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The campaign platform

r fionr standing for elcction for a pcriod ofup to scvcn ycars.

The campaign trail [r rrc b:rrrcd frorr.r standing for rc-clcction.
c drrc to culminatc in a presidential poll on z7 Mry, has bccorne nrore a mattcr of
In a-dcmocracy, the iountryt rurers a,d
leru-make.s iic choscn
phvsical snrvival than political persuasion. _:
in elections. In American English, ."rala"t., ,l l:c rvill not run for rc-elt'ctiorr ncxt ycf,r.
and in tsritish English they stand
.rlr"for election
for election. c it rvas not as the Republican candidate.
The campaign is the series of ad.vertisements,
aPpearances, meetings and speeches
television campaign g f| f thc party in ollice has always gained support in the run-up to thc election.
designed to get support for
a candidate. The cxpression campaign g to avoid media coverage of the campaign trail. coverage 21I
t.*ril e*pirrise, thc
numDer ot places cand.idares. have to
go ro ,nd rhings they have
to go through while campargnrng.
Campaign also refers collectively to all
the parties,campaigns. The campaign platform
The run-up to an elecdon is the period
leadinq uD ro an A political party is a group ofpoliticians and thcir
election, perhaps a longer ti-e rhr., ,n.
.r-p"t#,*fe supporters who have similar views on horv the
back to tife arut stoodfor etection in the
eastern rnttian state of Bihar,
country should be run.
{ry::it2r";ii!:,came
A partyt platform is the policies that it says it will
MrsThatcher hoped most of them were put into effect ifelected. Individual policies are
ag.ainst aJederal Europe.,othenuise
standing as candidates in tie ne*t grnrri what\ the point of
electio,"r?, planks in the platform. Propoied policies may be
vo'go' Lto'o *hoinrtantly outlined in a document known as a manifesto. manifesto /86 U
glances backuards into hk own life or into the dark
rontinentJor hisfitt.ion, is p'rircupied
by,o*ahing
recesses of his
Speeches were traditionally made in Britain standing
who, in rggo, ranfor prcsident in'peru,'and
U)iri,n_, politits,. Coning from a man
losr, tn'i, ,r?*, hartl ro take. on a soapbox and in the lJnited States on the stump,
and these things are often referred to in connection
his opponenr He isfolowed on the campaisn with campaigning even if they are not now often
ffi"iT::1,:Ii:;:;i:',:;,:!:;!:,;;{':''o "f*e actually used. People who shout out their
There are weeks to go to the erection, yet we are heckle 79l
.ten arready mind-numbingry bored with disagreement when a politician makes a speech are .lJ.

campaigning. the
hecklers, and what they do is heckle. heckler 79l .lJ,

shots wete fired and exolosiues thrown Politicians on the stump or at or on the hustirrgs are
into the ofices oJtwo politital parties inTiblisi
BBC Mostow in what the
'o"",pondrn,
artuitn or'iir'i'rrl^ti^iir'i,arrt run-up to erections electioneering. Electioneering can be used neutrally
nexr month.
to talk about what candidates do during a campaign,
I on the campaign trail. Match the two parts
of these extracts.
but it can also be used to show disapproval of'unfair'
methods. In this case, electioneering may be
described as cynical or blatant.
t Thc Colonrbian election campaign.
z V/hrtcvcr the polirical arrd economic situarion. Tlrc King announced that he is ready to talk with the country\ political parties about politiul
3 It! been so long si,ce the last election that rve've forgottcn change.
how difiicurr it is
4 Thc tribunals would disqualify those found guilry T'he Democrats plan to capitalise on prblicJrustration by making healtlt one o.f thr main planks
i Senator Garn told a press conlerencc ar the (Jtah sratc caprtal in their platform.
that
6 Eleced for six years, Mexican presidents 'l-he
party's manifesio was soJull of generalisations that most Soutlt Ali-itans haue been amazed
hy the reforms the goretnfient has passed.
7 Whcn Lincoln ran for his sccond election,
The rousing speech, the last of six soapbox addresses, came at the end of rc,ooo miles on the
32 battlehus and tours to more thafi 6o constituenties.
33

'Whistlestop tours
Y::3...'L*.'*::* and spin doctors

Do's Sarlor', Anqola'-s dotrrleadu, is anunconvindngconuert
to dertotraty. ()rt tltt stump rn Hc followed this up with an clcctioncering -- on Labour, claiming
Huatnbo, he lookcd untonfLttrd,lt.u,irlt th,.ror.r,oio.,
oJrlrrtiu,rrr,ring.' businessmen had no cnthusiasm lor a Labour governmcnt.
Wth only days to go beiore elertiotrs in Pakistan, candidates are battling - (i.t tlu:
it ort hrstittls.. Hc has alrcady been round thc country three timcs on thinly veiled clcctioneering
couernmentministershadant.ughridetluringthcirnationutidetour,heckledinsomr,
grecrcd u,itlt stony silcnre itt others. ltlaces,, Mr Reagant grcat achievcmcnt of his second term - tax relorm - was {irst aired as
an electioneering in his Statc ofthe Union spcech in 1984.
Belgtade teleuision uere euefi accused ofusing crude techniEtes
to superimpose entlr*siastit theers
ouer the sound oJhecklers at one oj Miloseuii\ campaign The prospect oian electioneering and a cut in intercst ratcs as an
mllies.
additional sweetener gave shares a welcome boost ycsterday.
Electioneering in Mandalay has been more enthusiastic,
with members
c Voters complain about electioneering that verge on the dishonest.
oJ the opposition parties
encouraging supporters to uote.
h What the Soviets at first took to be electioneering they discovered
Labour actused Mr King oJblarant,eleaioncelittg as he
placed the tutial orderJor shorr range air- to be theological conviction.'Evil empire' meant lihat it said.
to-air missiles. Labour de{enrc$iFesnan Morin
o'Neiil said,,ri wiii ,or*' olr"o iai4,o ,1,, ---.
workforce of those companies. whether it will come -
as a relief ti the conrryroriu, ,ortlidates in
those seats, it will remain to elertion day tof.nd
out., Whistlestop tours and spin doctors
A very fast campaigning trip, with a candidate making a lot of
2 Electioneering clich6s. Fjnd combinations in the speeches and appearances in a lot ofplaces in a short time, is a
tabte thar correspond to the definitions 1_g. Then use whistlestop tour.
the combinations to complete the extracts a_h.
A tour such this might consist, among other things, of:
as

I Trips that candidates go on rallies: large, often open-air, political events with speeches r:aliy 8 {}

2 Things that candidates say to get elected but that they and entertainment, and
dont reaily mean
Something that a candidate says they will do if elected
walkabouts: the candidate walks about in a crowd and
J
shakes hands, or in this political context, glad-hands glad-hand 8 fi
4 Unoriginal things that candidates say and do people.
5 An attack made by a candidate on others
Candidates must be careful not to make gaffes. Gaffes are gatle 216 |
6 Methods, honest and dishonest, that are used by candidates slips of the tongue or offensive remarks that damage their
to gain electoral
advantage image: the perception that people have of them.
A government's financial plan that is designed to win votes
7
Spin doctors or spin controllers are consultants who try to
8 Volence rhat is encouraged by candidates minimise the effects of gaffes, and otherwise improve the way
candidates are presented in the media generally.

clich6s
prornise thuggcry
a LATGUIGEIIoIE
.Whistlestop
tours electioneering is also spelt with a hyphen and as two words.
assault
tactics budget
4nd in the Abe Lincoln in lllinois', where the part was played by Raynond Massey - in
flm
rhctoric
onc of the when Abe Lintoln is leauing on a whistle-stop tour - you'll hear the ctoutd
scenes
s,tying: 'Coodbye, Mr Lincoln. Gootlbye, Mr Lincoln.'Anil you'll hear one lone roi(e sayin!
shavcn-headcd youths *,ho combine football violence '()oodbye, Mr Massey. Coodbye, Mr Massey.'
with electioneerrng
.lt political rallies across the state, opinions on Helms are anything btt afibiL'dlent. Unidentifed
o irr the book of clccriorrccrrrg _ short of krssrng qnup: six, eight, Jesse Helms isJuli o.f hate!
1"-1"'c'cryrhirrg 'Two, four,
tl2hres -.--
Mrs Robinson admits she is not a natural politician in the Irish sense : she la&s the g"ad-handing
:krlls so ualued in the small world of lrish politics.
34 35

. or b) smaller? fieant to say reception. the absence of a national dailv 7 Arelazy people energetic? Thellisarray in the of cauazos and Bennett was the abrupt way the news broke cases press cannot do other than say before the spin-controllers courd set the stage.. columnist George Wrli on whether that meant that television imPact now 4 Do telegenic people jue of the six determined the choice cf candidates' Was It is that time agatry and that place too. supposedly in smoke-filled Britain. they become a parr of p _ _ _ t where they are part of :i". 'N9. h. . between supporters ofeach candidate. if I'm not miiing .' the electoral process. media manipul". they II The media have reached a report ir. do you same group or party. does it increaseYt importance? p-rogramme was prefaced with: .' makc it a) bigger.r. ch. Decome part ofthe electoral process.much Britain? smoke-filled room is used to refer to mcetings where intense. (Ceorgc Bush) Still.uu.t television it's not glamour."G. usually between members of the the early stages of the campaign. iess cohesive party system means that in 3 If you press someone secret negotiations take place. that is to enhance thl 8 If X enhances the importance of metaphors here. care ifthey dont give Candidates looking for selection seek nomination as the Ipressed the resPected American vou a clear answer? columnist /9 f| party's presidential candid ate.. ^ was Kissinger. Politicians themselves are critical Sinator Core. *".s they feel the potiticar agendi 9 The poiitical agenda consists of dream come true.@ Seeking nomination Mr_Major and his wilb Norna uterc ._Cootl morning Couernor Clinton.' Peter Jennings.co'iark to Londn. U". The final choice of to go.. Tetevisio".ief If something is anchorman 7 ABi anchoiman in NewYork... 'Negative advertising and negative- caripaigning works.*. television? declared candidates.whal walkabout itr Bolton. bicause the combination of the in the United States than in rooms. . many on a question. Aut f eteuisioi necon I be quite as Iazy or ignorant 6 Ifyou condense something. the sort if sound_bite that is a spin doctor. many of their kind haue it a case ol the more telegenic they were.. is the risk a we re runnlng in our campai ns is danger for you? that Bite-srzed they've reached a stage *h.for the Democratic nomination made their as so the more chance theY had of success? done before. ooctors. Seeking nominataon to sav it doesn't work and it's really do you have a high advertising 70 beneaih contempt." 5 If you can gct away with nrurdcr I iukou get away wrth murder on it.Unit 2 Politics .. candidates are relatively unknown..i. to New Hampshire. your campaign into slogans. as aluays.. famous for convention 178 lJ more imp6rtant in America than in Is the party system stronger late-night bargaining. . but not all.J"riig-6 h. politicians deal with. afid it is. eve. slate former Secretarv of particularly unhappy: . probdbly this is because his itnage has condcnsine carc what you do? been badly dented by attarks in opposition newspapuq which haui dwett on hi.proJilc dwjng the campaign. 37 . to the exclusion ofoutsiders. Read this extract from Henry more control over it? TheTimes and answer the questions.. a partyt presidential candidate may be But until American PeoPle either selected in a series of primary elections or primaries. On the frst weekend of Nouember. do you caffe oJ the canrpaign: 'I don't want to run the risk of ruining what in is a louely recessionJ He doing it.. states as a \ /ay offinding advertising. sound-bite I^? ilX." . /hc first in the nalion.fneiiJ IO Ifyou run a risk. by vou-"rl in doing something. our of the Juture president and uice-president. Primary individually or as a whole reject negative elections are held in some.. Itt pr.. rmportance of television in a presidential A recent question to Mr Clinton and Al Core on a CBS teleuision phone-in campatgn. Do politicians feel they are getting 3 Controlling the spin..i the Premier stayed mlnt and kcpt sniling.*ory will be held on February rclh.iostlcd by d crou.Torics out'and..d oJ defiofistrators durirg a . 'We all like beneath contempt.' lrg sa id. The expression greater size of the country and the.' presidential candidate is made by delegates representing The image of the candidate is so much each state at the party conventions.-:t.iq:i camBargners rnc electoral process.li:h nas snrlted out of their control the issues and problems that inio rhe lTl.. do pcople is keeping a uery lou. Polirr tricd ro hold rltttt ar I'dy as tlry shoutetl .'. look good on telegenic 7 uay. bcst a tcrrible temptation.I:. as it is in many cases' opinion ofit? In the United States.rrr*i#porr. I think that's the way it's going which candidate has most support. Y.

:. form oT the missing itern used and in which the plural? presidenlial bid An attcmpt to bccornc prcsidcnt is sometimes referred Labour party policy was determined by a fcrv trade union bosses in .r-p"1g. politics of the of lapanere polirics. Japan His. The sleaze factor Sometimes candidates or the media search for damaging Remember information about a politiciant personal life' or business or secret the Sixties? politicai activities. thev are accused of mudslinging. strategists. An ideal combination of candidates for these two posts is It took t5 hours in a but the outcome was never in doubt.attruded to this small city roughly j5o highly paid ir srill run bv what Americans used to call the consufuants. Ifthey then use this information to attack their opponents' I know. the dream titketfor womefl. It really was which many Europeans may not want. describe a single candidate with attractive qualities.What is it? In which extracts is the singular ttrainly 'bcauty contests' of littlc nnseqt(n(t. .t. Damaging information of this kind is never trusted anyone over30. The danger is that professionals in will impose an over-centralised European Union If Hillary is the perfect partner.for the . We wouldn't have voted for \ Vrctims of muckraking say that their opponents either of us guilty of conductiig a smear .When they do this they are said to. ' applied to other atrractive political partnerships in the Those attending the Maastricht summit will be dram:iitkCi.*. ot ! ! smear campaign 24 1l are s moie forma1l1'.gatts to tfu natioual party rLtnuentiLtn tuere selected. (Some saucepans havcTeflon coatings to prevent food sticking to them) C O TAIIGUAGE lIOIE a with a hyphcn and as rwo words 38 Muckraking and mudslinging are also spelt 39 L . prcsidential candidatet running mate..r::l US and elsewhere. fiot to mefltion trorrt il rrprntr-account journalists and thousands public to show 'understanding'of the has be"gged the oJ tourists. That ts now beginning ro changc to as a bid for the presidency or a presidential bid.. Dc:pite all thc talk of democratic reforms.. Cary Hatt! bidJor the presidencyfailed after the euidence of his romantic link with Donna Rice. negotiated by This new dawn is not to be confused with the last flew dawn. The same word or expression from this section is smoke-jlled roons and dral-making u'ith the iiltra-party pritnaries tlnt had until thett been Lnissin[from al1 these exrracts. that person is said to have a cnarge 140 lJ U I Teflon coating.:i:ii . wherc clinton is rugged and eirtiy. Ir is evcn sometimes used to sweating it out in the of Euro uniformity. or made to stick. cire it iea" rut and pieppy.e'ie_igl!I. The expression is also '. Unit 2 Politics *. sleaze. way thiruling LDP is picking its new president. On one side is the approach to political change. The sodfarher aruL idealktic young uolunteers.--*w .be digging Our generation ior dirt or muckraking. when Neir Kinnock and Roy _ 'profesionalil On the other is reform brought about HattercIey uere described as a dream ticket. runnrng:imate l known as the dream ticket. thdt refofifi uas ifitended to rcpldrc the The right candidate. tsyJorring delegates to declare their allegiancc and runJitrdution.r. The candidatc running for the vice-presidency is the The Conservative leadership was once decided in of London clubs by the partyt grandges.-*----*---I!:ii*:i. Shin Kanemaru. irl. by populai presurg. P. then in Al core he had the perfect running mate. a campaign of viliflcation against them' o If allegations or charges against someorlc canrlot Lrc allegation 2Sll' 138 ll proved.'jg l-he reJorm changed thc dde.::rr . . bid..llesllential bid has.

or lack ofthem.l."ip.* nt e.on the morality of politicians. written during Bill Clinton's F { bid for the presidency.oLa sf!:!:!!U!E!by his poL.i. she was.-wnere I exPect anYthing'' : :: : :i : :l ttnRs wtth rhc MaJta to undermine hcr.he accepted fellowship at skulduggery honest? A parlianrcntary commission wds.f--tttle .:. rle begged ./ <. sol^g FINAL RetueHs' rebuleed and made to rctract by Mr Bush.' oi inna'titv' embezzled $5o 95.e of paddy Ashrlown\ sexual relationship with hisJo'rner i"i.. Read this article from TfteTimes. During his presiilency.ill rontinue to run a good..1| I:. set up to inuestigate charges that carria personaily u--'.f i. and answbr the questions. d o...ri"*..ig*l' . women involved in affairs such as these are ften referred to as bimbos.:..n for. h. auusations and attacked. ii:.il.'""a i"po't"t' il:i. hard-hitting umpaign. Politicians somctimes fail electorally bccause of allcgations of ql 'I r' rrriJ'r:1-'ir'!!tj'':!::rrt: extra-marital affairs.. are utorTisj nay embezlement 96. Mr Markouic said he and his gouernmeflt were being subjected to an intense meiria campaign . t.iil-d. folnd.jl. there./..kulduggerv in Arkansas.e. that makes Mrs Ferraro\ ry64 r.-li-k-J' niece ormeat' to t__1--4..are. But 1.itical opponents. fup il: #i. The Republicans may be ASHDOWN Republicans be sitting' on abouttor v ]ASEIURY WARNED ON MORALITy Jurors were warneil "t!i .:il../ . Wrieht alone knew rrrs record well enough '.1 Rv March.1J million.. whose impeccable image protected hint-from scandal and .'#.i.lN6 TRE LASI ELEcTroN. Mr Clinton faced wrongdoing drart-dodging If someone is viciously -:i.h'.the Could more yesterday y#*-!::y:oaryis not to let their uiews.i-. . down ino n..Miss (noose to staild againJor presidcnt in thc ncxt elections in tqg5...r. aoii. ilY"". Aiothei 't. The only top Republican aide with the common touch is Mary Matalin. clean. is rarely discussed.*.::t...'"t.. IFyou dispel and discredit document that disrlosed detail. the political director. sal ffil 3$lLtl l'JX'.'tv " fal se? digging for dirt' 40 41 ..o reflon coating' rheY all know allegations might be made ?##+y!!with .p.i e te Ui1116o:.rongToing.. do most people go on secretary.i*& The sleazc factor L0NGRESS^ AN.#g.il"t"Eiitrt"* as fast as possible' I believing them? The campaign has taken on a mud-slinging uiolence . Rcagan uas the so-callerlTbjon Prcsident.. *r'E she did'.not about Ciintont p-rivate iife. The prcsident is detennincd ttt kee-p YoU PLE96ED To Do SoITIETRING TO CLEAN UP CAAIPAI6N TINANCIMG?1 this ranpaign out oJ the sleazc businessisaid a spokesman with Mr Bush in Florida..Al\ JUST WAITIN6 FOz phen Ms Matalin raised BiIl Clinton\ problems uith'bimbos' ldst week.i:'t:" :'-':3:f 'Not a true one. priuate liues or the inlueyy rhem in'thi iase of the man accused oJ steatins the iuror 146 lJ lilife? ..iGlations' Ifyou relutean allegation. trusted. Unit 2 Politics .nd flne 149 $ . Digging for gold and digging for dirt. even ifevidence oftheir intellectual qualities.{illll1. I 3' ! Clinton hires tgugh fe-ian to ride shotgunall Clinton'of Do Democrats think 11 preparatio.U{tlEN AgE you GotNG 'Wt u...' 1o do you prove that it is of lies and uilirtcation she..h. the Democrats hate The Democrats know that Mr been . o* there' butrnv l:9li^1: 'nutG [LJ #. they are t. rt puts a.'."iled as the 'failed governor.i ott eg e a Lalt September.i.otentially thenastiest campaign yet. .'l am not at all sure lies..*. r 7om ily.eb ln th arge s qt' nc omp . loathing*a the strain of Are people who indulge in . to her disgust. implying that they are sexually attractive but intellectually limited. He has trenied any u...rn"f f and as a man who cannot bisiness deak.i.ot a to stick to Clinton? brother dfld one son haye beenfnedforjnancial irregularities.i.i. one 'rrl-i.'..3.whkh to undermine-Mr Bush\ image.C be two other sons haue been inuolued ii qiestionable brother a. e a n b y t o n pi i s o tt frii p p o ne nt s h au e s e i z. Due.

