UNIT 5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

LEAD-IN
1. Which of these environmental problems are the most serious for our planet?
2. What can be done to prevent them?

• deforestation

• acid rain
• overfishing

• flood

• drought

• overpopulation

• famine
• pollution

• greenhouse effect

• destruction of the ozone layer

26

.. Read the text carefully and match the two halves..  2........... so all the living creatures in these dirty waters are under threat..... What can be done so as to overcome these problems? Isn’t there any hope for the future? Governments and individuals should spend great efforts so that they can avoid further disasters and environmental problems..... The ozone layer depletion lets more UV-B rays from the sun into the atmosphere.. Why is it important to protect the environment? B.......... Deforestation is another problem that the earth faces.. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth.................. d. While there are floods in some parts of the world... in spite of the strict precautions taken by the government.......... Who do you think is more responsible for pollution.... a reduction of fish reserves in the waters and changes in climates..... The toxic substances from factories or nuclear plants and oil spills cause birth defects and serious health problems............ Acid rain increases the amount of acid in rivers and lakes.. 2..  1......... all the living creatures in these waters are at risk.. Whenever we produce carbon dioxide... Whenever we burn gas and oil....... C......... What are some ways to reduce pollution in Turkey? 2...... b..... is a great danger for one-fifth of the human population? . 3..... housing and timber... Read the text and underline the main environmental problems.. environmental problems started to threaten the world.... you see that pollution... a.. It affects trees and plants badly and pollutes clean drinking water...... with the industrialization.......................... as a result........ 4... A GLOBAL CHALLENGE The earth was much healthier and cleaner years ago............. Find which problem mentioned in the text..... 1... other parts of the world are suffering from droughts and forest fires... 1...  4... How is life being threatened? 2........... oil spills......... people are still destroying them for different reasons such as land......  3.. deforestation and global warming are among the most threatening environmental problems............. which causes a rise in skin cancer........ What can we do to protect forests? 4. According to the latest statistics... E. People are still chopping down the trees... causes erosion....... The carbon dioxide in the air is responsible for that..... This desertification will damage the flora and fauna............ the extinction of species and habitat loss? ... we produce carbon dioxide which traps the warmth of the sun and makes our atmosphere hotter............... For example.. one-fifth of the human population is in danger because the areas where these people live will become deserts in a short time.. and will cause erosion which takes billions of tones of soil from the Earth every year.READING & SPEAKING A........... Wherever you go......... In spite of the precautions.... we contribute to global warming... The amount of acid in rivers and lakes has increased.. is a threat to living creatures in rivers and lakes? .. the hole in the ozone layer and acid rain are still threatening the Earth.... toxic substances... the effects of these problems have increased in such a disastrous way that they are accepted as not only local but also global... Every individual should keep their environment clean. 1. causes a rise in skin cancers and changes in climates? .... ice caps are melting and this makes the sea level higher.. Work in groups and discuss the following.. in order that they can avoid environmental problems......... How can we protect the environment and at the same time improve people’s standard of living? 27 .................. Why should we recycle? 5....... D... For the last forty years.... Global warming is causing more and more disasters these days.... However. Despite the strict precautions taken by the government in order to save the forests. Pollution is a serious problem.... c........... 5.. causes a rise in the sea level? .. individuals or the government? 3..........

................. Complete the paragraph to tell about your individual responsibilities for environmental problems... Causes .........g........... Work in pairs and interpret the graph........... Listen and number the pictures in the order you hear them................ 28 . What are the causes of fires? B......... ...................... .....199 million hectares of it is forested.................. ........LISTENING & WRITING A.... the majority of forest fires in Turkey are caused by people.. Percentage 100—-- - —--- - 90—--- - —--- - 80—--- - —--- - 70—--- - —--- - 60—--- - —--- - 50—--- - —--- - 40—--- - —--- - 30—--- - —--- - 20—--- - —--- 10—---- —---- 0—-...... There are lots of things we can do for a better environment.................. According to a survey conducted by the Forest Service in 2003. 12% of the people-caused fires are due to arson.. C......... Read the text and find the reason for the fire which is not caused by people...... Write the causes of fires in the graph according to the text................................. ............ B.......................... a b c d e f g C.......... e............ FOREST FIRES IN TURKEY Although Turkey is a country with a land mass of 77. READING & SPEAKING A....079 million hectares....... Tell about the things that people in your town are doing to help the environment.............. D.. only 20............... ................ 94% of all fires are people-caused while remaining 6% are caused by lightning... I should raise public awareness about recycling.............. I shouldn’t drop litter............ and 22% to unknown causes................ The Forest Service is responsible for fire prevention and control activities.............. 60% to carelesness................. Say what you should or shouldn’t do individually so that you can have a better environment using the pictures above............... It represents about 26% of the country’s total land area....... First........... ............... D..

