UNIT 5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

LEAD-IN
1. Which of these environmental problems are the most serious for our planet?
2. What can be done to prevent them?

• deforestation

• acid rain
• overfishing

• flood

• drought

• overpopulation

• famine
• pollution

• greenhouse effect

• destruction of the ozone layer

26

... While there are floods in some parts of the world.. which causes a rise in skin cancer... all the living creatures in these waters are at risk........ housing and timber...... Global warming is causing more and more disasters these days.............. the hole in the ozone layer and acid rain are still threatening the Earth.... a reduction of fish reserves in the waters and changes in climates.... one-fifth of the human population is in danger because the areas where these people live will become deserts in a short time...... Why should we recycle? 5. ice caps are melting and this makes the sea level higher........ How can we protect the environment and at the same time improve people’s standard of living? 27 ... The ozone layer depletion lets more UV-B rays from the sun into the atmosphere.... individuals or the government? 3..... deforestation and global warming are among the most threatening environmental problems......... causes erosion.......... Read the text and underline the main environmental problems. Work in groups and discuss the following....................... Pollution is a serious problem... Whenever we burn gas and oil.............. a.. other parts of the world are suffering from droughts and forest fires......... It affects trees and plants badly and pollutes clean drinking water. oil spills..... and will cause erosion which takes billions of tones of soil from the Earth every year............ What can be done so as to overcome these problems? Isn’t there any hope for the future? Governments and individuals should spend great efforts so that they can avoid further disasters and environmental problems..................... According to the latest statistics.. The amount of acid in rivers and lakes has increased.. What are some ways to reduce pollution in Turkey? 2................ causes a rise in the sea level? .. Despite the strict precautions taken by the government in order to save the forests. E....... with the industrialization... is a great danger for one-fifth of the human population? ..... in spite of the strict precautions taken by the government.... The carbon dioxide in the air is responsible for that.. 2. is a threat to living creatures in rivers and lakes? ............ For the last forty years... Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth. the extinction of species and habitat loss? .... you see that pollution... causes a rise in skin cancers and changes in climates? .... toxic substances..... people are still destroying them for different reasons such as land..... c.. as a result............... 4.. The toxic substances from factories or nuclear plants and oil spills cause birth defects and serious health problems. 5.. Deforestation is another problem that the earth faces.. Acid rain increases the amount of acid in rivers and lakes..  4...  2..... d... environmental problems started to threaten the world.......... What can we do to protect forests? 4......... D.READING & SPEAKING A....... Read the text carefully and match the two halves. in order that they can avoid environmental problems..... A GLOBAL CHALLENGE The earth was much healthier and cleaner years ago. we produce carbon dioxide which traps the warmth of the sun and makes our atmosphere hotter.... Find which problem mentioned in the text. How is life being threatened? 2.......... People are still chopping down the trees............... Every individual should keep their environment clean........ 1.. we contribute to global warming.......  3...... This desertification will damage the flora and fauna..... 1............ Who do you think is more responsible for pollution. Wherever you go.. Why is it important to protect the environment? B. For example.. However. C. 1. 3................ In spite of the precautions. b.......... the effects of these problems have increased in such a disastrous way that they are accepted as not only local but also global.......... Whenever we produce carbon dioxide...  1...... so all the living creatures in these dirty waters are under threat..

Read the text and find the reason for the fire which is not caused by people.... and 22% to unknown causes....... Write the causes of fires in the graph according to the text............... Work in pairs and interpret the graph..g.. a b c d e f g C............... Listen and number the pictures in the order you hear them......................... Causes . There are lots of things we can do for a better environment.............................LISTENING & WRITING A.... 28 ....... ..... I shouldn’t drop litter.......................... Tell about the things that people in your town are doing to help the environment. The Forest Service is responsible for fire prevention and control activities... ... ........... READING & SPEAKING A............ ..................................... It represents about 26% of the country’s total land area. FOREST FIRES IN TURKEY Although Turkey is a country with a land mass of 77................ C. Percentage 100—-- - —--- - 90—--- - —--- - 80—--- - —--- - 70—--- - —--- - 60—--- - —--- - 50—--- - —--- - 40—--- - —--- - 30—--- - —--- - 20—--- - —--- 10—---- —---- 0—-............. Say what you should or shouldn’t do individually so that you can have a better environment using the pictures above...... I should raise public awareness about recycling....... ..... 12% of the people-caused fires are due to arson...... According to a survey conducted by the Forest Service in 2003........................... D........................ e. 60% to carelesness. B. D..... ......................... Complete the paragraph to tell about your individual responsibilities for environmental problems...199 million hectares of it is forested.................. the majority of forest fires in Turkey are caused by people................ First..................... What are the causes of fires? B.....079 million hectares....... only 20.............................. 94% of all fires are people-caused while remaining 6% are caused by lightning........