:1"j: .st them.v might be leaking' "be and so identit.J cover-up: rhc associatcd attempts to cover of nationai security' phcne.ry.. hide. only o-1: suspicion and distrust. sh..and it.o.i.he.r. J .h1r -.h oi now emergingfollowing the collapse of the Bank of Commerce and Credit International. The'Obseruer'says there is evidence oJ large-scale British inuoluement in the lran-Cate ffii il.j 9 [f you dispute someone's The controuersy now being dubbetl Inkatha-gate took a new turn with the resignation of ChieJ veracity.r.. in sone senytlhere k truth.***-146*#*#'' a) $r5o.4 Puerto Ricen Senate committec is inuestigating the killings and subsequent covet-up oJ tu'o . Iormer Miss called the Watergate of Puerto Rito. Watergate may now be fu"""a. burgtary 129 [ Once critics r"o. . was .. Now and then a conspirary in high places is uncouered. i. or b) less intense? mentioned and the suflix _gate ur.in disint'ormation.iJu..Y*1'Ji 4 Ifyou flout the law.11 it carried out WHAT WAIEEG.rr"?f perceived as'enemies :r#.. all about' Democrats had on Nixon. and answer the questions. when President Nixon ordered"the all was in dirty tricK 24 f| Nixon. trrancisio's.cJsatiors.t.*tv 'h. the usually part of a campaign to rp.*"l'.rr" a-- 7 If you offer cvidence tlrat a Fritnds of Mandtl. Miss Wrighr and Mr tXl:I1: . or eii. Jt..perdue.789.ir'rir"i't' ptunt could and. sums ? ..' one said.jo.."".rr.:::ii^. do they wish their a TAIIGUAGE IIOTE - trf." on American 43 spy on people? . M."s.:. who said he alone knew about the secwity police iJg".tt.. Dirty tricks Ifa plan is botched.. Nixon's was'fanned' by anti-Vetnam war partyt ofiices in the'Watergate building in Democratic #u"jr"tiuiion of Presidential paranora protests. spurious? indcpendeice actiuistsS"j years ago.... .irrvesr tguro.r. That\ always what disinfomration's about.n r er r.i"i.ooo b) $++.i. il. And it occaslon been"d. break-in at Watergate' The hotched or stolen.. referring to dirry tricks campaigns. Whi. campargn. 'b" to The most famous dirty tricks campaign of 1972.id disinformation: minute part ot wnat it wasrifling ']"r. thc truth.naivelr the following are six-figurc goes on to'list a series oJ complicated manoeuyres in which the Colonel is said to have used dccounts at the Bank to transfer money from arms sales to lran to Nicaragua's contfi guerillds..j. backcd up by cvidencc is ir .. yous______it. to be known? The noun cover-up is also spelt as two words l'.. :. lil<eWatergate. "..:nll unfamiliar to Amerrcan politics' then the political or business corruptio.T. .:1ll::.... .^pilvare .... Arkansas.i [X."iiii.#''s"j l. you g it. pdyments.. bY anti-war Protests' intense. Did it get a) more 'Washington to be burgled.["prttra:":ttgator.:i*? "lL}. they look for an easv wav of getting rich. NPNs Maria Martin reports on the case. Irangate. Khumalo. [ll-]ii"'trr" Democrats and thev might their r"u'" what Paranoia is abnormally intense fli"t':..stz tabloid /8 6 Presidential paranoia.u"ittur-t..t if-r.l 8 Ifan allegation is nor So. halt-rrurhs and lies... documents. and so on. do you obey it? "":... but to . Public@ Radio broadcast made on the zoth anniversary of the Watergate break-in. or ii.: A?::"* :l y i 6 rT Ii. do organisations such as the police IS.itt name' was olly 3 bus 22 ll I hese methods are known as dirty tricks and are damaging information.fp.. by Mr"*JCrinro.lir.r. Read this extract from an American National c) $35..y ol'wagilry a tlirty tricks'smear tampaign'against her..ffi.. Sarry -. .ro.teaiirlg WIS nLL ABouT The files were rifled.flr..' *i8"'Pi"ua FBI dissenters' 7 In a surveillance operation.osrch as paying people to make false . . or any other -gate you tdrc to mention- If someone tligs ior goid. To co u..ATE bugsins 22 1I Politicians may accuse their opponents of successfully? using unfair or even criminal methods agri.ia u"ahd Put on the Phones to 6 If an olficial leaks information to iiiil.. is break-in 129. up."tJ i" the name or #.dtryl cIA 42 . H..'Thcy are trying euerything they can to "rpi"ii'a"r.r.?T. you accuse them Buthelezi's personal assistant. bugging phone conversations.a *h. tlrslroy hct.'}ij of__1ng.i.. Z.. to see what d ___.t... Dirty tricks ^.-:L Y. while not disputin! the lettu's authenticity. " sui san claim or allcgation is falsc." iri.j.iat.'i.:ilr. ii* "... whih is being .be 5 If you put a tap on someone's ".:+:tfl #iiiu]{ii.n.' i"ne Constitution could .rr..+T[ 1.1"t" aides the iournalists the press... acrused enemies within the ANC l"""rji.

For example. stationing of White House commissars weren't carried out because of Pollsters are to thange the way they measure publit opinion after getting the result of thc last and depi-rtments and agencies to bring the'unraveling' of Watergare..i... it was -a paranoid P a.1].p"o*-*. t"^c. srlee tcd. u"f"-'i?""'1l.irh otlrcr a sampb of t5.ooo adults randorily and sricntifcally landslide."i -^-r^^+r.t t'-d ""Y.qurat!.*G.b. by the 6ndings of opinion polts are more or tess retiable intentions are changed -."P:Y pollsters.Unit 2 Politics @-.:'^'"".l.'#. ..i by the unraveling ol Watergate.o'*'""""""qii'i.l ''reliable. (a is used hijack the whole government in order to do they bring it under their four times.ti"v*""'" lv u"vtr. 'keep notes on all of those who try to do had planned atlean iweep'oF us ih.l.r that feeling has long population as a whoie.. olans for his second tt'rm whicll werc h puts Lthour support at 53 per tcnt oJthe elertorate.r"'. week before elections.r'q 3:15::1r:5:= All this *as-oily the fiist installmcnt Somcone in a conspiracy 'l'ht opitticur poll was coruludctl among of the conspiracy. Bur ollc lJut rlruJr be LrrrlrB must one thing emphasised: there is no evidenc" :l3t.i:' uv v^r'F*. in their present :l]-l]:" -""r." "..". plans unresponsive to his dcsigns and the tor Iris sccorrd term.. [i-cnl elcrtion batlly wrong. u.'ilffi. the promises of the politicians' ec-orrate16r!dii.li<un all 450 loral gouernment dreas in Nigeria. will win at least them the full powers of government thal intend to neglect any ofthese per cent of the uote. ::s..:l:X.r"T#: .rp _.f l]Xi.r'.h^lc eniov the ll':. Mori. Nixon yotes to threaten the hold of the country's principal parties. Tht rcsults werc taken. Did he Opinion polls arefiregglyting that a non-Communist coalition of partie s. r*=.*.findings i[:". Polling organisations and the people working for them are 1fi y'have been .. Complete the gaps with the words listed. "igu"itutioir*l of'p.r"". They interview or poil a numb.iesulis *".::i". but thcy ICll."a p. Re-elected bY a corrspircs. (zg..oLr. 45 . NOP and Audience Selettion..1"dings lt::lJi.*{.'"'r". Demos. or tlrrcrtcrrirrg. people? $ He planned to expand the plumbers. do you It also concluded that most of the uoters who had chosen ro remain silent would probably back tlrc White House intelligence unit." prrbli" Opinion oprnron and to predict or forecast election results. b and c twice each. He planrrcd a clean sweep of officials onrinous.'i"e thev wish' even' ror reliable.it -*""ra ^^^^^tql-rte for ..r.l?L". by Bernard Levin. social classcs .:'.igs a tAt{cuAGEltolE The nouns corresponding to the vcrbs forecast and predict arc forecast and prediction. 'GrandPa.r.i1'. 'No. them under tighter control' which was investigated and Opinion polls predict that the M-rg pdrty nay either win the polling or emerge with suficienl He had told counsel John Dean to explained. ITarris. in which work on? pcople lruuing the polling booths are asked how-iiQited. the Ifyou do somcone in.from sy1y311by six pgllin! organisations: Callup."pi".*. Nixon had more omlnous pcopi('ru do somcthing rtlcgal. Nixon had more yolls.u""".' and said he would trse igainst 'unresponsive' ofiicials. Because of this. b) artack rhem? opposition.mf :':j:1'":i::'.. some voters found tl as -a .Sr) Iooks at the question of whether polls shouid be banned in the last about politician who saw enemies aIl around him and who tried to r3 If so-meone hijacks something.:. 1..1. This column.'L"# . published inTheTimes Then you should answer.' control using illegal methods? a polls c pollsters e accuracy campaign I-.rs of the demonstrale vsry rEruar^@'j. it is essential to uiew the poll\ jndings with some scepticism. into a a) help rhem.figurc ruordcC in the poll oJ lborte.i i"t.u.1il.. large-scale intelligence and surveillance operation. or c) woodwork about dirty tricks and politics as usual?' T2 A paranoid person suffers from 7 Last-minute polls.?"T'lXlf:i. tri-. So when you are asked.-v-"- results (4) results.f ii:t lTt.*iruilJii.'. taps and leaks what was Watergate all about? Was it b) electricity.reiults- .ri'ii.c. and the othcr words once each) punish them..bf F.i"^"at1"Pl. Fon late and Poll often (r) have been with us. a sample typical in its rnixof ages. a) pipes. the highest. especially during election n"1tr or surveys are condu"cted to campaigns.ate ^^ whole enjoy sample An exit poll is carried outjust after people have voted roundabouts' as they poliiical swings and arc lcaving the poiling srarion.il.-J. he had not used in the first four years.polling d poll f inaccuracy h election Polls and pollsters Between elections. II What do plumbers normally NOP\ unadiustedlorecast was one oJ the most arcurate oJ any by-election exit poll.

(r2) are the currentlY in sense in itn . a Democratic Pollster. course.. saying that het at 9r per cent approval rating . rI points (7ime). ""iifr".r. (ro). but as soon as the of shocking -.utcome.""".ffiffi:il:if[. pollsters andjournalists ruce 218 [ may talk about a race in which the party or candidate b a fall of zr points in just thtee months.thl The Socialists are trailing in the opinion polls but are gaining ground and are "J-finest fello*. Candidates or parties not doing so well are said to be i So high. Prime Minister Kaifu was riding high in the popularity polls.rJIt rr*Grr-1"."'..-*. level pegging or trailing Jurrng lhe final we (5) figures.:l.r11. [narr A poll publishcd on Decembcr 7th shows that President*. approve ofthe performance ofpoliticians and parties.^_ o.. Unit 2 Pol itics Trailing or riding high? fyce. order has been . Candidates or parties with the best results in opinion c and instantly became the front-runner for president' polls are said to be ahead or riding high.3. the parties which During the last rz years this government has involved us in two wars.e. Iftheir results to worry. 47 .t. down in history.. r"In" E. their own sit on it.".|4itterrandt popularity t rnerr soundings up to the h. pollsrers ask people if they z5 points.'". seems gain ground crazy to me.^.ou.m" lh. Two months ago. Match the two parts of thesc extracts' o_U o t h. and he ctuld use that tremendous approval to do something. the two main parties are now virtually level-pegging. proclaim that.". volatile electorate we have ever seen. he would go is often given in percentage points over the others. aflbct the in the polls. ir. a priest who advocates power for the impoverishld Haitian masses made a late entry into the race Unpublished polls by Gallup confirmed that Trailing or riding high? 7 8 weekend polls showed he had halved his opponentt pre-convention lead of 15 to Between elections.i. Their lead d And of course. if he succeeded in getting a peace in the Middle East. lff.iiu". notjust erectoral pu rDoses e lhe voters may use ?f the findings io. He would be remembered forever.rtr.'said Peter Hart. In the run-up to an eiection. Another poll shows that thc ievei of satisfaction^with his performance is the lowest for any president under the Fifth tauourite 218 JJ to win is the favourire or the front ff":lfr. He was shown to be trailing by 14 points (Newsweek). a 'This is the most open.*". neck improve.aG. especially in the i6 cxprc\slon running ncck-and-neck. (r3) thentselves *J' Lr*rrrrsrvct oo. record unemployment.. uments them as instruments . r-d. He could win thi Nobel Peace Prize. though of coursT do. fickle.f s.. .u i. reason. FatherJean-Bertrand Aristide. behind.-#. in fact.*r._- lasl trailing 2/9 lJ rating has slippcd to a new low of 3r per ccnt. bans the publication..rth-"-rnk."rsiorr. nine points (Washington Posr) and eight (Los AngelesTimes)' and the results are given as approval ratings or ratings /0 1I popularity ratings. two (o) re8ularlv denounce trailing in the are ..:^r.":]f. front-runner 279 [ Republic... or can. level pegging It vcr the polls still show them running neck and neck with the opposition."J'i[E though not of . crirne and hospital waiting lists. they gain ground.. When two parties or candidates have about the same amount ofsupport. they are said to be level c lar better shape to fight an election than the bitteriy split union of Democratic pegging or running neck and neck. Front runner and level pegging are also sp"elt with hyphens Neck and neck is also spelt with hyphens. ven: there is no "rii that evidence There! been a lot ofpressure on him. a tAI|GUAGEltoTE Favourite is spelt favorite in American English. neck and neck 279 U Forces. that faction leaders in the Liberal Democratic Party were starting running neck and behind or trailing or trailing behind. . 8 Ahead in the race...

