UNIT 5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

LEAD-IN
1. Which of these environmental problems are the most serious for our planet?
2. What can be done to prevent them?

• deforestation

• acid rain
• overfishing

• flood

• drought

• overpopulation

• famine
• pollution

• greenhouse effect

• destruction of the ozone layer

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............... 5. What can be done so as to overcome these problems? Isn’t there any hope for the future? Governments and individuals should spend great efforts so that they can avoid further disasters and environmental problems.... 4.... Read the text carefully and match the two halves..  4. A GLOBAL CHALLENGE The earth was much healthier and cleaner years ago............ one-fifth of the human population is in danger because the areas where these people live will become deserts in a short time.. Pollution is a serious problem......... the extinction of species and habitat loss? ....  3......................... 1. The toxic substances from factories or nuclear plants and oil spills cause birth defects and serious health problems... as a result... E.......... causes a rise in skin cancers and changes in climates? . toxic substances...... all the living creatures in these waters are at risk..... you see that pollution.... deforestation and global warming are among the most threatening environmental problems. Deforestation is another problem that the earth faces........ b........ People are still chopping down the trees.. the hole in the ozone layer and acid rain are still threatening the Earth..READING & SPEAKING A... we contribute to global warming. For example.. Every individual should keep their environment clean. so all the living creatures in these dirty waters are under threat... How can we protect the environment and at the same time improve people’s standard of living? 27 .... Find which problem mentioned in the text.. in order that they can avoid environmental problems..... D.. people are still destroying them for different reasons such as land........ Despite the strict precautions taken by the government in order to save the forests.. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth. The carbon dioxide in the air is responsible for that.......... This desertification will damage the flora and fauna.. However.. How is life being threatened? 2.. While there are floods in some parts of the world.. ice caps are melting and this makes the sea level higher...... The ozone layer depletion lets more UV-B rays from the sun into the atmosphere... we produce carbon dioxide which traps the warmth of the sun and makes our atmosphere hotter...... 1...... C.......... and will cause erosion which takes billions of tones of soil from the Earth every year.... in spite of the strict precautions taken by the government..  2. oil spills........ a. Wherever you go.. environmental problems started to threaten the world.. Whenever we burn gas and oil.... Who do you think is more responsible for pollution. causes erosion..... other parts of the world are suffering from droughts and forest fires................ Why should we recycle? 5........ housing and timber...............  1... What can we do to protect forests? 4......... The amount of acid in rivers and lakes has increased..... 1.... For the last forty years...... Whenever we produce carbon dioxide......... a reduction of fish reserves in the waters and changes in climates..... d. 3... Why is it important to protect the environment? B............... In spite of the precautions.......... Work in groups and discuss the following................... 2...... c..... What are some ways to reduce pollution in Turkey? 2.......... It affects trees and plants badly and pollutes clean drinking water..................... Acid rain increases the amount of acid in rivers and lakes. Global warming is causing more and more disasters these days. Read the text and underline the main environmental problems. the effects of these problems have increased in such a disastrous way that they are accepted as not only local but also global.... causes a rise in the sea level? ......... is a threat to living creatures in rivers and lakes? . individuals or the government? 3.. which causes a rise in skin cancer..... with the industrialization... According to the latest statistics...... is a great danger for one-fifth of the human population? ............

.............. Write the causes of fires in the graph according to the text.......................................... ....... What are the causes of fires? B.. C.... According to a survey conducted by the Forest Service in 2003....... READING & SPEAKING A........... I should raise public awareness about recycling............................199 million hectares of it is forested.... Complete the paragraph to tell about your individual responsibilities for environmental problems........ D............. only 20.......... .. The Forest Service is responsible for fire prevention and control activities........ Listen and number the pictures in the order you hear them............ Percentage 100—-- - —--- - 90—--- - —--- - 80—--- - —--- - 70—--- - —--- - 60—--- - —--- - 50—--- - —--- - 40—--- - —--- - 30—--- - —--- - 20—--- - —--- 10—---- —---- 0—-........ D..... 12% of the people-caused fires are due to arson... There are lots of things we can do for a better environment.... Work in pairs and interpret the graph......... It represents about 26% of the country’s total land area......LISTENING & WRITING A.............. and 22% to unknown causes............ e........ Read the text and find the reason for the fire which is not caused by people. ..................................... .............. Tell about the things that people in your town are doing to help the environment.........079 million hectares.... 60% to carelesness............... FOREST FIRES IN TURKEY Although Turkey is a country with a land mass of 77.... ........ a b c d e f g C......... 28 ........................... B................. First.. Causes ...... the majority of forest fires in Turkey are caused by people................ ........g.......................... Say what you should or shouldn’t do individually so that you can have a better environment using the pictures above.. I shouldn’t drop litter....... 94% of all fires are people-caused while remaining 6% are caused by lightning...