alternative energy 3. What are the most important environmental problems in Turkey? 2. the pollution from rivers b. Choose the best answer.000. Which one is not a reason for marine pollution? a.. natural gas c. exhaust fumes of vehicles c. increase in the number of species 2. cars b. lignite b. a rapid and unplanned urbanization b. industrialization c. Pollution level decreased in Ankara because of using. W) into the places where the problems occur. Are there any organizations in your country which work for the environment? Would you like to take part in such organizations? Why / Why not? 29 . a. I. tanker accidents D. İzmir suffers from pollution caused by the. factories c.LISTENING & SPEAKING A. Write A (Air Pollution). 1... litter 4. Listen and write the initial letters of the pollution types (A. 1.000 C.. 1/2. 1 2 3 B. a. Look at the pictures and find the names of the pollution. Which of these is not one of the causes of pollution in Turkey? a. I (Industrial Pollution) or W (Water Pollution).

people produce a lot of litter and this pollutes both water and land. 30 . the more problems we have.READING & WRITING A. That means there is a lot of thirst and hunger in the world. Others can’t support their families. To sum up. The last but not least is the high level of pollution. Overpopulation causes many problems. The second problem is poverty. the more people fill up the world. There is a great amount of pollution because a lot of people go to work by car. Do you think overpopulation is an environmental problem? Why / Why not? B. Read the text and find the problems which overpopulation causes. There aren’t enough sources of jobs for all people so only the most qualified ones get a job. When there is overpopulation. natural resources like water or food aren’t enough for so many people. Also. The first problem is unemployment.

....... QUESTIONS What can be done.................... however / so it’s still going on illegally............... Write a paragraph on one of the environmental problems. 3............... D.................... 7............................ . .............. 1......... Thirst and hunger are the reasons for overpopulation............. 3... 5....... the chairman asks for money........................................................ Governments must educate people to plant more trees................ ....... 4......... to recycle more garbage? (in order that) 3.................. Match the questions with their answers........ he makes speeches about the importance of endangered species....... You’d better use less fuel and coal................. the recent statistics have shown a shocking rise in the country’s population........ . B............ 1...............  4.................... ........ 4.... the more problems we have....... ....................................................................................... Whenever / Just as the members of the environmental society come together................................................................ There are heavy fines on overfishing.............. 6............................................C........ to prevent air pollution? (so that) 4......... b.............................. Whenever people go to work by car........................ .................... ... 2............................  2...................................................... ... Underline the correct word................. 2........................ Never drop litter in the countryside........  1......... cans and batteries........ Make sentences using the problems and solutions.......... ...................... In spite of / Although the action taken by the Ministry of Health........ you can smell something bad. ..... not to cause global warming? (so as not to) ANSWERS a..................................... ......  3.... 6.........  5....... Write T (True) or F (False)....................... e.............. People should be encouraged to use public transportation more. Thirst and hunger are related to poverty........ People who have qualifications can find jobs easily.......................................................... 1............ the students are still dropping litter on the ground.................... Set up centers to collect bottles......... The more people live in the world. f ............ The use of aerosols should be banned................... 2............ In spite of / Wherever he goes...................... 5.......................................................................................... LET’S PRACTISE A......... to reduce soil erosion? (so as to) 5.................... .... 31 ..................... Despite / Therefore all the warnings.. to reduce the destruction of the ozone layer? (in order to) 2...... they contribute to pollution....... ......... not to damage the flora and fauna? (in order not to) 6....... c.................. The government has to take some precautions so that / so as to some species will no longer be in danger of extinction.... d..................... stating the results..................... However / Although the bay has been clean for a long time............................ 1........................... take them back with you....... .

• However gives a meaning of opposition. in order to / so as to. we use a ‘subject+verb’.. such ... • After in spite of or despite. a pronoun or -ing. • After although.. PROJECT Make a list of the environmental problems in your hometown. however. Then design a poster which demonstrates each of these problems. so that. whenever. • Wherever gives the idea of ‘any place’. • Whenever gives the idea of ‘any time’. so that. we use ‘can or will’ for a present / future meaning and ‘could or would’ for past sentences.LET’S REMEMBER Fill in with “in order that. • In order that. wherever. that. we use a noun. FUN CORNER 32 . in order to. despite / in spite of or although”. so as to express purpose but in order that is less commonly used. • After so that.

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