i6w h i aiti u s all t p ap er s.in the pollingbooth ' l .'. :rr f rs t t ruly dem ooat i c legi sl at i ue polling .ill create conditionsfor draos at the polling . I .rrd th" totrl "ip". Jarc.if" . ballot. ntofirt *r)). in 4o years. *ecretba'1161' ..rn* otcasion which preua.r. Peruuians uote to elect their zjrd president. .!!ili a:.ATn"r"irrrirrr. o-ftt ..as ordered in hundreds oJ y.lrg--.Unit2 Politics Getting elected Gasting your ballot Tire ballot or the bullet? Look at the cxtracts arld On elcctior day.i. casting ballots in the Bitish .l On Septeimber 1th the uoters of Hong ballotiig..iit. and roscrhcr titr rt'rncr art itt ptrdah.t representation first-past-the-post. Candidates and the atmospheie is mayrerlho. '"i" . 49 . number oi cast lor cauh candidatc.li:lPili*.itlr tlic right ro vore arc voters.... conrplctc thc dcflnitions belorv using thc kcy rvords. and *e expect a very high turnout. t"r" The two main methods of electing candidates arc: But many liberals and conseruatiues may abstainJrom ". in drcues.1i33!. I bting will not be by seoet ballot but by the rcntrouersial ntethod oJ queuing behind yourJauourite t.ed rwo ::tX*ll'i}1}.aTbry win a :i!tit. abstain from voting and are counted as absteniions. I. Israel is a democratic society where gouernnrcnts arc changed by the ballot box. or cast their votes or ballots.t\ the poils ) . They vote. not the bullet.t. rvhcre the carrdidate n'ith thc most PR .' 2z per cent in the ryg7 general electiotr to 32 per rcfit"in ryq1. \orcnber j. yet there were reports that his supporters had captured booths and :rr. arc elcctcd from a list in proportiorr ro rhc harc but limited appealfor theit. l1a* been hit by inf ation and une. no1.. The ballot box is often mentione d when contrasting r o.onten's pollitrybooths it is spccially dilficilt to dctctt-lilst uoters sirtrt nany oJ l)coplc ra.::rl Kong.6d*li$$*r:.' -l ._:r Voting. of th. jrri .:.today oJlact.mploymri. .ii:].j!gj!.lling stations. f1yt.}i:lii nting because in recent months the1.i^ first-pastithe-po3!.afls ..iili-.l o ny's elettion. p takes place at - throughout the tountry haie been castino cast iball.i*. por.. Currcnt estimates are that fcu.. Itt thr scparLttc u.:. Thc proportio.:r win or gain seats in legislatures under different systems weeks ago when uoters were uotingjrielyTr. .er than halJ'of digiltk Anerirans arc cxpetted to cast their ballot otr actually voting is thc turnout . p t Ina theil uotes dt thefrst contested . to eiect candiiatcs. g b and place them rn a o r'i -. votcs rn the constituency u'ins. Getting elected [t is the second ti^. democratic mcrhods rvith terrorist ottcs. Existing members of a legislaturc 'The sunshine has broupht out the voters gain..:':li::i ffirial said last nighr. people notlro..: who are not re-elected lose their seats.u_b".]:..lr. .gir!ffiffi Abody that passes laws is a legislature. s.*ith oJ rt... . portugal abstentiotts leaptJro.re not hothering to uote. It. Somc countries usc a combination oiiroth eiectoral consatueocy systerns..n o hr-.!$i.fibd ballot boxes. and propottictnal "otes Agroiting proportion ofEurope.i.. i seat . tII{GUAGEtoTE sttltions. eiectoral system candidatc..i:.ir in different countries. a nrakc up rlrc elecrorate.!. .teiAi" since independenceJrom France in Uallotpip"qS:-:".r ii. it o b o )[r Rao was certain ofuictory. cven if hc or shc has list fcwcr votcs than the othcr candidatcs combined. voters mark their b tna ry60. of votes cast is the total vote.!.*i*r. balloting u.. deliuered China a slap.ijtii. Many peoplefear that the queuing system u. olHungary haue been asked to go to i.'.\ ele(ion day in Chad people ballot ::.trrpr*.*W.tndidate. but the gouernment says it is an open systcnl whith will *op tlte prartice offlling ballot The noun turnout is also spelt with a hyphen. _o _ .rl.. votcrs go to thc polls.:. This Sunday. In Bihar many people diecl and neu.

trying to attract the first round supporters ofthe othcr candidates 51 50 .About hal.. rS pel rcnt oJ the uote.::.: F r:: :.utse nearly hafthe uote arul therefore about loo seats oJthe zoo decidetl under the pR system. Drir....1h' 'T"9s'Jlga'l.h and the Auon (excluding London).. Run off.."s in that statc may have iounds ofvoting In some countries ..c pou.. ca nd i d ate for the govern "'h " Riports say two men drew Y"::1:-'::t: up'tn a :LThtJ:ihffit' i. Howeuer..d.t.t r"r.rumpitryinJronEasternDuropc.. Each party lists its candidates i..t. ..(.iniis thiGtts iiiiulate.state *"^T'-::::rO]. 'btt..iJ l. the Socialists hate won 76 seats. I { A politicat killing? Put this BBC report into a ln ry89 the Green Party receiyed z million uotes. thc Creat Ilural and has has beconcthcjrst Asianttatiott /(..r : i:'1-': :. Match these h Senator Olavio Gomez who was standing l" " ::''liti"" round of vi'ctory-in the Frrst legislative chambers to their countries. Legislatures with machine guns' are often divided into lcd by the upper and lower houses or chambers.ruirirs in and around the coufitty's most itttportdnt cities.dJ&I() tlttuindso1 . Unit 2 Politics Knocked out in the 6rst round His promise to nake the !)cnate an eltctcd body with Lfectit.. with each run-off. it won 5o seats..brr 6th and only then will afull lkt of membets be availahle' for the Knesset in order of seniotif. faced a voting on october 1 House of Commons a Germany November z5th' is going to Rondonia 2 Sejm b United Kingdom A commission of senators "c The attackers got away' 3 Bundcstag c Ireland io.qtrcr. is ta. Irx the English heartland. another name on the list enters the Knesset.w round on run-offsecond 3'd.'.AIIGUAGEll0IE Canadians.harrA.... in the European logical order.r."1. Gomez Pires' who is also a The supporters of PR point to the unJairness of the present system where one member of a L 4z-yer'oid Brazilian senator' Mr Olavio parliament rePresents one diuerse constituency where the majority of people may haue iotedfor a ip i tt'' number of other candidates. t..ig"e ihe assassination' 4 Riksdag d Mongolia that.t. dead' t'p"'reot'o vtlho' They opened fire was leaving his ofiice i" t'liJ 't"t"e lO Legislature quiz.ection campaigning in 5 6 7 8 Great Hural Cortes Dl1l Lok Sabha e Poland f Sweden g Spain h India " The d :il tiit :iofJ..'.3 million people uoted Labour in scotland. Run-off is also sPe lt as otrc word.. Atrctn! the NDP n't five women who haue soJar secuied parliamentary seats. jgures obrained hy tlte BBC shou' tltat of thc no detided untler thcf rstlast-thc-posr uictors werc dt ledst eight gouernment ministers. induding Dr Amal osmat4 one sears system. Libreuille and Port Centil' u'here ."ff " .'." .. {::lTjn il r l* lrontiei a rcgion . usually a week apart..*ttfy by drugs traffrcking campaigner Chico Mendes u'as 10 Folkcting j Israel rvhere the to""t""o"i**'"J foi"it'r murdercd two vears ago' a politicai killing rs t-rot clear' I['it was Knocked out in the first round c' The motive for the assassination to be \tagcd agarn' .The of irregularities the ballots tdst in la* month'sirst round oJ uoting u'ete annulled.. inthe National Assembly rcntainto be dedded.) elections.T'h-Cse intlfili.ti Tlrc second round run off uill be Israel\ electoral system is one of proportional representation by list.. Rondonla bo-r * 9 Knesset i Denmark In. France is one .r. BRAZIL'S WILD $TEST About r.'5 llt. tonlputer predictiotts giue the Socialists *_fornrcrly the Communists ."'tt ". thc mdin dettand oJ'u.cstern a T. first round aud sccond round can be spclt with a hyphcrr- Monqolia pronisedJrtt'nulti-piirty clertions to the legislature.. l. some ry million people uotetl Labout There. There. thc top rwo candidates go on to a second round in a run-off. betause ofBritain\frst-past-the-post electoral system (whereby only the candidate who receiyes the nost votes is ele(ted) the CreenlTidiiliii single siat. (The first section is a.. Sociaiist Party.. there are two rounds of .'. o. between the was.roi.f the t20 sedts In tlrc Bulgariatr clectiotrs.firstiound voting. . the PTB:. it won j seats. Ifno otre candidate in rhe first irlgico_ii{ round round ofvoting gets more than 5o pcr cent ofthe vote.XtJ..

