Está en la página 1de 34

MAT1137 and MAT1236: Formula Sheet

ALGEBRA

Laws of Arithmetic

Commutative Laws: a b ba ab ba


Associative Laws: a  b  c a  b  c ab c a bc
Distributive Law: a b  c ab  ac

Absolute Value

 a , a  0
|a|
a, a t 0

Fractions

a c ad r cb
r , b, d z 0
b d bd
a c ac
u , b, d z 0
b d bd
a c a d ad
y u , b, c , d z 0
b d b c bc

Inequalities

If a  b then a  c  b  c for any c .


If a  b then ac bc if c ! 0 , but ac! bc if c  0 .
If a  b then  a ! b .
If a  b then 1 ! 1 .
a b
If a  b and c  d then a  c  b  d .

Index Laws

For a, b ! 0 and m, n real:

aman a mn
am
a mn a
n m
a nm ab m a mb m
an
n m
a an 1
a m a0 1 an n
am
b b n
am
( m an integer and n a positive integer)

Logarithm Laws

For a, b, y, m, n ! 0 and k real


y a x loga ( y) x loga (1) 0 loga (a) 1

1

m
loga (mn) loga (m)  loga (n) loga loga (m)  loga (n) loga (mk ) k loga (m)
n
logb (m)
loga (m) logb (a)

Roots of Quadratic Equations


 b r b 2  4ac
If ax  bx  c . The term b  4ac is called the discriminant.
2 2
0 then x
2a

TRIGONOMETRY

General Triangles
A  B  C 180o
sin A sin B sin C
a b c
a2 b2  c2  2bc cos A
1
Area ab sin C
2

Right Triangles
a2  b2 c2
a
sin A
c
b
cos A
c
a sin( A)
tan A
b cos(A)

Reference Triangles

Angle of 180o is equivalent to an angle of S radians.

Trigonometric Identities

Basic Definitions:

sin x 1 1 1
tan x csc x sec x cot x
cos x sin x cos x tan x

2

Pythagorean Identities :

sin 2 x  cos2 ( x) 1 tan 2 x  1 sec2 ( x) 1  cot 2 x csc 2 ( x)

Odd/Even Properties:

sin  x  sin x cos  x cos x

Half-Angle Formulae:

1  cos 2 x 1  cos 2 x
sin 2 x cos2 x
2 2

Double-Angle Formulae:

sin 2 x 2 sin x cos x cos 2 x cos2 x  sin 2 x

Addition Formulae:

sin x r y sin x cos y r cos x sin y cos x r y cos x cos y # sin x sin y

Product Formulae:

1 1
sin x cos y >sin x  y  sin x  y @ cos x cos y >cos x  y  cos x  y @
2 2
1
sin x sin y >cos x  y  cos x  y @
2

S
Auxiliary Angle Formula: a sin x r b cos x R sin x r D , 0 D 
2
b
R2 a2  b2 , tan D
a

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

Plane
Let P ( x1, y1) and Q ( x2 , y2 )
Distance between P and Q : d ( x2  x1 ) 2  ( y2  y1 ) 2
y2  y1
Gradient of the line through P and Q : m
x2  x1
Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of two lines: Lines parallel if m1 m2
Lines perpendicular if m1m2 1 .
Equation of line through P with slope m : y  y1 m x  x1
Equation of a circle centred at P with radius r : x  x1 2  y  y1 2 r2
Cartesian l polar coordinates: x r cos T y r sin T
y
r x2  y 2 tan T
x
3

Space

Let P ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) and Q ( x2 , y2 , z2 )
Distance between P and Q : d ( x2  x1 ) 2  ( y2  y1 ) 2  ( z2  z1 ) 2
Equation of a plane: ax  by  cz  d 0
Equation of a sphere centred at P with radius r : x  x1 2  y  y1 2  z  z1 2 r2