I (Industrial Pollution) or W (Water Pollution). İzmir suffers from pollution caused by the. exhaust fumes of vehicles c. a. 1. Choose the best answer.. Look at the pictures and find the names of the pollution. increase in the number of species 2. Which of these is not one of the causes of pollution in Turkey? a.000 C. litter 4. What are the most important environmental problems in Turkey? 2. cars b. W) into the places where the problems occur. tanker accidents D. a. Are there any organizations in your country which work for the environment? Would you like to take part in such organizations? Why / Why not? 29 . Write A (Air Pollution). factories c. Listen and write the initial letters of the pollution types (A.. industrialization c. lignite b. a rapid and unplanned urbanization b.. natural gas c. the pollution from rivers b. 1 2 3 B. I. 1/2. 1. Pollution level decreased in Ankara because of using.. Which one is not a reason for marine pollution? a. alternative energy 3.000.LISTENING & SPEAKING A.

Do you think overpopulation is an environmental problem? Why / Why not? B. the more people fill up the world. When there is overpopulation. To sum up. people produce a lot of litter and this pollutes both water and land. 30 . There aren’t enough sources of jobs for all people so only the most qualified ones get a job.READING & WRITING A. natural resources like water or food aren’t enough for so many people. the more problems we have. Also. The second problem is poverty. Read the text and find the problems which overpopulation causes. Overpopulation causes many problems. That means there is a lot of thirst and hunger in the world. Others can’t support their families. The first problem is unemployment. There is a great amount of pollution because a lot of people go to work by car. The last but not least is the high level of pollution.

....... ........................... .................. to reduce the destruction of the ozone layer? (in order to) 2................. Thirst and hunger are related to poverty.............. Whenever / Just as the members of the environmental society come together....... not to cause global warming? (so as not to) ANSWERS a........ he makes speeches about the importance of endangered species..... 1...................... c..... People who have qualifications can find jobs easily..................................................... to reduce soil erosion? (so as to) 5............ f ............ 5... LET’S PRACTISE A. ............C.............................. 6..... not to damage the flora and fauna? (in order not to) 6....................... Whenever people go to work by car........... the more problems we have.... 7..... Make sentences using the problems and solutions...... However / Although the bay has been clean for a long time............. The government has to take some precautions so that / so as to some species will no longer be in danger of extinction.  2............... ....... cans and batteries............. ................................. Despite / Therefore all the warnings..... you can smell something bad. the recent statistics have shown a shocking rise in the country’s population.............................................................. 3................. ..... Match the questions with their answers......  4................................... 5................... ....... Never drop litter in the countryside... The more people live in the world........ Thirst and hunger are the reasons for overpopulation........................................................................................... . Set up centers to collect bottles........ d................ to prevent air pollution? (so that) 4....... b......................... In spite of / Wherever he goes........................................................  3.. ........................................ People should be encouraged to use public transportation more. Underline the correct word. ................ stating the results................................. 4.........  5.... 1..... .... In spite of / Although the action taken by the Ministry of Health... 2........ 6............................................................................ 2..................... ........................... ..... to recycle more garbage? (in order that) 3............ 3.............. 1.................. ........................... Write T (True) or F (False)... take them back with you............ QUESTIONS What can be done........ 1............................ The use of aerosols should be banned...... the students are still dropping litter on the ground........................................... ........................... the chairman asks for money............... they contribute to pollution.......................... B..  1.. There are heavy fines on overfishing................................. Write a paragraph on one of the environmental problems.. however / so it’s still going on illegally.. 4....... e........................................... D.. You’d better use less fuel and coal........ 31 .......................................... Governments must educate people to plant more trees....... 2.....................................

Then design a poster which demonstrates each of these problems. we use ‘can or will’ for a present / future meaning and ‘could or would’ for past sentences. in order to / so as to. such . so that. • However gives a meaning of opposition. PROJECT Make a list of the environmental problems in your hometown. • After in spite of or despite. in order to. a pronoun or -ing. wherever. whenever.LET’S REMEMBER Fill in with “in order that.. • After so that. we use a ‘subject+verb’. • Wherever gives the idea of ‘any place’. • Whenever gives the idea of ‘any time’. FUN CORNER 32 . despite / in spite of or although”. • After although. so as to express purpose but in order that is less commonly used.. however.. we use a noun. • In order that. so that. that..