. defeat .1!!!r1! showed that Doe losing heauilll he confiscatetr hide and iron nails that were. artd agenrs of he.". prrti nmAffi\ ln trtc Supreme Courr tonteded that 1986' genymande:lg.^.i.. are drawn...... 1+) pnme mrnlster. The wirch-docrors had rheir biss. the government_appointed Vote-rigging occurs.0 r.tr 'When $..i". have magic powers..J of a lormer . d#.: -r-r':. uote ind decr).ri"fl"..1.*....rVrore i'een on trre ""rrri..._ they wlr oppuitio' "t!27 po7itirat partv been mini'nar.... tr.g of spelis: . i""j#j f]:ll.. iiregularities.'i.t ..r. Iknitzir Bhutto hds adffiilted defedt inLVednesday\ general elections. gerrymandering..l vict ..rrerances amount or margin. Mr t..^.rr:*r.rs se_em to haue dekrmine if H. Orrrrlr.o.*l.. a^y' irrrrt'i.rht pracrice of drawing help onc poliriral parry _ ro.' .ri*o'r"iiri-ii a*rnrr rril".pr rrr.|in1t ^was all the scal.r. ff The committee said: ..T'.ution ro.r."mpts man polling to manipui#.u fornr oIirregularity __.rmed whot setr* to hrue been a majoieleitoral upset.s.. and other electoral fraud ' an end.upiion Doundancs to rhcir own advantage draws the whiie in office. the winners claim electoral fraud... She said barot hoxes were sroren and switrhed.ay ro vote? Read this report vtctory it becomes apparent which parties or abour thc irse orwitch-d".'.. An opposition partv or as clection outsidc obscrvcrs Thais cast spells to check poll fraud free and fair n)irv arcusc rhr. to invoke benign spirits to ffi vole-rigging masstve vote- F1'...j1"^lcampaien in Thailand to stop vote_buying efforts ever and fair. orgejli5crs olthr: elcctiorr oi"i"..:.. ...ry and the losers concede or admit defeat. when boundaries between ionstituencies ---:a .. o.rranderine c consti tucn cr..c ...g ri* landslide.r'riln margin a boorhs landslide b elcctoral c YOtr nf e gerrl. who with otherministers *u.'.n..ffi. boundaries ro tr rutlrr.'ioi"ffir).. r I *. ihe witch Elections were held' but...'' *rr*:. commentators talk about a rhoughr ro har.laler animal baltot boxes' announced' he hrfi..irT**..riili with a heatv uoter h. d poll f vote-riggrng " h irrcgulari ties 'l'he tttnseryatiye New Demouacy Party are daiming uictory in the Creek elettions after winning htli thc Joo sea!s..'l-*.1 fraud.'...-.. euen before official results h. irii. or check.lJr' rr. :?id the rte ms wourd ..ii ol^ Irc * o rd s i sr cd.-^19o. The armv citsrthe.Il: :T:jll.!..:"1... J... gQq.' of etection taw she has acrttsed her opp-onents oj 11111iue uore-ri2pinq_.::' rL:$$nc'. i Yl :'Jj as massrve or widespread."....l"'' r.r. Unit2 Politics Election results Electoral fraud election returns l{csults in an elcction arc also known returns. for example. invoked Ifa party or a candidate wins an election by a large rhrouqh rhe casti.tered around the houses of 01..':.o. fiolhel may take place before ofCeneral Chatichii Choonavan.red hitisely The State Department said y that the Romania.or.ptained oJbreathes Bourher (5) to stop fraudulent ii!...:]:.. sera.ilffi. rrc electlon.: they are guilty of coup last year. . the elettions were free eirti"...o .qymandednii.. il iijil'.] than oqooo l""ll.r suspect /38 lj t* \onlay .e cohf.. Reciting magic words.orc 1:. arc filled with fictitious UAlot j^pl..Yhen doctors cast spells on pieces of !!..:widespread vote..i"...Sunerstition is needed to fight satanic influences.h..#.""-'#ffi:1x.i"rrr elections lraud.r..o. fromTheTimes claim poli rcians have won an election...fg.. 53 .i.ryirrlg thar'thc clccrions fraud 96j| rhat has seen the mosr srrenuous havc not b"".r". :1i?r1l (2)- lz)' when ballot boxes watch committee hired witcl .... f... Awitch doctor i.n elettions on ttresiaent.*j. u..lrrii. If the goveruing parry .. ..fl..i!...r*..trnout. thought to i.'..l"#f#. Th. # il J. Election results 12 Wrt.!..

.r. Read this extract frorn National Public Radio' are used to describe victory and defeat.X.i"g. his ser Ai Swift' t'ho's in seventh term' Washington Democrat is not taken rvho is affected by term'lim:t^i::1it The swing from Party X to PartyY is the percentage rzt Anv incumbent of voters who previously supported X who now out about term limltatrons' supportY iJr.rascals out.lT o.r..from Manche ster to Halifax at a cost oJ rr limitation on 1!zoo'ooo so angered thc Locals that there u.. Complete 14 Th. Ifthey dont...h...rr'rrrliul lttn of ofr't They tecciued 55 per cent the uote.r. .. .':'.ill beJru*rated by a combination of Labour\ detlining preseme and ourfrst-past-the-post electoral system. bitc got to be -_^-_-#.f.'.t" ".-_ 55 . sg jndicate a change ofsPeaker b) e_s!_r!_q!_ c) !--v-v c) s_ny_ne_ng h) v rw !-ls-lg d) 9r-lh_tc i) s4-lg tIilIIilIIG IERMS OF OFTIGE e)dcsv i) :P_e !_9_!_l ( r ) B ut *ho . '...' savs st as :if:il. make a multi-party system something oJan irrelevantelo..J: ffi ::::J:T:: il:T!t..:i..' i. he has come down infauour of social democraty Thegeneralanti-incumbentJeelingcouldwellgiueheruictotydespitethecampaigngaJJ.. 'to..'rar back..rilabc6aririrrisit..11" o{atrsepolititianswillsonrctinre.rhich. It Th. oft"r-.fttfrice oJ -firct parliaffientdry electiols i. "t :: : : nt Ji .[.* :. .. ofrtefor ffidny years to tom?. 'l'hc opposition parties in the tiny island fl(ttion are to tofitest.o" readv t' listen ff"#T'f. Throwing the incumbcnts out \Jdt 2 Politics opposition leaders in Zambia say that President Kenneth Kaunda has concerlcd defeat.say"Well' If incumbent parties or politicians (that is.*:ll :'. they Protect your loD : +oe. . the unif cd Cermany..-.]toli."1 I politicians in power or in oflice) get re-elected. 81. But his party's apparent landslide yictory in the elictions dppears to naking.urin bv Re p ub tn' r ican s .:'f ..is 6i661 is berng sold on a'thro*'-the-rascals-ottt'"T.r.qer l'rcdrrirk Cliltha told rtporters rlnt hcd spoleen tiith Kiiirla ott rht .esslrcis within a pluralistframework.'nt i u yL. a comJortable nargin in the Atlcastthcytdnhtthrowtrotrto.limirs more credible' Srvift -^+ receive a fresh mandate from the electorate for a new .adio reporter and b) the politician a) 9-!_c_r_9_1 i1.irrri*lrir*. i term ofofEce. Iimitations ar heart is di:trirt elctriort in AIal'.r'rr.T' :li: office.f:. Solchaga optitltistidly wants afresh matdate to raise value-added tax' Seior l3 Surprising victory or massive defeat? These words the."1 rlways somervnar PUPU'.'" Rut rou r 17.. l-:"^. *htn thev speak you're iust tryine to think naturallv so . they are thrown out of t* : "'"x l'.p.' ... .:il i. would force him out it Passes' .y. the'oring booth .'.T:..." . n i'r i a'l i v e ^i in :.as a huge 10 per rcfit swing against Laboir in the X. rnembers of Congrcss can stay them.lnllen.rbout ltmrrtng tne ti..only 4o ttJ'thc 81 seats in ptarantecrl ttt br rctilrtrcd'fot d scrtntll Prcsidttttial . arways careful of thest r. who is an oPponent of term .i."*ingr:i.i.h speak rwicea nor all rhe numbers 0 4.".o* in office'"Say where ..''Ih the crtize n vhr) goes into The Labour totncil\ dedsiort to moue the Nortltern Ballet. They .naA. tt : :... TheTbries will reiain in somervn" p"p""'i.. h en.-.o hold on to their iobs' fi i fhrowing the incumbents out Iimits are suspect as locurrusr.l l_l.:..[]?i'"'.".ly*=i: itjl as he makes hts ofrie .inl ikc u n ar rot r nt abl c tc nt ral ba nk rr' Now with Communism in all itsJorms discretlited.:. s ...H.l-hi t"'oplci Attion Part)' is thcx'fore telephonc.e possibility of d ncu. leJi-of-centre party energing u..:. ih..i .: *l:'..::'. parties or (1) People .rt-s.f rhemr.f.

!:rrJ. very little support.:r1:!.f 57 . splinter party- govcrnment is lornrcd.. *orr".[ajority A party may be rnade up of rival groups or .".'.rrtav l) d-i fj.ed .r. Parties opposed to thc government form the . minorltY Party Ifrro onc party breakaway party A party is a partv hoiding a has an ovcrall maiority.crall majority Ifo.:..\lr Lenihan sdid he was beaten by a rainbow malition thdt did nor rc. :. meanuhile. se.i'it r* potts "o"fiqg{. lo-st strength antin{ \ntdll sllintrr ptrtics..rning party is one rvith extrerlc vicr.party obtairrs nrore seats than absolute mqjority conrbincci. and they refer to the bargaining between that these policies will be implemented aftet the next election the toalition parties...i..**. . a coalition --."p-. ina systcrn usually dorninatcd bv tivo partics hung parliamenl (usually thc British onc).r. ar thc othcrs party :' r nrajorit1.c.r haue to make an 'flrc opposition coalition.:. Marays'Nationar organkation. tost its nmjoritv i" partiament when a sptinterraction . indicate approval of unity between difl-erent as p.forming a . nrring coalition.:ilo!.: -- form a minori. the rul'ing utalition u...1. ).i.e minister in ry66. -.c6aliiion different interests.n. is rbtc to form .[tt'r a short honeymoon. conrrlrcntator-s talk about :r overall majority it lr. . ":].o":o*"'.ot... Jind enough supprr.. led by the Mongolian Democratic Partl'.?"rgirrg. doyi_yayt party oJ the arrusedTonku Razalcilh. ..l. thc Lok Sabha.Unit 2 Pol itics Rainbos. A rainbow coalition is one containing many " --'-''"" *rt:!]!l "'". / '' .hat he called'a neut independent though it could b.'{ obDosttloD "5j.riri they should not get together. oftcrr after relatively small numbcr of seats.rim..err thc normal ditisions in creen partics. " 'the BharatiyaJanatd parry: of:'.. of seats. A_---lictionmay break away to form a separatc party.:!... and a _r.. Read the examples Critics ofproportional representation say that one of and complete the commentary with its defects is that it does not often produce absolute thekey words...n as a partyora party..iirg..:. orrgalnrrg arrd rrcgotiation.. .v'fron LIMN. Dr Mahatir\ (Jnite.uiil.. who leads. they splintcr factiiia ri. it rooks as I)cnrcoatft najority'. . she prouerl to 6ors":*iditrA. .i':i::i..ill begin'it: horst-tr. .: they would demandfor..."i:'.. t*o yrorr.x-zort! of Hindu extremists onry afew years latkxtn said his Rainbow Coalition will be working to build u..h in. haue ro rety on the Free used to Democrats toform anothergoueinmint.najorirv ancj fringe.I.on oooosition.r:rrr. the fact that the groups have so littie in common that ^ir.ilrri"n.".t.. u. rainbow.. and sometimes to indicate disapproval of be a tiger instead.7 g*7.on gorrrn*ent in a hung parliament. pnrt o1 thi goiiiilffiri ago. groupings..The Conpress parry and its Rainbow coalitions and political horse-trading sam Miller in D'th..r-J.ir. .. Mo@. Ifthe gou.r'r*)irffi#w . lrilgglinq otcr ministerial i:. insta. The Liberal Demoudts drc hoping majorities..""ning o. brr"E. ..'#iii#ffif.iorgor splitring ond rhereforc u.O kro.:r. ''.jil.?.U"U irr.iolit.r.. coalitions and political horsc-trading Absolute maiorities and hung parliaments ll.1" ..:i.onucncs tomonow. wds supposed to be a pussycat.. +0.party . 15 Hrog parliaments and splinter parties. as horse-trading.:. he. th. -- '.. irs r."i.l':t i::. ncitlier prrt\'[]cts:tn or. theTilrkish hring insincere about reform. .rt" r. 7-he opposition social Demotratic and . Siice he\. the expression is sometimes Indira Gantlhi.tie. r'i::!' J : r' do not between rhem hold 6r"gi6i1'... has arrtsed the ruling pany of ariance with a minority party representing populatron in Bulgaria.untikety . o.:..rr.1.ti. opposition and may work together in an opposition Thc Free Demooats the are the kingmakers of Cerman ro ji.*n o...:..''".'bongirr.-.. .f._*.u.vs atrd pa. arul split their uotes lrt:h politits. coalition' iyt roulag'. . disapprovingll'.. :a The ut' n w..rlt:1o.tltng.". ..:f.t". pi. kno$..* Kohl\ CDIJ.rakcnin7 *' rh.

