UNIT 5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

LEAD-IN
1. Which of these environmental problems are the most serious for our planet?
2. What can be done to prevent them?

• deforestation

• acid rain
• overfishing

• flood

• drought

• overpopulation

• famine
• pollution

• greenhouse effect

• destruction of the ozone layer

26

...................... Read the text carefully and match the two halves.... the effects of these problems have increased in such a disastrous way that they are accepted as not only local but also global.............. 5.........  2. a reduction of fish reserves in the waters and changes in climates...... housing and timber........ What are some ways to reduce pollution in Turkey? 2........ Wherever you go...... Acid rain increases the amount of acid in rivers and lakes........READING & SPEAKING A. Deforestation is another problem that the earth faces.... 3........... as a result. 2. other parts of the world are suffering from droughts and forest fires.... The ozone layer depletion lets more UV-B rays from the sun into the atmosphere. Whenever we produce carbon dioxide..... we contribute to global warming. What can be done so as to overcome these problems? Isn’t there any hope for the future? Governments and individuals should spend great efforts so that they can avoid further disasters and environmental problems.. d.. However... E.... Pollution is a serious problem...  3....... C. People are still chopping down the trees...... all the living creatures in these waters are at risk... The amount of acid in rivers and lakes has increased......... the hole in the ozone layer and acid rain are still threatening the Earth...... A GLOBAL CHALLENGE The earth was much healthier and cleaner years ago.. Why is it important to protect the environment? B........ How is life being threatened? 2... 4........ oil spills.. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth. and will cause erosion which takes billions of tones of soil from the Earth every year..... the extinction of species and habitat loss? . Read the text and underline the main environmental problems..... 1........ which causes a rise in skin cancer.... While there are floods in some parts of the world.. environmental problems started to threaten the world...................... with the industrialization.......... b......... c...... According to the latest statistics..... we produce carbon dioxide which traps the warmth of the sun and makes our atmosphere hotter......... In spite of the precautions....... Every individual should keep their environment clean............... deforestation and global warming are among the most threatening environmental problems.. a.. Global warming is causing more and more disasters these days.... Despite the strict precautions taken by the government in order to save the forests. Why should we recycle? 5. is a threat to living creatures in rivers and lakes? .... is a great danger for one-fifth of the human population? .... For example.. Find which problem mentioned in the text....... causes a rise in skin cancers and changes in climates? .......  4.... It affects trees and plants badly and pollutes clean drinking water... individuals or the government? 3..  1... D........ Whenever we burn gas and oil........ causes erosion.... so all the living creatures in these dirty waters are under threat...... in spite of the strict precautions taken by the government........... This desertification will damage the flora and fauna... What can we do to protect forests? 4........ you see that pollution.. The carbon dioxide in the air is responsible for that. 1....... ice caps are melting and this makes the sea level higher. in order that they can avoid environmental problems............ causes a rise in the sea level? .. 1....... Work in groups and discuss the following....... toxic substances..... Who do you think is more responsible for pollution............... people are still destroying them for different reasons such as land.. The toxic substances from factories or nuclear plants and oil spills cause birth defects and serious health problems. one-fifth of the human population is in danger because the areas where these people live will become deserts in a short time........ How can we protect the environment and at the same time improve people’s standard of living? 27 .. For the last forty years..

.......... I should raise public awareness about recycling.LISTENING & WRITING A...... FOREST FIRES IN TURKEY Although Turkey is a country with a land mass of 77..... 60% to carelesness... 94% of all fires are people-caused while remaining 6% are caused by lightning. . First. 12% of the people-caused fires are due to arson......... Percentage 100—-- - —--- - 90—--- - —--- - 80—--- - —--- - 70—--- - —--- - 60—--- - —--- - 50—--- - —--- - 40—--- - —--- - 30—--- - —--- - 20—--- - —--- 10—---- —---- 0—-........ READING & SPEAKING A................................................. 28 ........ Causes ........... It represents about 26% of the country’s total land area...079 million hectares............. ........ Write the causes of fires in the graph according to the text.... B................199 million hectares of it is forested..................... The Forest Service is responsible for fire prevention and control activities........ .... Tell about the things that people in your town are doing to help the environment..... There are lots of things we can do for a better environment..... What are the causes of fires? B................................... Listen and number the pictures in the order you hear them..... Say what you should or shouldn’t do individually so that you can have a better environment using the pictures above. I shouldn’t drop litter.... D...... Read the text and find the reason for the fire which is not caused by people...................................... C............... e............ the majority of forest fires in Turkey are caused by people........... According to a survey conducted by the Forest Service in 2003..... only 20........... ........... ...... Work in pairs and interpret the graph........................ Complete the paragraph to tell about your individual responsibilities for environmental problems.................. a b c d e f g C.......... and 22% to unknown causes... ................... D.......g...............

factories c. I. What are the most important environmental problems in Turkey? 2. 1 2 3 B. Listen and write the initial letters of the pollution types (A. tanker accidents D.. Look at the pictures and find the names of the pollution.000 C. Which one is not a reason for marine pollution? a. increase in the number of species 2. W) into the places where the problems occur. a. Pollution level decreased in Ankara because of using. Are there any organizations in your country which work for the environment? Would you like to take part in such organizations? Why / Why not? 29 . Which of these is not one of the causes of pollution in Turkey? a. litter 4.000. exhaust fumes of vehicles c. a. lignite b.. 1/2. alternative energy 3. Write A (Air Pollution). cars b. Choose the best answer. natural gas c. industrialization c. a rapid and unplanned urbanization b.LISTENING & SPEAKING A.. İzmir suffers from pollution caused by the. 1. the pollution from rivers b. I (Industrial Pollution) or W (Water Pollution).. 1.

natural resources like water or food aren’t enough for so many people. 30 . Read the text and find the problems which overpopulation causes. Also.READING & WRITING A. The last but not least is the high level of pollution. the more people fill up the world. There aren’t enough sources of jobs for all people so only the most qualified ones get a job. The first problem is unemployment. The second problem is poverty. To sum up. the more problems we have. There is a great amount of pollution because a lot of people go to work by car. Overpopulation causes many problems. Do you think overpopulation is an environmental problem? Why / Why not? B. That means there is a lot of thirst and hunger in the world. Others can’t support their families. When there is overpopulation. people produce a lot of litter and this pollutes both water and land.

..... to reduce soil erosion? (so as to) 5....................  4.......................................................... take them back with you.....................  3.. ................................... the chairman asks for money..... D.......... .................................... the more problems we have.. ... 1..  2. ....  1....... Set up centers to collect bottles........... stating the results................................. However / Although the bay has been clean for a long time........... ............ ............ Underline the correct word.............. b............. Match the questions with their answers... B........ The government has to take some precautions so that / so as to some species will no longer be in danger of extinction................. 31 ........ the students are still dropping litter on the ground............ the recent statistics have shown a shocking rise in the country’s population... 1............................................. cans and batteries..................... You’d better use less fuel and coal....................... 2... 4........................................C.................. 4.............. Thirst and hunger are the reasons for overpopulation..... 3.... Thirst and hunger are related to poverty................. Whenever / Just as the members of the environmental society come together..... ....... they contribute to pollution........ ........ you can smell something bad.... Make sentences using the problems and solutions.... Write T (True) or F (False)................... to prevent air pollution? (so that) 4.............................................................. 6...................................... e.. not to damage the flora and fauna? (in order not to) 6....... however / so it’s still going on illegally............ The use of aerosols should be banned................ People who have qualifications can find jobs easily............................ 5.................................... ............. 1....................................... .......... c......................................... Write a paragraph on one of the environmental problems......... Never drop litter in the countryside................................................... 6...................... 5........ 1. Whenever people go to work by car............. .................. to reduce the destruction of the ozone layer? (in order to) 2........ In spite of / Wherever he goes................... LET’S PRACTISE A........... QUESTIONS What can be done............................. In spite of / Although the action taken by the Ministry of Health................................. f ....... 3... The more people live in the world..................................................................................... to recycle more garbage? (in order that) 3.............................................. People should be encouraged to use public transportation more... 7..... . Governments must educate people to plant more trees..................... There are heavy fines on overfishing............. 2.................. 2............................. Despite / Therefore all the warnings..... ..... he makes speeches about the importance of endangered species................. not to cause global warming? (so as not to) ANSWERS a..... d..........  5..................... ....... ..

so that. FUN CORNER 32 . however.. Then design a poster which demonstrates each of these problems. • However gives a meaning of opposition. we use a noun. in order to. wherever. that. we use ‘can or will’ for a present / future meaning and ‘could or would’ for past sentences. so that.LET’S REMEMBER Fill in with “in order that. • After although.. in order to / so as to. • In order that. • Whenever gives the idea of ‘any time’. • After in spite of or despite. such . whenever. a pronoun or -ing. PROJECT Make a list of the environmental problems in your hometown. • Wherever gives the idea of ‘any place’... so as to express purpose but in order that is less commonly used. • After so that. despite / in spite of or although”. we use a ‘subject+verb’.

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