MEASUREMENT

Rectangle
Area xy
Perimeter 2x  2 y

Triangle
1
Area bh
2

Circle
Area Sr 2
Perimeter 2Sr

Cylinder

Volume Sr 2 h
Surface Area 2Sr 2  2Srh

Cone
1 2
Volume Sr h
3
Surface Area Sr 2  Sr r 2  h 2

Sphere
4 3
Volume Sr
3
Surface Area 4Sr 2

4

FUNCTIONS

Definitions

A function f : A o B is a rule that assigns to each element x in a set A exactly one element f x
in a set B . The domain dom f A and the range ran f ^ f x : x A` B .

n
A polynomial is a function of the form f x ai x
i
a0  a1 x  a2 x 2    an x n , where ai is real
i 0
for i 0,, n , and n is a non-negative integer.

P x
A rational function has the form f x , where P and Q are polynomials.
Q x

A function f is called even if f x f  x for all x dom f , and is called odd if


f x  f  x for all x dom f .

A function f has a global maximum at x c if f c t f x for all x dom f . Similarly, a


function f has a global minimum at x c if f c d f x for all x dom f .

A function f has a local maximum at x c if f c t f x for all x A , for an open set


A dom f . Similarly, a function f has a local minimum at x c if f c d f x for all x A , for
an open set A dom f .

A function f : A o B is called one-to-one if for every y B there is no more than one element
x A such that f x y .

A function f : A o B is called onto if for every y B there is at least one element x A such that
f x y .

A relation between the variables x and y is called explicit if it has the form y f x , otherwise it
is called implicit.

A curve defined by x f t , y g t , t R , is called a parametric curve with parameter t . The


equations x f t , y g t are called parametric equations.

Write lim f ( x ) L to say that as x approaches a from either side, f x approaches L . Write
xoa
f o L as x o a to mean the same thing.

In order for the limit as x approaches a to be defined (i.e. to exist)


lim f ( x ) lim f ( x ) lim f ( x ) .
xoa xo a  xoa

A function f is continuous at the point x a if lim f ( x ) lim f ( x ) f (a) .


xoa xo a 

5

Combinations of Functions

Addition: f  g ( x ) f ( x)  g ( x) , dom( f  g ) dom( f ) dom( g )

Subtraction: f  g ( x) f ( x)  g ( x) , dom ( f  g ) dom ( f ) dom ( g )

Multiplication: fg ( x) f ( x) g ( x) , dom( fg ) dom( f ) dom( g )

f f ( x) f
Division: ( x ) , dom dom( f ) dom( g ) ^x : g ( x) z 0`
g g ( x) g

Composition: f $ g ( x ) f g x dom f $ g ^x dom g : g x dom f `


Inverse Functions

Let f be a one-to-one function. Then the inverse function f 1 is defined by

f 1 y x f x y for all y ran f .

Domain and Range:


dom f ran f 1 and dom f 1 ran f

Cancelation: f $ f 1 x x
for all x dom f 1
f 1 $ f x x for all x dom f

Basic Functions

Power Functions

Odd Powers: domain R Even Powers: domain R


range R range ^y R : y t 0`

6

Root Functions

Odd Powers: domain R Even Powers: domain ^x R:x t 0`


range R range ^y R : y t 0`

Reciprocal Power Functions

Odd Powers: domain ^x R : x z 0` Even Powers: domain ^x R : x z 0`


range ^y R : y z 0` range ^y R : y ! 0`

7

Exponential and Logarithm Functions

Exponential: domain R Logarithm: domain ^x R:x ! 0`


range ^y R:y ! 0` range R

Cancelation Relationships: a log a ( x ) x for all x ! 0



log a a x
x for all real x

Natural Base: ln x loge x

Trigonometric Functions

sin: domain R cos: domain R


range ^y R:  1 d y d 1` range ^y R:  1 d y d 1`

8

(2n  1)S
tan: domain x R:x z , z Z cosec: domain ^x R:x z nS , z Z`
2
range R range ^y R: y d 1 or y t 1`