I (Industrial Pollution) or W (Water Pollution). 1/2. a. lignite b. 1. the pollution from rivers b. Choose the best answer. I. increase in the number of species 2. W) into the places where the problems occur.. industrialization c. Write A (Air Pollution). exhaust fumes of vehicles c. a rapid and unplanned urbanization b. litter 4.LISTENING & SPEAKING A. factories c. Pollution level decreased in Ankara because of using. natural gas c. 1 2 3 B.000 C. cars b. Are there any organizations in your country which work for the environment? Would you like to take part in such organizations? Why / Why not? 29 . Which of these is not one of the causes of pollution in Turkey? a. tanker accidents D. İzmir suffers from pollution caused by the. Which one is not a reason for marine pollution? a.. a. Listen and write the initial letters of the pollution types (A. alternative energy 3. Look at the pictures and find the names of the pollution.000. 1... What are the most important environmental problems in Turkey? 2.

That means there is a lot of thirst and hunger in the world. There aren’t enough sources of jobs for all people so only the most qualified ones get a job. There is a great amount of pollution because a lot of people go to work by car. Do you think overpopulation is an environmental problem? Why / Why not? B. The first problem is unemployment. The second problem is poverty. people produce a lot of litter and this pollutes both water and land. To sum up. the more people fill up the world. Also. Read the text and find the problems which overpopulation causes. natural resources like water or food aren’t enough for so many people. Others can’t support their families. The last but not least is the high level of pollution. 30 . When there is overpopulation.READING & WRITING A. the more problems we have. Overpopulation causes many problems.

you can smell something bad. ....... Thirst and hunger are the reasons for overpopulation.......................... The more people live in the world....................................... B. 5...................  3.......................................... 5.................. In spite of / Wherever he goes................................... ............. Never drop litter in the countryside...................................................... to recycle more garbage? (in order that) 3....... .. not to damage the flora and fauna? (in order not to) 6...............C............................................  2............ to prevent air pollution? (so that) 4.......... 7.............. Despite / Therefore all the warnings. they contribute to pollution................... Underline the correct word.................................... 2.............................. .... Thirst and hunger are related to poverty....................... Write T (True) or F (False)......... cans and batteries............................................... People should be encouraged to use public transportation more.......... 1.......................... d.................. 4. ... Match the questions with their answers......................... f .... to reduce the destruction of the ozone layer? (in order to) 2........... however / so it’s still going on illegally.................. c......................................... he makes speeches about the importance of endangered species.. .................... .... However / Although the bay has been clean for a long time........................................ 3.............. ............. 6........ the more problems we have......... the recent statistics have shown a shocking rise in the country’s population............................................................................................... 1.. 1........ LET’S PRACTISE A.. 6.......................... Whenever / Just as the members of the environmental society come together................. e....... People who have qualifications can find jobs easily... not to cause global warming? (so as not to) ANSWERS a.... ................. 2. ..................... stating the results.................................. The government has to take some precautions so that / so as to some species will no longer be in danger of extinction.. D............... In spite of / Although the action taken by the Ministry of Health...... Make sentences using the problems and solutions........................................... ... You’d better use less fuel and coal......  5............  4.................. The use of aerosols should be banned... the students are still dropping litter on the ground.... 31 ...................... .......... Governments must educate people to plant more trees....... QUESTIONS What can be done. ......................................... 3.............. There are heavy fines on overfishing.  1........................................... b................. .............................................. 1...... 4.............. to reduce soil erosion? (so as to) 5..................... ... Whenever people go to work by car. take them back with you.................................. 2... Set up centers to collect bottles...... the chairman asks for money. Write a paragraph on one of the environmental problems.......

PROJECT Make a list of the environmental problems in your hometown.. we use a noun. FUN CORNER 32 . we use ‘can or will’ for a present / future meaning and ‘could or would’ for past sentences. we use a ‘subject+verb’. despite / in spite of or although”. • After although. so that.LET’S REMEMBER Fill in with “in order that. that.. in order to. • After so that. • After in spite of or despite. Then design a poster which demonstrates each of these problems. • In order that.. • Wherever gives the idea of ‘any place’. wherever. in order to / so as to. • Whenever gives the idea of ‘any time’. • However gives a meaning of opposition. whenever. such . a pronoun or -ing.. so that. however. so as to express purpose but in order that is less commonly used.

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