v.'" OUT OFAtt :i: :il j: j:?f i' fl:i.:i.'d A constituent is someone cent of the vote._por.'ii'.-. t" minority rlisoroPortionate. beholden to .n Mi..:il".ili:l.lll'-.:. paralysed by fear of losing a control.ttr.'. Rainbow coalitions and political horse-trading 16 creaking coalitions.'sider. Whoever did independent of them? il.t-"i:ll'" r^*----. Read this article from The Inderendert. of 16 If something is central to The alternative would be a creaking 8 Is a creaking coalition -*. a ffiinkthatitwould uuL rrr but rn practtc"tt-i'tt:. ::t"'.t of mutual dePendence and ". it i..:.r?".the votes of the 'Alliance'' PR' MPs would someone.^ x whole county or ii that requirement? with iust )j per cent o[ the popular vote' events.a the link between.o"t[rlrnportant' one of the strongest' r3 4 'Whoever didl V/hoever who votes in a given the now-defunci tlliancet z3 per cent.fi.. be lalrcr' iairer.k.*ho"g"u' ivould be reliant on . and their 14 If something endures. neither the Conservatives nor 5 Ifyou are relianr on . paities. rvrirten.f. so the argument rqll..by politician who believes in the first-par.t"portion to ih"it PgPYl"tiYl suPport? Instead of 'runs'.i'.*rii.... are you If something is defunct.'._i1. *'ilh only one or two members in fear..'..ation .'"'J..t' r s87 and r ese. And it needn't be a percentage as workable one? t". elcctoral system.'.s something..'s:H'tnlt?.il".il.tl. esoeciatly conslderlng they held 14 Parliameni would accurately reflect public prior to the electton' opinion..l: ]:J9!. Fianna Fiil Parry wtth... are you ili. The Conservatives took 42 per :#..':'.are peoplei opinion? accepted. a d"Eree or infl uence disproportionate infl uence in relation to their electoral the number of votes cast in its favour' In L.. do you owe Under some versions of 15 If something fulfils So who then would be calling the tune in them a favour? ."'i":1:'i: ra! high as 23.:..rt. is it Laboui would have been able to form a to their rootsi to someone.' malortryThe risult' after PBOP()RTI()N The general theory of proportional secure an overall tI Did the Progressive If something is appealing. y].r. Powe o"n'"' ...".Yl.i'"g and attractive aspects.:.'. ya:.r.one 'of T2 thai ttrgse. If did what? .il..nds go backthem authoritY to temporarY? government on their own.. ot seats had been distributed under a PR is the relationshtP C .... g _ _ _ could be used here. in mosr policies . fi. Labour 3r per cent and :r".t"m i{i33t. and answer thc questions. .d... "i "rii.t*tl.x1t'll+i:i a requirement. you be sure that its policies were the ones that would be put inio actionl Answer:the one areincon____of i[rt]ii: navlrrB c_ Iil.I[l$l :. Ktt.:'.:".i..' ii.ffi t 7 Ifyou call the tune.l. it is verY coalition... Democrats have reoresJntation is simple and appealing: each political party receives a number of seats in the legislature in proportion -to is it attractive? [*ir*t*r:r*tYi'iq.ir"t".'"..ii..i..:*I:. does it satisfY Parliament? Which party above all could H.. Look at Israel where tiny 9 If you are paralysed with central.lt'ln.t"t.ro' something. or her rePresentattve connected is no longer in e x his Election.."'. 58 59 . the word seats that way.::.. That is the theory. with it? Let us take the result ofthe 1987 General ::.'idt.often extreme ones .?1.8 . are you able to act? ih.:.and therefore 6 It you are beholden to be MPs.i..i.?. but what about aspect the If you have a link with the practice? But 'fairness' is only . re[ularly threaten to bring ro Is an extrene policy a dos'n thc goriernment unless their reasonablc onc. Hi :1 f "'D' "..*til 'Yttt* own constituency' svstem..

n*ork.':.ay yraup. Hc is upertetl to blame euetyone.f ..ren pcoplc arc not too critical ofit rrrainly ITis ur headed for the House oJ Comnons. lhere's a honeymoon period and there are stars in rurryonri ryrr._prompti ngJeremyThorpe r. of his lame duck .' Th.al lame ducks.leagues.Today Mt LrcLause . I'on himselJ for his resignation dnd destruction of political career. thai he tay down his other candidates for the post of prime minister friendsJor his lifeI (r [f he succeeds.It to1.'lbo many hostile things wilderness lnt bccn said on both sitles to giue cither nan any real hope o.t that three ubinet miniiteis harl threatenfi to resign iJ- shc did not stand tlorun... Governmen ts collapse 100. apart cabinet reshuffle thcy arc '"vaiting to scc what it will do in thc lo.1. rvas defeated in the Republican primary and he has only a few more weeks to serve ril congress. .1 or quit Quit .t'ter the najoritl. whose long-term ambition is to win an abo. Among the casualries in this ruthless cabinet reshuffie were s Mr Olszewski may have felt that he would end up becoming a lame-duck prime minister Harold Miiillan\ilfri some oJrhe and . Olszewskit decision to abandon his mission.l'm tired of signinl decrees no oilc lta). ' '.. E)!E!...i Lrtakau.his claims to have been sole architect of the statet prosperity for most of the 198os. Put an appropriate noun from the list they may leave the cabinet.Lukensisalameduck-.tg on a. in any new anything _ euerybody is hopefut. nine ministers whofauoured opening talks with the 4 Britain doesn t need after a year of lame duck governtnent is another lame opposition lost their jobs in a cabinet reshufre. orlose their posts.r.Mr Walesat spokesman has dismissed the significance of Mr -' closest col..1.nrd ... or resign. a IAI{GUASEt{orE The singular ofcrises is crisis..W'hat On Sunday. tlrc p. A minister qnt tu.y'. oJher cabinlet urgrTt u* clcction and govern India again.ory^*o.. -1 . r .s ail(iltirlt tr. there may be crises. Unit 2 Politics Honeymoons. He is rarely seen about now as he lives out the last days !:^::! O*tidenty .aying... its otcupantJor thc politital wilderncss.ut no_trQght. duck *---.trr y tost irs pnrliicit.rgcr te.e annircrsdrl.f nning tlrcTories'nomitul zt- scdt fidjority into a uiable loryy-term gouernncnt.'""rl. lo oJ tts dcpiltrc:.m.rlity scts in: ministers may be given new posts.1nr:i.l..He or influence are said to be in the political *ilae.. saying the President has at least three 'Creater Ioue hath no man rhan rhis. lame ducks and the political lllhouer wiuJaces the prospect oJ lcading a lame dutk ddministratiott.y+ Ye:roday. stand down into each extract below. resrgn cabinet reshuffle. when confidence in the :t prime minister c administration e congressman governmcnt is so low that people wonder if it can b government d leader f governorship continue and rhink it may collapse.i* identified with the failure.o u. in a 17 potiti. t.:1. But Governor Dukakis identified himself with the success and is therefore . Jacing the datger o. lame ducks and the political wilderness Ho_n_eymoons. crlsls Alter a whilc.\tcllLtr utill make'i'statement to thc Commons at I t dm.in trisis.r. I 60 I 61 L .. honeymoon Whcn a govcrnnrcnt is clectcd.. because of incompetence or wrong:doing. norrrr.'k . thcrc is oFtcn a honeymoon pcriod rvl. he could only become a lame di. leadrng a lame duck lame duck 99 Politicians or parties who leave ofiice and no longer have power :Lukensisappealingthatconviction.eeks alqo _. . Not only governments can be stand dowo.ir. his tenure -of The Daily^Ti_legraph reports that MrsThatcher only changed her mind ollce would be decided by Congress. lame ducks. t6S or polrtrcrans that have lost all credibilitv and r He could have lost so much political impetus that he would have found himself authority are described as lame ducks. Jtnds thc Sorialist-i .

qto.ttttr crononit tui)rd this ttcrus u. but makes no impoi'iant decisions.. and the president then dedded to callftesh elettions in which Mrs Candhi was able to . The results are also a major blow to the prime minister's hopes of using these elections to demonstrate the grass-roots popularity of his economic re. is onc where the incumbent menrber's majority was so followers grassroots lceling Iow in thc previous election that it may easily by won by rcvolt carttpaigrt another party in thc next election. in British English only.utt. l Charan Sit ihwaseuentuallyaskedtoformagouernment.ith rhe help oJ iflterndtional observers. sleeping overnight in the homes ofresidents.. Throughout its history. the Soviet Communist Party rvorked at Eirassroots through its network ofcells in factories.:+ marginal constitucncy whcn the person represcnting it resigns or dics.s grassroots support during its term of office rnay by-election becornc apparcnt during a by-election.r:re the Oharttllor kilowitE thdt in the next year or t8 months you haue to go to the t:otLtttr)... the underdog in this race.tlt'reptatedly tdlltd on him to resign and say a taretaker gLtuernment should take ouer to superuise elertiotts tt.. lcvcl consfltuencY In a first-past-thc-post system a marginal constituency.: so. 3 Mrs Thatcher fell when her cabinets minister and influential groups of MPs There may be a pcriod before elections when an interim or decided they had had enough of her: the strong support of her grassroots caretaker government takes care ofthe everyday running ofthe did not count at all.t'orms.. ofiices and army units. A by-election is hcld in a . but the interim govemment has said it will hold thetn uithin a year of taking powe\ this is be-fore next April. on l. utinning it and retaining the sedt at the general election. A governing party may lose its majority by losing by-elections in marginals.rrrnt.qether. Webb. go to the country. \Jnit2 Politics Grassroots support and votes ofconfidence Grassroots support and votes of confidence l8 G. They lr. his countrv could lace a grassroots support to a. An opposition party may call for a vote of no confidence in the Mr Ruhe sees himself as a future chancellor rvho has a good feel for grassroots government. I_l').goterntnentisholdin. in an effort to build up grassroots or.gi""l . addressrng hundreds of local party groups If it loses this vote. marginal.oots Partners. or if confidence in the government is low for other reasons. it may ask for a vote of confidence in parliament. I'hL: gorcntment ouerwhelningly rejerted a call by radical deputies to hold a uote of no confidence ott tlrc proposals..ould scare the life out oJyou. launched an aggressive grassroots Glarlstone emergedfrom retirement tofght a by-election in the marginal Consetuatiue seat of . No date has bcen set-ior nulti-party elections in Nepal. . Mr Heseltine has travelled the country. Grassroots support is thc support ofordinary votcrs. walking more thft\3oo miles in Dehver neighborhoods and Midlothian in 1878. Grassroots can also be spelt with a hyphen or as two words. perhaps with the intention of bringing about new elections. This support wds withdrawn euen before thdt government couldJace a vote of tonfdence. the malition 63 t 62 inttrim. Politically. Makc combinations fron'r the tabl c rnd use them to fill the gaps ir-r the extracts belou'. country. If a governme nt wants to establish that it has a majority. the government may call (fresh) elections.buthadtoaskforCongresspafty 7 Mthout economic improvements. or opinion supPort -r. The ANC will not want to underestimate grassroots that too may a tAItGUAGEil0IE radical political principles are being compromised. or if it loses its majority.qain a najority. grassroots A govcrnrncnt'.

methods. at Hendaye.E 9t..r.:t i . but they drc L)[t(n oflc-wdy routes to tlidatorship. trade unions-..Enua Hodja.|aggcr.ir-.. irr r\rcaragua.t..beins you go back to a situation accord 164 lJ ls ReJerring ro . Hardline and hardliner country's present government.-.l... using stalin as IS too late' belore it .dictator:.il.. the paper says they may be AJiica\ way turned back at a'-tremendor...l"f6*t.:. or vcry f _ _ _ 64 65 . says Jagger. accorcling to Bianca foru.r.qru. Vroleta are also spelt with a hyphen or as two words..rrh h-aied diciirorrhlt.a i"'proi.i emergence of naiional identity. ney ran lhe countrv on bril.American aid package of $r16 million (t5&6 they do it? . .nt. dictatorship: rule by a small group ofpeople.\'fr. do power una c. P.i lf:l.::.. by due democratic process. ...a iiii . a dictator. do Regime is also spelt r6gime. . ^.Bjrl.1:..1lrgrlre ipldnJ()r a one-pdrty state. Antonio La. rrarltitq t l. a military junta: a group of arrny ofiicers.ra r:.:. may be referred to in the media as a strongman. ____ for them you have s e n a r. to her son_in_law. 9 Ifyou abide by an accord or an P.ad cn.:i rl.1 you hand over power to thenl? L?y.mrsras wirhin aayJ'<ii iiie z Ifpeople betray their ideais.: Son:z ele tred leader of Latin Ameriru uoultl be happy to offer an example of a military junta U"foi. Unit 2 Pol itics (Jndemocratic regimes Undemocratic regimes 19 A return to dictatorship? Ilead this extract ftonl?-he Timrs and answcr the questions.i. -r the basis of extended patronage so tbat it was tor democracy when it finally unprepared 3 Ifyou have scorn for someone. totaking rand. tii iHil:#l:"l Hxl:.:.. allowing any opposition.i they remain faithful to them? :it nii3. ForToyears. nouses.There ". .Nicaragua in she 1979... is a d'esperati need lor some new political answers l .."i. polrce. coalition have14 parties in Chamorro's you destroy it? government . or regimes. t:i. came.. this casc.: :..ard. . -.rili Akhough Cameroon's constitution prouirles for a multi-pdrty system. . the remoual of all central authority was another.l.the intransigence of the hardline rcgime in Pyongyang.. 8 Are peoplc and events under lallure to investisate a nnsf-etper'i^. ._yii war have ^been unirrng in proresr ar ro Ifyou turn back the clock. banking system gouernment so uiuidly as her departure.g-. that exisrcd previous)r.Leaders. The rcmoual of an of rz of the 5 If you forge something neu. prom.. arc authoritarian or at]thoritarian autocratic. Critics_ cTaim rtrat president sincc ry48._.. tlrc Alhdni. .. Jagger's divorce ll5-:. someth ins Vr.ia.:....dj:_______ I This is happcnins at a his role nodel. 6 If you are manipuiated by Nrcaragua. happen? :dictatqrship...l: il<)t all dictators make tlrc trains run on time.. does it necessarily .The clock .guns and government prop.. tusinesses nalionalis..i.atotalitaridnregimefort lpeopletoworl<anddistributedtheprodue*oJtheirlabor 7 If people fail to do something.:. I. one-party rule.. or by one person I !i!_9f s91"._: . was not a success. Lnamorro was voled into power as 4 If you cede power to someone. ceding Iimired poier ro Chimorro.. Franco ji]: .fle was one thing..". A dictator..1'... sdru. the country has been a de )!1<lrnrsta conrrol of the security fd.yq The initial liberal reaction to the break-up offormer Communist rcgimes was to eheer the wno now runs the country as an autocracy. are you free to act as oerng marupulated by the Sandinistas.tn strongman who ruled the tountry with an iron hand.A]{GUAGE t{0IE " But Jagger r€serves her most tor-the bitter scorn andyoudesp_4_them. .]llr.d. 1nd_ oecacle tn power. at this time. who you wish? stut torm the largesl party ana control No euent could possibly highlight the fundamental difference between demouatic and autocratic t-trJ army. ttn the French-Spanish border.^An.:. tremendous pace. Hardliners arc nrembers of such regimes who hard-line totelitarian are particularly resistant to change. Hardline rcgimes refuse to allow any change in thc autocratic political system..h. ::r:.tt million) has b6e-n ft6. Biancfl €tes the hardliner :' : A country nray be ruled by: a totalitarian regimc controlling all aspects oflife and not Nicaragian oL :r'"tt . urc governm_enl s failure to abide -bv ocace accoros reached in r99o.c-^^ c^. do lrou break it? [irl tlrct tne ttirtq .l:nl' alone.. who fought on different agrecment.d dr.new accused her . This enthusiasm soon gave way to ambiualence.:: :...".'Brt .r . kcpt Hitlcr uL1ititl..-. Ctamoii'o li someone.. do through a higlily rentralizcd gouernm bureauoary..ein Mary figure. allowing only the political party in power to presidency r If sornethingpromises to be something.:. control in a frec-for-a11? -fatto ttne-party state since t966.d their 'Jutrta:'{:'. where Presiilent Kim Il sung has been offorging a diclarorshiD._'But the Sandinistas betraved i:t: .rsed_to be a revolution bringiitg equality lgr all.. do authoritarian regi.ty : ffi ff i:"f ... or someone else with autocratic powers and rdeals They became corrupr..'. reglme LJrrdemocratic forrns of rulc.. sides in irt r9qo...' operate..:..

i"i...(d.o*i through the r. This tine ihong. """'"' '""".ns that something has been a miritary takeouer. political partics and usually the rnilitary..ii#. do you Tltts:.. Thc nriiitery may seize power in a coup.. the as For chilean President Patricio Aylwin. one three times terms. the previous electionJreferred to in the last example above.'. toppled. putsch or military takeover anrl . ior 30 Years. or military control. the run-up to tooavs Is itpossible for events such " "" '-' r ' polling is reported to have passed elections to'pass ofl 1r).t. ._uthat has happened to tht president. Although th liirtll. oftcn violent./ Rrr-.-the .o..: . btt I say history repeats itself _ the jrst time lJ .ih" . orevent the Burmese tronrexercis..tgt area indirute that it nlt"o""". thc stond as-fare.Lti i/ -r.?l. and answer the quescions.. Although the general kept his on the past three occ.r f..rr{ull'1. .":t'ldu: ::: ffiY"'tl[::: angry and lrustrated with the United Nations. on ofrron.. coLl ntry.". complete the gaps governrnent is overthrown. (B) trend' [?. 2O Broken promises? This BBC broadcast was made at the time of the In revolutions and military takeovers. '. The plural of coup d'etat is coups d'etat. tr./. a LAI{GUAGEiloTE p* * *.fact martial lau. or rule by non-military politicians. and bloody ifthere is. Somesayit cast 187 .' tu nlikcly. In a revolution. .. thcre is no fighting.a votrng Saw Ili. tEtally seucre laws limiting political and n'[igious -fre cdom.vou curb someone'.ijverthrow .r t Y an d Pea ce f u I Y' I violently? center-right christian Demotrat.t The military nray promise a return or handover to a booth b voting c d elections electoral e seats f cxit polls martial law h coup civilian rule.r"ii view Accordinq [o reports was Itis undear.*a .y!l!!!ll. they try to prevent you from Ione to the polls in the firstmu Coup d'etat is also spelt coup d'6tat.urnout in todav's . 'fhe League won a sweeltingmajority in elcttions two months ago. arthough reports from the .sio. who toppled Allende arul then seized powerfor ri years. [!..g"$.rlan .nment.ui' tt'ot" rightand their as tragedy. Burmese elections .s hallttt hox. itnetablefor a hawlouer to citilian rule change ofregime involving ordinary people.i*.ri*ony *o.a.ng trom !l'"i.seize 'l-\rc retwtt to tiuilian rule.-."J u""it o{ opposition tisYt"t. u..-ui'in 'l ha e kept B":.. deposed. o""eial Maung' sai' at. o%e supported Allende's overthrow. in. something sensationar happens inTitrkish poritics. power . iXii*ujti"" .Yr"":: have failec to cncourf.d!!!va!likcdbadplayuithasetortrl-rarecast. thcrc is a sudden.."a there were no viiible signs of was a bloodless coup..tir.ortt of T::l"t:l: to curb opposltion campalgnlng drru activities.4ylwin who\ a Ji--t o ot t't'. *oy . P.lli Overthrow can be a noun and a verb. but the authorities hauc set no topple. after a timc.. secms io harc been replated h).r. .* inrpose rnartial law. word to hold About cuery ten yedrl..Unit 2 Politics Toppling governments Toppling governments But in. on thc r.Yi"'. .noitoretl lry the urrcnt military gopuilnlcttt 'depose . or in media with the expressions listed (one of them is used four times.ylo utould be the strongmen in a coup? yakoler himself thinks admits an army -' Rangoon today' my putsch is promise...identJean-Bertrand Aristide has reft Haitians and their dipromats """'1. Read it. A revolution or coup is bloodless if and the rest once each).qe thcnl? trrlt'tl .t . r*0"t.allcdrottt. TodaYsmeasures "'t0".. Butfor'ceneral Augu*o (4) had been .."**-"" 1"f nrocesses in recent years' Burmese 1I people have If someone intimidates you.-."pressive and restrictive If . 'i military presence on the streets 67 .hich ltcBins with locai goucrnme nt elettiotts in Dercmber.i doing what you want to do by !_:__!__ingyou.ilt-..ff .that depo:ed P.res. it was a chance to heal old uounils...oro5nisea-!1111 rhe l[ll'. is being coup d'ctat. r* Pinothet.-. .r. The rcup.

I L e a"s u e Auns ian s. ..I:" .ru Kyi.. forces.' o r rr". Thcy rnay also declarc a state of ernergencl. ttectron results for fiano. Aviolent demonstration nray turn into . emergency a T..piom.. with.:"?l stctior. or rhyrhmicalli Ifthere are vioient confrontations or clashes with the security shouting.ro*i.. onse. and skin and forces people to go elsewherc. uyest.Unit 2 Politics Rioting and looting s been Ilted._ r"L.rposed.t.ist. it became morc tolcrant oflabour . . s. Explaining his decision to resign as Prime Did the police over-react? And is sociai simmering just below the surface? 'W'hcre opposition to a regime is widespread.ilflt^"lv rrrdm opposition leadeis Pcople undcr.lgcvernment crack- all under AetJntion are dctention arc in p n A total of 93 parties or under house ai. p.t'or tTte i -.r. 69 .. t o n N a t io n ai r". or disperse.r" *"Aa not :a be a-ff'ectcd.r. short heavy sticks used to beat people back in a baton charge. j.i. rubb'6r rubber bullets: bullets made ofrubber designcd to hurt demonstrators. In Ronania' a relatit'ely quiet day demonsjrat!on eruptetr into noisy protest by hundreds looting:.crs of the province in an effort to quash the . curfew people must stal.l *lTil.lii. He said that therc'd be a greater visrble presencc conrendrng for 485 oarlirms.. . they may try to break up the demonstration with: watail batons. #f :. and sociar unrest rcar.: .lrg o] z Return to i.of oJ eople ant i ng dnt i -.What is it? strong support for the on.2oru rvould act more firmly against incidents of . .the-curfew remarns in place.. MrJone s said he did notEiou how the plans. :t. [n the predominantly black working-class London " fj The tally is anorher the economy. new water cannon arul riot gear haue been orderedfor the and tear gas: an unpleasant gas that causes irritation to the eyes pilice.r"rg'. or perhaps chanring. Mugabe is taking no dtances..n-ar t\ p c h s {Jnirters it y Squ are.indoors alcl keep offthe strccts. and it word for the c pou. threats of industrial water cannon: machines that produce high-powered jets of water.. -*. houses during a riot to steal things...AIIGUAGEnoTE The plural of water cannon can be watcr cannon or water cannons.frica.-. wth the.'l general.:. damage to vehicles and ouildings and so on.. : B rll considercd to be at the root of thc violent ru.r is nrissir-rg from all thesc cxtracts. Inlormal journairsrs b.rhrf.il.#. slogans..efttmc nt The government rnay impose a curfew. .student groups trying to ouerthrcw the gouemffient. All these forms can le spclt rvith hyphcns. and Rioting and looting srlcntiy.000 in 1Xlr.v iooting: brcaking into shops or notlng I I .vJ.J n#::jil. a period at nrght rvhen 4O1r.h J S'. :i. .iir.:r stone-throwing.i !1 Missing item.:. Thc sarne word or expression frorl this r. there rnay be periods of civil or social unrest with protests or demonstrations: groups ofprotesters demonstrators marching through'the rir. D. sta.qo L..e.: Rioting may be accompanied b.ui. . the policc and / or arrny. ... riot with fighting.jl e ntourdge uere said to be shocked that lhe they had arriued in the we* African ountry in the middle oJ a-period of ciu.hcrc' norrnal larvs arc suspe ncled state of and rnartial Iau' iir. occrsions nright rckindlc the anti-governncn! that cnded n'ith thc violcrr. allowing denands for big wagc rises. or in. 'i'hc sunrmit was callcd to discuss the wave of in the south rvirh chshcs l]etwcen delnonstrators candrdates rook part r than 2.

. A crowd of about 1. a hu. The Repiessive measures first parts ofeach are d and e respectively) Opponents to undemocratic regin.. 126 JJ VIOTENT I}EM()NSTBATI()N IN JOHAN}JESBURG involve human rights abuses such as censorship' censorship 26 1l house arrest. .ide-ra. to murder opponents. This repression may crackdown 26 Il. in the South African city of Johannesburg.:d charye 140 !\ literature.11t' ycts lawyer /4 / caprtal.k. newly formed Liberai eirty wfricrr they have announced Opponents may be ordered to leave the country.qin! pou'trs arc tuun likcly to bc used. Unit 2 Politics Repressive measurcs Algeria\ milrtary-barked rulers detlartd a state tlfentrlcncy last nigltt. perhaps from the a protesting against President RohTae-Woos The demonstrators are-p!'o"tutil army or police. Put these sections from two BBC reports into the correct order for each report.{J in Seoul' and in at least to-ntinue to repisent the imprisoned dissitients.as ii totrtituting There have been more anti governmdnt -fircd demonstrationJOii students and riot police used balttrs to beat bath tuo lroups of demonstrators utho scened intent on heading and dissidents jn South Korea despite a warnlng by the government touards thc 1:alarc o.:h. frst ofall. which brought work there to a unJing a thirtee day protest I standstill. tear gas and a water cannon and later rubber bullets to try to The Justice Minister Mr Lee Jong Nam earlier l:reak u? the demonstratiotr.fortrs attd MoslemJundamt:ntalists. I satu the police using.f King Bircndra. thc ntttuc. YI()TENT DEilTONSTRATIONS IN K()REA Some regimes use death squads or hit squads. electittni despila ont rkL'h lretueen riiit policc antl demotlstrutors.res are dissidents. and to s1. imprisonment without trial and torture. and also .000 gathered for a protest march which had ln tlrc Nepaksc tapital Katltnmndtt. All publir denrLtnstrutrons art and demonstrators banned and u. 22 Familiar scenarios. He accused students of fanning rioting and lootitrg broke out onThursday. 70 71 .tah ai-htnart righrs a'ttuse s. prew nt _further uiolence.to rlosc m()squcs. Autocratic governments accuse oPponents of sedition and subversion and may try to ruthlessly stop clampdown 26fi' 126 [ or crush opposition by various means in s clampdowli or crackdown. and the demonstrators ' The adjcctive correspolrdin{ to rePression is repressive' iniured' some of them seriously bottles At least 20 people were 2000 students in the c Rlot police {Lred tear gas to disperse about and stones Other A _iew braw magazines continue to take the gotetfinttttt it) a. Others may themselves choose to ieave in largest shipyard come down from a crane at South Koreas self-imposed exile. IAI{GUAEEIIOIE replied with stones and plastic Oulteis. Police and anny units are patrclling the streets to social unrest. said the authorities would no longer hesitate to send in police to university campuses to A ru|ew ltas been imposed in the Nicaraguan coastal town of Puerto cabezas after widespread disperse illegal demonstrations. --{ lsli' 6. (One report consists of two parts and the other of four. Tear-gas u.o There have been viorent crashes between porice daysofJtghting bctwctn stctrity. imprisoned /49 clashes took place on university campuses iJ lwo other cttLes Four other men who had been detainetl were charged with sed:iiotl allryedly a'imed at detain 738 ll pracuring the oterthrow oJ the gotttrrment.11'9 [.litllotued tu.qt pthlit nrcLtin! dcmdnding imilrcdidte pdrty-basad been declared iJt$al. that it would act immediately and decisively to ciush protests.ar'1es o-l' po::essitqq bant. who w:ere throwing firebombs . the police opened {ire with b When they ignored an order to disperse' . or aSdictatorialandundemocratic. Seoul.. groups ofprofessional assassins.Agroupofabout50Workershas at Ulsan' exiled.

ord The gouet. ll Grossword An opposition leader has cloinrd thar the atuntri's'president has flo ifitefltion ofmouing au. is a coup 4 not self-imposed (three words) r Concealment of wrongdoing leading G'+) to a gate (j-2) 6 This group may form its own a r_1_ 1l_r v 4 A partyt PR selection ofcandidates (4) party (8) b !-rs _d 5 A low turnout means a high rate of this (ro) 8 -Rival groups rvithin a party (B) nf 9 Political dirt made to stick (j) C re-g 6 Candidates stand on this box and IO 'What.f the ciuil war.o typcs of these. Llnit 2 Politics Crossu. dictatorship or ruling 2 not in a foreign country party does (7) o Where British politicians stand.tads.into when Ungo and other Sodal DemocralTiiders returned to try to stimulate a negotiated settiement to El Saluador's ciuil war. not neccssarily in aFrench-speaking country. 3 self-imposed Americans do this (3) 5 A miiitary takeover. utidesprcail rgpfssio! antl military cratkdutun in the country two yedrs ago.demonstrations may degeneratc speak from it (4) d P-Iry r_1! into (7) C _!l_ r1_1 I2 There are t\\.nntent has droppetl rhargts dldinst thirteen students who were arresttd and arrest /Jg arcusedoJ'subrrsion a[ter publishing a doatnent critical oJ government policy.$i*r. up the pieces after the collapse of the seuen-yea'r *ilitory " . The exiie endedihr* yr'o^ aco . "twoJotmer policemen who say they were members of hit squads which murilereil anri-apartheid canrpaigners. but onh' one changes governmcnts (5) f _lr_ I lr-ry r3 and 7 across Expcrt in darnagc limitation and imagc ilnprovcment (+. most uestern rcilnties u. when thousandsoJ ciuilians were killed by military and rightist death sq!. Protests haue been called later t-otlay by human rights groups antl relatiues of g. He returned home in rg74 after rr years of serJ- imposed exile to pick.ay Jrom ottc party rtrlc attd is yrcp1y11ry!6r a political rlampdown. AJier the massatres. Across Down i Vote-catching activity (r4) z What a rioter does when stealing Exile that is: something (J) 4 No one killed in this coup (9) I not temporary 7 See r3 down 3 What ajunta. to) 72 73 . - 23 Forms of exile.ith lefti* rebels.n as the dirty war. Complete the words below describing the types oTexile given in these definitions.rspcnded aid and strongly criticiiid ix-iulers. At the start o.ooo people who disappeared during the waue ofrepression knou.nlis k the architect of modern creete. he went exilefonning an ex-ile u. Karama.