Está en la página 1de 42

Insulation Coordination Studies

“The Selection of Insulation Strength”

March 25, 2014
Adam Sparacino

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS, INC.
POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES

Definition of Insulation Coordination1

• Insulation Coordination (IEEE)
– The selection of insulation strength consistent with expected
overvoltages to obtain an acceptable risk of failure.
– The procedure for insulation coordination consists of (a)
determination of the voltage stresses and (b) selection of the
insulation strength to achieve the desired probability of failure.
– The voltage stresses can be reduced by the application of surge
protective devices, switching device insertion resistors and controlled
closing, shield wires, improved grounding, etc.

(1) IEEE Std 1313.1 1996 “IEEE Standard for Insulation Coordination Definitions, Principles, and Rules.
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS, INC.
2
POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES

Four Basic Considerations

• Understanding Insulation Stresses
• Understanding Insulation Strength
• Designing Methods for Controlling Stresses
• Designing Insulation Systems

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS, INC.
3
POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES

Four Basic Considerations

• Understanding Insulation Stresses
• Understanding Insulation Strength
• Designing Methods for Controlling Stresses
• Designing Insulation Systems

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS, INC.
4
POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.2 • Overvoltages are the primary “metric” for “measuring” and “quantifying” power system transients and thus insulation stress. 1991. Definition of Overvoltages • Overvoltage – Abnormal voltage between two points of a system that is greater than the highest value appearing between the same two points under normal service conditions. 5 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC. (2) IEEE Std C62.22 1991 IEEE Guide for the Application of Metal Oxide Surge Arresters for Alternating Current Systems.

6 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC. Vocabulary of Voltage Peak line ground Voltage RMS Voltage line ground = (Vpeak/ 2) Peak Voltage line ground = VL L_rms 2/ 3 MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.

INC. 7 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES .Illustration of Overvoltages MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.

Four Basic Considerations • Understanding Insulation Stresses • Understanding Insulation Strength • Designing Methods for Controlling Stresses • Designing Insulation Systems MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. 8 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC.

disconnect switches. etc. air itself [tower windows. MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. transformer windings.. Electrical Insulation • Insulation can be expressed as a dielectric with a function to preserve the electrical integrity of the system.). bushings.). – The insulation can be “external” (in air). which is protected from the effects of atmospheric conditions (e. etc. liquid.g.g. which is exposed to atmospheric conditions (e. gas insulated substations. oil circuit breakers. INC. line insulators. phase spacing].. – The insulation can be “internal” (solid. or gaseous). cables. 9 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . bus support insulators.

Insulation Strength Typical Volt Time Curve for Insulation Withstand Strength for Liquid Filled Transformers Source: IEEE Std 62.22-1997. 10 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC. IEEE Guide for the Application of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters for AC Systems MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.

) – Basic switching impulse insulation level (BSL) • 745/870/975 kVL N_Peak – Basic lightning impulse insulation level (BSL) • 900/1050/1175 kVL N_Peak – Chopped wave withstand (CWW) • 1035/1205/1350 kVL N_Peak MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.u.05 p. 11 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . Insulation Strength • Example for Transformers Windings – Normal system operating voltage • 345 kVL L_RMS (1. INC.u.) – Maximum continuous operating voltage (MCOV) • 362 kVL L_RMS (1.00 p.

12 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC. Frequency of Different Events seconds milliseconds 10-20 minutes microseconds Power Frequency Power System Control Transients & Dynamics & Surges MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.

Four Basic Considerations • Understanding Insulation Stresses • Duty and Magnitude of applied voltage • Understanding Insulation Strength • Ability to withstand applied stress • Designing Methods for Controlling Stresses • Designing Insulation Systems MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. INC. 13 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES .

Pre Insertion Resistors/Inductors – Need to be sized according to equipment being switched (only help during breaker operation) to prevent excessive overvoltages from being initiated. 14 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . 2. 4. Synchronous Close/Open Control – Need to use independent pole operated (IPO) breakers and program controller based on equipment being switched (only help during breaker operation) to prevent excessive overvoltages from being initiated. Surge Capacitors – Need to be sized and located to “slow” the front of incoming surges MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. Potential Overvoltage Mitigation 1. 3. INC. Surge Arresters – Need to be sized and located properly to “clip” overvoltages.

INC. 15 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . Four Basic Considerations • Understanding Insulation Stresses • Duty and Magnitude of applied voltage • Understanding Insulation Strength • Ability to withstand applied stress • Designing Methods for Controlling Stresses • Designing Insulation Systems MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.

2. INC. the BIL and BSL of all equipment. Specify the phase ground and phase phase clearances that should be considered. rating. location. 3. Insulation Coordination Process 1. Specify the need for. Specify the equipment insulation strength. MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. 16 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . and number of surge arresters.

synchronous close control) are adequate to protect electrical equipment. surge arresters. Shunt Reactor.g. – Primary intent is to verify that transient overvoltage mitigating devices (e. – Capacitor. and Line Switching Studies. Switching Overvoltage Analysis (milliseconds time frame) – Quantify the overvoltages and surge arrester energy duties associated with switching events and fault/clear operations. 2. 3. pre insertion resistors. – Primary intent of determining location and number of surge arresters within the substation. Very Fast Transients (VFT) Analysis (nanoseconds time frame) – GIS disconnected switching. – Quantify the overvoltages throughout the substation. MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. Insulation Coordination Studies 1. INC. 17 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . – Primary intent of determining location and number of surge arresters within the substation. Transformer. Lightning Surge Analysis (microseconds time frame) – Quantify the overvoltages throughout the substation..

) 4. resonance conditions. 18 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . 5. MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. – Fault/Clear. INC. – Power flow/stability studies. load rejection. Temporary Overvoltage Analysis (seconds time frame) – Quantify the overvoltages and surge arrester energy duties as produced by faults. Steady State Analysis (minutes to hours time frame) – Quantify voltage during various system configurations. ferroresonance studies. etc. – Primary intent is to verify conditions that cause problems within the system and develop the necessary mitigation. Insulation Coordination Studies (cont.

EXAMPLE APPLICATION STUDY FOR INSULATION COORDINATION LIGHTNING SURGE ANALYSIS MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. INC. 19 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES .

64 lc = 20.51 la = 12.634 lc = 24.c = 8.30 lb = 25.b.64 la = 23.603 la.b.74 lc = 21.19 lb = 25. la = 30.518 lb = 8.59 lc = 82.42 GML00 GLU00 lb = 25.42 la = 70.55 lc = 10.62 lc = 82.64 GEB06 la = 70.c = 19.689 G752W G952W G762W G962W G772W G872W G972W CB CB CB CB CB CB CB CB CB G752E G952E G762E G962E G772E G872E G972E G3A00 la.15 lb = 76.b.59 FUTURE BREAKER) lb = 11.b. INC.25 EAST 500 kV BUS la = 26.47 lb = 22.323 la.c = 8.59 G4A00 la.c = 8.47 DUMMY BUS (POSITION FOR la.c = 8.51 lb = 76.c = 5.64 WEST 500 kV BUS GWB06 la = 9. terminations.b. 500 kV LINE BML00 BLU00 500 kV LINE BML01 BLU01 All lengths shown in meters. 20 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES .b.77 B3A01 B4A01 XFMR B3A00 B4A00 XFMR Refer to Figure 3 for Refer to Figure 3 for details of XFMR details of XFMR terminations. MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.66 lb = 20. terminations.323 la.76 lc = 23.634 lc = 7.b.59 la.323 la = 26.70 la = 21.b. Refer to Figure 2 for Refer to Figure 2 for details of line details of line terminations.c = 19.56 lc = 21.47 la = 23.69 lc = 24.323 la.c = 5.56 lb = 22.

350 MCM Ground Lead (38’) MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. INC. phase B has a 2. In EMTP model. Example for Line/XFMR Termination 500 kV Line Line Trap1 To Transformer Gas-to.53 m section of 550 kV GIS conductor modeled in place of line trap. 21 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . Surge Air Arrester Bushing CCVT To GIS Gas-to-Air Bay #6 Bushing 550 kV GIS Surge 350 MCM Arrester Ground Lead (38’) Notes To GIS Bay (1) Line traps only on phase A and C for 500 kV lines.

– For the detailed analysis. INC. etc. ground resistivity. Approach for Evaluation the Insulation Coordination of the 550 kV Gas Insulated Substation Step 1: A severe voltage surge was injected into the substation for various operating configurations to screen for maximum potential overvoltages. shielding design. (1) Protective Margin = [ BIL / Vmaximum_peak – 1] x 100% MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. a more detailed analysis was performed to identify the protective margins resulting from a reasonable upper bounds lightning surge based on the configuration of the substation and connected transmission lines. keraunic level. 22 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . specific details of the transmission lines such as conductor characteristics. Step 3: If overvoltages resulted in less than a 20% protective margin in the initial Detailed Analysis screening analysis for cases with the full system in or N 1 contingencies. are considered to determine a reasonable upper bounds to place on the lightning surge impinging on the substation. Screening Analysis Step 2: The resulting overvoltages were compared to the Basic Lightning Impulse Insulation Level (BIL) of the equipment and the protective margin1 for the equipment was calculated.

5 microseconds. 0 0 5 10 15 20 Time (us) MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. 1000 Lightning surge initiated at 1.2 x 2720 kV CFO) Time-to-peak = 0.0 microseconds. 3000 2000 Lightning surge impinges substation from 500 kV Line. Lightning Surge Incoming From 500 kV Line Phase to Ground Voltage of Incoming Lightning Surge MLFULL_halfSRC>MLSRCA(Type 1) 4000 Peak = 3264 kV (1. 23 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC.

Lightning Surge Incoming From 500 kV Line Highest Phase to Ground Voltage Observed in GIS MLFULLB>G752WB(Type 1) 2000 GIS Basic Impulse Insulation Level (BIL) = 1550 kV 1500 Protective Margin = 40% ([1550/1109 – 1] x 100%) Peak overvoltage = 1109 kV. 24 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC. 1000 500 0 0 5 10 15 20 Time (us) MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.

25 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . EXAMPLE APPLICATION STUDY FOR INSULATION COORDINATION TRANSMISSION LINE SWITCHING ANALYSIS MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. INC.

INC. 26 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . Applicable Criteria • Basic Switching Impulse Level (BSL) • Probability of Flashovers Potential Mitigation Techniques • Synchronous Close Control • Pre Insertion Resistors/Inductors • Surge Arresters • Shunt Reactors MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. Transmission Line Switching Analysis Potential Equipment Concerns • Excessive Transient Overvoltages and the Possibility of a Flashover During Energizing or Re Closing • Overvoltages Exceeding Guidelines Used to Develop Line Clearances Transmission line is energized (normal energizing or re-closing).

Random closing times based on a normal (Gaussian) distribution Tclose Three poles closing centered around closing time (Tclose) Sliding ¼ cycle window for pole closing shifted over a half cycle timeframe using a uniform distribution MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. Statistical Switching Methodology Source-Side Voltage ¼ cycle window Case simulated with 200-400 energizations 3 = ¼ cycle ÷ 2 = 2. INC.08 ms Each pole can close at anytime within the ¼ cycle window centered around the closing time (Tclose) for each energization. 27 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES .

Electro Geometric Line Model Example 345 kV Transmission Line Shield Wire: Alumoweld 7#8 14.375 (24’ at midpoint) Center Line Line Length (total) = 85 mi Untransposed Ground resistivity = 37 Ohm m MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.5’ Outside diameter = 0.504” RDC = 0. 28 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC.40 Ohm/mi 78’ (63’ at midpoint) B C A 27’ 27’ Phase Conductor: ACSR Lapwing 2/c Bundle 18” spacing Outside diameter = 1.385” RDC = 2.059 Ohm/mi 54’ Thick/Diam = 0.5’ 14.

Statistical Switching Overvoltage Strength Characteristics and SOV densities of the line MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. 29 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC.

withstand for the 80% transmission line: CFO = 3.u. 70% Sending End 60% 1/4 Point 98% of the overvoltages along 50% the line are 2. INC.50 2. 30 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . (1070 1/2 Point kV).2 1999.75 30% p.50 3. Example CFO 20% E2 is the value in which the overvoltages exceed 2% of the 10% switching operations. f/CFO =5%. 0% 1. 3/4 Point 40% Highest overvoltage at the Remote End remote end of the line = 2..50 4.u.53 p. Of Overvoltages Along 500 kV Line with NO Surge Arresters Statistical Distribution of Overvoltages Along Line 110% Statistical distribution based on 100% the case peak Estimated insulation method from IEEE 90% Std 1313.00 3. Statistical Distr.u.00 2. (1123 kV).62 p.00 1.00 Peak Overvoltage (Per Unit on a 500 kV Base) MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.

50 3. Statistical Distr. 0% 1.2 1999. (902 kV).50 4. withstand for the 80% transmission line: CFO = 3. overvoltages exceed 2% of the 10% switching operations. Of Overvoltages Along 500 kV Line with Line End Surge Arresters Statistical Distribution of Overvoltages Along Line 110% Statistical distribution based on 100% the case peak Estimated insulation method from IEEE 90% Std 1313.00 3. INC.50 2.00 Peak Overvoltage (Per Unit on a 500 kV Base) MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. 31 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . (882 1/2 Point kV). 3/4 Point 40% Remote End 30% Example CFO 20% Highest overvoltage along the E2 is the value in which the line = 2..u.00 1.u. f/CFO =5%.00 2.53 p.16 p. 70% Sending End 60% 1/4 Point 98% of the overvoltages along 50% the line are 2.u.21 p.

32 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . EXAMPLE APPLICATION STUDY FOR INSULATION COORDINATION SHUNT CAPACITOR SWITCHING ANALYSIS MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. INC.

33 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . Shunt Capacitor Switching Analysis Potential Equipment Concerns • Contact Wear from Excessive Inrush Current Duty • Excessive Transient Overvoltages • Induced Voltages and Currents in Capacitor bank is energized and Control Circuits transient inrush currents flow through capacitor bank breaker • Step and Touch Potentials During and voltage surges propagate Switching into the system. Applicable Criteria • ANSI/IEEE Inrush Current Limits • Basic Switching Impulse Level (BSL) • Breaker Capability Beyond Standards • IEEE Std 80 for grounding Potential Mitigation Techniques • Current Limiting Reactors • Synchronous Close Control • Pre Insertion Resistors/Inductors • Surge Arresters MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. INC.

Capacitor Bank Re Strike During De Energization Current Through Switching Device Voltage on Each Side of Switching Device High frequency Second restrike occurs and Peak overvoltage current is current is re established from 1st restrike interrupted Voltage on system side of switching First restrike device occurs and current is re established Current is interrupted Voltage on capacitor bank side of switching device (DC trapped charge) Peak overvoltage from 2nd restrike MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. INC. 34 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES .

and L1<<L2 the condition can be exaggerated MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. 35 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . Voltage Magnification • When a shunt capacitor bank is energized with a nearby capacitor at a lower voltage. the potential for voltage magnification may exist when the following condition is true: • Furthermore. when C1>>C2. INC.

95 p. overvoltage at HV bus when capacitor bank is switched. Voltage Magnification (Cont. Example 1. MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.u.39 p. overvoltage at LV bus when capacitor bank is switched. 36 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC.) Example 4.u.

INC. 37 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . EXAMPLE APPLICATION STUDY FOR INSULATION COORDINATION SHUNT REACTOR SWITCHING ANALYSIS MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.

INC. 38 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . • Resonance from Parallel Lines Applicable Criteria • Equipment Insulation Levels • Voltage Sag/Dip Criteria • Harmonic Distortion Potential Mitigation Techniques • Synchronous Close Control • Surge Arresters • Appropriate Relay Settings • Operational Limitations MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. Shunt Reactor Switching Analysis Potential Equipment Concerns • Excessive Inrush Currents from Energizing • Transient and Temporary Overvoltages from Resonance Conditions Shunt reactor is energized and inrush current flows through the • Generation of Harmonics system and circuit breaker.

Resonance Overvoltages 345 kV Substation 345 kV Substation Voltage Measured on Energized Line Line in service (breakers closed at both ends) Line out of service (breakers open at both ends) 345 kV Substation 345 kV Substation MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. 39 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC.

5 p. would be capable of withstanding at least 1.u. 40 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . The shunt reactors should be tripped within 550 ms of the line breakers tripping to avoid excessive overvoltages for this case.u.u. for 100 ms). MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. Resonance Overvoltages Line breakers open to trip the line at 200 ms.94 p. for 100 ms.5 p. INC. Anticipated temporary overvoltage It is anticipated that the line equipment (TOV) capability (1. Peak overvoltage = 2.

) that can withstand the maximum stress. • Determine maximum insulation stress. the shorter the time the overvoltage is applied to the insulation the greater the magnitude of overvoltage the insulation can withstand before failure. • Studies help in quantifying the maximum anticipated stress and determining the rating/location of overvoltage mitigating devices. INC. Summary • Insulation Coordination is the selection of insulation strength. • A key component of insulation coordination is pairing the correct strength to the correct stress. pre insertion resistors. etc. • As a rule of thumb. • Determine the minimum insulation strength with margin taking into account stress reducers (surge arresters. synchronous close control. MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS. 41 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES .

42 POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING SERVICES . INC.THANK YOU FOR YOU ATTENTION MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTS.