--- - 40—--- - —--- - 30—--- - —--- - 20—--- - —--- 10—---- —---- 0—-.........g...... Say what you should or shouldn’t do individually so that you can have a better environment using the pictures above........... 28 ........ a b c d e f g C........ Write the causes of fires in the graph according to the text................ I should raise public awareness about recycling.............. ......................199 million hectares of it is forested.................................................. It represents about 26% of the country’s total land area..... ....... 94% of all fires are people-caused while remaining 6% are caused by lightning......LISTENING & WRITING A.. e.. Work in pairs and interpret the graph... 12% of the people-caused fires are due to arson........................................

. industrialization c. increase in the number of species 2. I.. Are there any organizations in your country which work for the environment? Would you like to take part in such organizations? Why / Why not? 29 . Look at the pictures and find the names of the pollution. the pollution from rivers b. a rapid and unplanned urbanization b. Which of these is not one of the causes of pollution in Turkey? a. 1 2 3 B.. natural gas c. I (Industrial Pollution) or W (Water Pollution). lignite b. alternative energy 3. W) into the places where the problems occur. 1/2. litter 4..000 C. a. factories c. exhaust fumes of vehicles c. İzmir suffers from pollution caused by the. What are the most important environmental problems in Turkey? 2. 1. cars b.000. 1.LISTENING & SPEAKING A. Choose the best answer. tanker accidents D. Pollution level decreased in Ankara because of using. Listen and write the initial letters of the pollution types (A. Write A (Air Pollution). a. Which one is not a reason for marine pollution? a.

When there is overpopulation. Read the text and find the problems which overpopulation causes. The second problem is poverty. There aren’t enough sources of jobs for all people so only the most qualified ones get a job. natural resources like water or food aren’t enough for so many people. The first problem is unemployment. people produce a lot of litter and this pollutes both water and land. There is a great amount of pollution because a lot of people go to work by car. Overpopulation causes many problems. 30 . Do you think overpopulation is an environmental problem? Why / Why not? B. The last but not least is the high level of pollution. That means there is a lot of thirst and hunger in the world. Others can’t support their families. the more people fill up the world. To sum up.READING & WRITING A. the more problems we have. Also.

.. LET’S PRACTISE A............ 2................................................ The more people live in the world........................... Underline the correct word....... take them back with you..... 5.................... ........ .... .....  1................ D................  5........................... ......... Whenever people go to work by car........................................... In spite of / Although the action taken by the Ministry of Health............................. 2...... There are heavy fines on overfishing................................. however / so it’s still going on illegally..................... stating the results................ 6........................ Never drop litter in the countryside. The government has to take some precautions so that / so as to some species will no longer be in danger of extinction........................................................................  4.. to reduce soil erosion? (so as to) 5.......... . Set up centers to collect bottles........... 1.............................. The use of aerosols should be banned................ e..... People who have qualifications can find jobs easily...................... People should be encouraged to use public transportation more.... In spite of / Wherever he goes... f ................. .......... 7. However / Although the bay has been clean for a long time...  3............. you can smell something bad........ 3.. 4......... the chairman asks for money.............. 31 ......................................... the students are still dropping litter on the ground...... b.... to recycle more garbage? (in order that) 3........................ ...... Whenever / Just as the members of the environmental society come together.......... to reduce the destruction of the ozone layer? (in order to) 2............ 4........ ............................................... Thirst and hunger are related to poverty................................. ...... ....... ....... Make sentences using the problems and solutions................................ 2..................................................... he makes speeches about the importance of endangered species............ Thirst and hunger are the reasons for overpopulation...... Write a paragraph on one of the environmental problems............ Match the questions with their answers.......................... the recent statistics have shown a shocking rise in the country’s population.............. Governments must educate people to plant more trees.............. ............... 3......................... the more problems we have...................... not to damage the flora and fauna? (in order not to) 6................................. Write T (True) or F (False)...........................  2........ 6...................... ...................................... 1......... 1....... d.... to prevent air pollution? (so that) 4.......................................... they contribute to pollution.... not to cause global warming? (so as not to) ANSWERS a........ cans and batteries............................ ..... ............................................... Despite / Therefore all the warnings............................ QUESTIONS What can be done........ 5....C..... You’d better use less fuel and coal........................ B............. c. 1...

. • In order that. we use a ‘subject+verb’. • After in spite of or despite. whenever. FUN CORNER 32 . in order to / so as to. PROJECT Make a list of the environmental problems in your hometown.. a pronoun or -ing. Then design a poster which demonstrates each of these problems. we use ‘can or will’ for a present / future meaning and ‘could or would’ for past sentences. so that. • After so that. we use a noun. such .. so that.. • However gives a meaning of opposition. • After although. wherever. • Wherever gives the idea of ‘any place’.LET’S REMEMBER Fill in with “in order that. • Whenever gives the idea of ‘any time’. that. in order to. however. despite / in spite of or although”. so as to express purpose but in order that is less commonly used.