(2n  1)S
sec: domain x R:x z , z Z cot: domain ^x R:x z nS , z Z`
2
range ^y R: y d 1 or y t 1` range R

9

Inverse Trigonometric Functions

S S
sin-1: domain x R :  d x d cos-1: domain ^x R : 0 d x d S `
2 2
range ^y R:  1 d y d 1` range ^y R:  1 d y d 1`

S S
tan-1: domain x R :   x 
2 2
range R

10

Hyperbolic Functions

Basic Definitions:

e x  e x e x  e x sinh x
sinh x cosh x tanh x
2 2 cosh x

Identity: cosh 2 x  sinh 2 x 1

sinh: domain R cosh: domain R


range R range ^y R : y t 1`

tanh: domain R
range ^y R : 1  y  1`

Transformations

The transformation of y f x given by

y af b x  c  d

1
represents a vertical scaling by a factor of a , a horizontal scaling by a factor of , a vertical
b
translation by d units upward, and a horizontal translation by c units to the right.

11

Limit Laws

If lim f ( x ) and lim g ( x ) exist, c R , and n Z  then


xo a xo a
lim c c lim x a
xoa xoa

lim > f x r g x @ lim f x r lim g x lim cf x c lim f x


xoa xoa xoa xoa xoa

f x lim f x
lim f x g x lim f x lim g x lim x oa
, lim g x z 0
xoa xoa xoa x oa g x lim g x x oa
x oa
n
lim > f x @n lim f x lim n f ( x) n lim f ( x)
x oa x o a x oa x oa

If f is continuous at a , and a is not on the boundary of dom f , then lim f x f a .


xoa

LHospitals Rule: Suppose that f and g are differentiable and g c x z 0 on an open interval I that
contains a (except possibly at a ). Suppose that

lim f x 0 lim g x , or lim f x rf lim g x


xoa xoa xoa xoa

f x 0 f
Then lim is an indeterminate form of type or , and
xo a g x 0 f

f x f c x
lim lim
x oa g x x oa g c x

if the limit on the right hand side exists (or is f or  f ).

12

CALCULUS

Derivative Definition

df f x  h  f x
f c x lim
dx ho0 h

Differentiation Rules

af x r bg x , a and b real, then


dy df dg
Linearity: If y a rb
dx dx dx

dy df dg
Product Rule: If y f ( x) g ( x) then g x  f x
dx dx dx

df dg
f ( x) g x  f x
dy dx dx
Quotient Rule: If y then
g ( x) dx g x 2

dy dy du
Chain Rule: If y f u and u g x then
dx du dx

dy
dx dy
Parametric Differentiation: If x f t , y g t , and z 0 then dt
dt dx dx
dt

Derivative Related Function Properties

df df
A function f is differentiable at the point x a if it is continuous at x a , and lim 
lim .
xoa dx xoa dx

1
The tangent to a curve y f x at x c has slope f c c ; the normal has slope  .
f c c

A function f is increasing/decreasing on an interval I dom f provided f c x ! 0 / f c x  0 for


all x I .

A function f is concave up/down on the interval I dom f provided f cc x ! 0 / f cc x  0 for all


xI .

A critical point of the function f is a point x dom f such that f c x 0 or f c x is undefined.

A stationary point of the function f is a point x dom f such that f c x 0.

An inflection point of the function f is a point x dom f such that f cc x 0 .

13

Anti-Derivative Definition

dF
A function F (x) is called an anti-derivative of f (x) if f (x) .
dx

The indefinite integral F ( x ) f ( x ) dx denotes all anti-derivatives of f (x) .

Integration Rules (Indefinite Integrals)

Linearity: If y af x r bg x , a and b real, then y dx


a f ( x ) dx r b g ( x ) dx

Substitution: If f is a differentiable function and g is a continuous function then


f ' x g f x dx g (u ) du where u f ( x) .
Definition of Definite Integral

If f is defined for a d x d b , and the interval >a, b@ is divided into n subintervals of equal width
'x b  a / n . Let x0 , x1,, xn be the endpoints of these subintervals and let x1 , x2 ,, xn be any
* * *

sample of points in these subintervals such that xi >xi 1, xi @ . Then the definite integral of f from
*

a to b is defined by

f x 'x
b n

f x dx lim *
i
a nof
i 1
provided that the limit exists.

Integration Rules/Properties (Definite Integrals)

a >c1 f x r c2 g x @dx
b b b
Linearity: c1 f x dx r c2 g x dx
( c1 , c2 , a , b real).
a a

b a
Interchanging Bounds: f x dx  f x dx
( a, b real).
a b

b c b
Additivity: f x dx f x dx  f x dx ( a, b, c real).
a a c

If f is differentiable for x a, b and g is continuous for x >a , b @, and a, b are real, then
b f (b )
f ' x g f x dx g (u ) du , where u f ( x) .
a f (a)

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

If f is continuous on the interval >a, b@ then


d x
1.
dx f t dt
c
f (x) ( c real).

>F ( x)@ba where F ' ( x)


b
2. f (x) dx F b  F a f ( x)
a

14

Inverse Trigonometric Substitution

Expression Substitution Domain Identity Used

a2  x2 x a sin T S S 1  sin 2 T cos 2 T


T  ,
2 2
a2  x2 x a tan T S S 1  tan 2 T sec 2 T
T  ,
2 2
x2  a2 x a sec T S 3S sec2 T  1 tan 2 T
T 0, S ,
2 2

Integration by Parts
df dg
Indefinite Integral: g x dx f x g x  f x dx
dx dx

b df
> f x g x @ba  a f x dg dx
b
Definite Integral: a dx g x dx
dx

Use the following table as a guide:

g x df
dx
Exponential
Polynomial Trigonometric
Hyperbolic
Logarithmic
Inverse Trigonometric Polynomial
Inverse Hyperbolic

Integration by Partial Fraction Decomposition


P x
Given a rational function :
Q(x)
1. If the degree of P x is greater than or equal to the degree of Q x (i.e. the rational function is
improper), divide P x by Q x using polynomial long division.
2. If the degree of P x is less than the degree of Q x then factorise Q x completely and use
following table:

Factor in Denominator Terms in Partial Fraction Decomposition


ax  b A
ax  b
ax  b n A1

A2

An
ax  b ax  b 2
ax  b n
ax 2
 bx  c Ax  B
(irreducible, no real roots) ax2  bx  c
ax 2
 bx  c
n A1x  B1

A2 x  B2

An x  Bn
(irreducible, no real roots)
2

ax  bx  c ax 2  bx  c 2

ax 2  bx  c
n

15

x
a
1 1
Another Useful Integral (Partial Fractions): dx tan 1
2
 x2 a a

Area and Volume formulae

f x and the x  axis on the interval x >a, b@ is given by


b
The area between the curve y f x dx
a

The area between the curves y f x and y g x on the interval x >a, b@ is given by
b
f x  g x dx .
a

The volume of the solid of revolution of y f x about the x  axis for x >a, b@ is given by
S > f ( x )@2 dx .
b
V
a

The volume of the solid of revolution of x g y about the y  axis for y >a, b @ is given by
S >g ( y )@2 dy .
b
V
a

FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Definitions

A differential equation is an equation that contains an unknown function and one or more of its
derivatives.

The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest derivative that occurs in the differential
equation.

dy
A first order differential equation is called autonomous if it can be written in the form f y .
dx

A first order initial value problem involves finding the particular solution of a differential equation
dy
f x, y which also satisfies an initial condition y x0 y0 .
dx

The interval of validity for the particular solution of an initial value problem is the maximum open
interval on which the particular solution satisfies the differential equation.

Equilibrium Solutions

dy
A first order differential equation f x, y has an equilibrium solution y x c if f x, c 0 for
dx
all x .

An equilibrium solution is stable if f x, y changes sign from positive to negative as y increases


past c . A sufficient condition for y x c  to be stable is f x , y ! 0 for y  c , and f x , y  0 for
y ! 0.

16

An equilibrium solution is unstable if f x, y changes sign from negative to positive as y increases
past c . A sufficient condition for y x c  to be unstable is f x , y  0 for y  c , and f x , y ! 0
for y ! 0 .

An equilibrium solution is semi-stable if f x, y does not changes sign as y increases past c .

Separable Differential Equations

dy
A first order differential equation is called separable if it can be written in the form g x f y .
dx
If f y z 0 then we write
dy
f y g x dx
Linear Differential Equations

dy
A first order differential equation is called linear if it can be written in the form  P x y Q x .
dx

The general solution of a first order linear differential equation is

y x
1
I x

I x Q x dx  c
P x dx
where I x e is the integrating factor.

Exact Differential Equations

wM wN
The differential equation M ( x, y )dx  N ( x, y )dy 0 is called exact if . The general
wy wx
solution of an exact differential equation is

f ( x, y ) 0
where
f M ( x, y )dx N ( x, y )dy 0

Existence and Uniqueness

Theorem 1: Consider the initial-value problem

dy
f x, y , y x0 y0 .
dx

wf
If f and are continuous functions on the rectangular region a  x  b , c  y  d
wy
containing the point x0 , y0 , then in some interval x0  h  x  x0  h contained in a  x  b
there exists one and only one solution to the differential equation that satisfies the initial
condition.

17

Theorem 2: Consider the initial-value problem

dy
 P x y Q x , y x0 y0 .
dx

If P and Q are continuous functions on an open interval I that contains the point x x0 ,
then there exists one and only one solution to the differential equation that satisfies the initial
condition.

SOME SPECIAL FIRST-ORDER DEs

Homogeneous equations

General form
M x, y dx  N x, y dy 0 ,
where
M tx, ty t n M x, y and N tx, ty t n N x, y .

Use the change of variable y ux if N x, y is less complicated than M x, y , where u u x is the new
dependent variable which replaces y y x and dy xdu  udx .

Use the change of variable x vy if M x, y is less complicated than N x, y , where v v y is the new
independent variable which replaces x and dx ydv  vdy .

The resulting differential equation is separable.

Bernoulli equations

General form
dy
 P x y Q x y n .
dx
For n z 0,1 we make the change of variable w y1n where w w x is the new dependent variable which
replaces y y x . Then
dw
 1  n P x w 1  n Q x ,
dx
which is a linear differential equation.

SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Existence and Uniqueness

Theorem: Consider the second-order linear initial-value problem


d2y dy
 p x  q x y g x , y x0 y0 ,
dy
2
y0c .
dx dx dx x x0

If p , q and g are continuous functions on an open interval I that contains the point x x0 ,
then there exists one and only one solution to the differential equation that satisfies the initial
conditions.

18

Fundamental solutions

If y1 and y2 are solutions of the 2nd-order linear homogeneous DE


d2y dy
2
 p x  q x y 0,
dx dx
on an interval I , and the Wronskian
y1 y2
dy dy
W > y1 , y2 @ x
dy1 dy2 y1 2  y2 1
dx dx
dx dx
is not zero on an interval I , then y1 and y2 are linearly independent and form a fundamental set of
solutions to the DE. The general solution of the DE is given by
y x C1 y1 x  C2 y2 x ,
where C1 and C 2 are constants.

Reduction of order

Suppose y1 is a solution of
d2y dy
2
 p x  q x y 0 .
dx dx
Let y x v x y1 x to obtain the first-order DE
dw dy1
y1  2  py1 w 0 ,
dx dx
dv
where w . