UNIT 5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

LEAD-IN
1. Which of these environmental problems are the most serious for our planet?
2. What can be done to prevent them?

• deforestation

• acid rain
• overfishing

• flood

• drought

• overpopulation

• famine
• pollution

• greenhouse effect

• destruction of the ozone layer

26

.. which causes a rise in skin cancer.. Find which problem mentioned in the text.. housing and timber.. The carbon dioxide in the air is responsible for that. people are still destroying them for different reasons such as land....... However..... Work in groups and discuss the following..... c.............. Whenever we burn gas and oil.. deforestation and global warming are among the most threatening environmental problems... For the last forty years....... as a result........ 3...... causes a rise in skin cancers and changes in climates? ...... D.... This desertification will damage the flora and fauna.. ice caps are melting and this makes the sea level higher............. we produce carbon dioxide which traps the warmth of the sun and makes our atmosphere hotter. other parts of the world are suffering from droughts and forest fires......  3... 1.. 1...........READING & SPEAKING A. Despite the strict precautions taken by the government in order to save the forests.... b.. 1... Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth.... in spite of the strict precautions taken by the government....... you see that pollution...........  1.. toxic substances........................... 4... E. C... What can be done so as to overcome these problems? Isn’t there any hope for the future? Governments and individuals should spend great efforts so that they can avoid further disasters and environmental problems. A GLOBAL CHALLENGE The earth was much healthier and cleaner years ago...... we contribute to global warming....... What are some ways to reduce pollution in Turkey? 2..... The amount of acid in rivers and lakes has increased.............  4........ 5..... Deforestation is another problem that the earth faces... According to the latest statistics. in order that they can avoid environmental problems... is a great danger for one-fifth of the human population? ................ Why should we recycle? 5... Whenever we produce carbon dioxide..... How can we protect the environment and at the same time improve people’s standard of living? 27 ................ environmental problems started to threaten the world..... People are still chopping down the trees............... Pollution is a serious problem.. Who do you think is more responsible for pollution........ Every individual should keep their environment clean..... Why is it important to protect the environment? B.. a reduction of fish reserves in the waters and changes in climates...... the extinction of species and habitat loss? . Acid rain increases the amount of acid in rivers and lakes.  2..... d....... a. Read the text carefully and match the two halves...... the hole in the ozone layer and acid rain are still threatening the Earth.... Wherever you go... is a threat to living creatures in rivers and lakes? ........... The toxic substances from factories or nuclear plants and oil spills cause birth defects and serious health problems......... 2. causes erosion.. While there are floods in some parts of the world.. What can we do to protect forests? 4.................. and will cause erosion which takes billions of tones of soil from the Earth every year.. individuals or the government? 3........... It affects trees and plants badly and pollutes clean drinking water.... one-fifth of the human population is in danger because the areas where these people live will become deserts in a short time..... all the living creatures in these waters are at risk..... In spite of the precautions..... How is life being threatened? 2. The ozone layer depletion lets more UV-B rays from the sun into the atmosphere... Read the text and underline the main environmental problems..... the effects of these problems have increased in such a disastrous way that they are accepted as not only local but also global. For example. oil spills......... causes a rise in the sea level? ........ with the industrialization..... Global warming is causing more and more disasters these days....... so all the living creatures in these dirty waters are under threat.

. 28 .................... 94% of all fires are people-caused while remaining 6% are caused by lightning............. e... ... a b c d e f g C..................... ...........079 million hectares.... ............ ............ 12% of the people-caused fires are due to arson....... C. I shouldn’t drop litter......... Causes . ..............g......... the majority of forest fires in Turkey are caused by people........ D...... It represents about 26% of the country’s total land area.............. and 22% to unknown causes... Say what you should or shouldn’t do individually so that you can have a better environment using the pictures above............... FOREST FIRES IN TURKEY Although Turkey is a country with a land mass of 77................................................... 60% to carelesness.... According to a survey conducted by the Forest Service in 2003..... Write the causes of fires in the graph according to the text. What are the causes of fires? B... There are lots of things we can do for a better environment... Work in pairs and interpret the graph.....LISTENING & WRITING A.. .... READING & SPEAKING A...........199 million hectares of it is forested... Complete the paragraph to tell about your individual responsibilities for environmental problems.............. Percentage 100—-- - —--- - 90—--- - —--- - 80—--- - —--- - 70—--- - —--- - 60—--- - —--- - 50—--- - —--- - 40—--- - —--- - 30—--- - —--- - 20—--- - —--- 10—---- —---- 0—-.......... The Forest Service is responsible for fire prevention and control activities..................... only 20.............. Read the text and find the reason for the fire which is not caused by people............................................................... First....... B......................... Tell about the things that people in your town are doing to help the environment......... I should raise public awareness about recycling... D. Listen and number the pictures in the order you hear them..........

alternative energy 3. Listen and write the initial letters of the pollution types (A. Choose the best answer. Which of these is not one of the causes of pollution in Turkey? a.. I (Industrial Pollution) or W (Water Pollution). What are the most important environmental problems in Turkey? 2. 1. Write A (Air Pollution). Look at the pictures and find the names of the pollution. a. litter 4. exhaust fumes of vehicles c. lignite b.. a rapid and unplanned urbanization b. tanker accidents D.000. 1 2 3 B.LISTENING & SPEAKING A. industrialization c.. I. İzmir suffers from pollution caused by the. Pollution level decreased in Ankara because of using.. 1. increase in the number of species 2. the pollution from rivers b. Which one is not a reason for marine pollution? a. a.000 C. W) into the places where the problems occur. natural gas c. factories c. cars b. Are there any organizations in your country which work for the environment? Would you like to take part in such organizations? Why / Why not? 29 . 1/2.

people produce a lot of litter and this pollutes both water and land. the more problems we have. That means there is a lot of thirst and hunger in the world. Also. There aren’t enough sources of jobs for all people so only the most qualified ones get a job. The second problem is poverty. the more people fill up the world. Do you think overpopulation is an environmental problem? Why / Why not? B. 30 . To sum up. natural resources like water or food aren’t enough for so many people. Overpopulation causes many problems. The last but not least is the high level of pollution. The first problem is unemployment. Read the text and find the problems which overpopulation causes. When there is overpopulation. There is a great amount of pollution because a lot of people go to work by car. Others can’t support their families.READING & WRITING A.

...... ............................. 3.................... 6................. ..... Match the questions with their answers................ however / so it’s still going on illegally............ ........................ People who have qualifications can find jobs easily....................  4... Write T (True) or F (False).. Governments must educate people to plant more trees........ Never drop litter in the countryside........................................................................................... ................... 6........... you can smell something bad.................. D. take them back with you...................... Set up centers to collect bottles.......................................... ......... ....................................... f .... b....... The government has to take some precautions so that / so as to some species will no longer be in danger of extinction.... cans and batteries..... QUESTIONS What can be done............ ......................... People should be encouraged to use public transportation more............. the students are still dropping litter on the ground.................. Thirst and hunger are related to poverty................ You’d better use less fuel and coal......... In spite of / Wherever he goes..................... to prevent air pollution? (so that) 4................................... ................. Underline the correct word........................... ............ 2........ the recent statistics have shown a shocking rise in the country’s population......................... 3..................................... Make sentences using the problems and solutions.................................  3........ he makes speeches about the importance of endangered species....... LET’S PRACTISE A........................ to reduce soil erosion? (so as to) 5....... 1. There are heavy fines on overfishing...... 2................... ..... 5........... B......................... 31 ............... .......... to recycle more garbage? (in order that) 3..................... .. the more problems we have....................... the chairman asks for money............ The use of aerosols should be banned.................. Whenever people go to work by car.. stating the results........ to reduce the destruction of the ozone layer? (in order to) 2......... 1... Whenever / Just as the members of the environmental society come together................. Despite / Therefore all the warnings.................................................................................  2....................... not to cause global warming? (so as not to) ANSWERS a.... not to damage the flora and fauna? (in order not to) 6.. Thirst and hunger are the reasons for overpopulation..................... In spite of / Although the action taken by the Ministry of Health.............. 7...... ......... However / Although the bay has been clean for a long time........ Write a paragraph on one of the environmental problems..... 4..................................... .... e...................................... 5. The more people live in the world......  1.......... 1..... .... 1.......................... d.......  5........ c....................................................................C................................ 4............ 2........... they contribute to pollution.....

. despite / in spite of or although”. • However gives a meaning of opposition. that. FUN CORNER 32 . • In order that.LET’S REMEMBER Fill in with “in order that. • After so that. Then design a poster which demonstrates each of these problems. in order to / so as to. we use a ‘subject+verb’. • Whenever gives the idea of ‘any time’. • Wherever gives the idea of ‘any place’. PROJECT Make a list of the environmental problems in your hometown. whenever. so that. • After in spite of or despite. so as to express purpose but in order that is less commonly used. we use ‘can or will’ for a present / future meaning and ‘could or would’ for past sentences. we use a noun.. wherever. such . however. • After although.. a pronoun or -ing. in order to. so that..

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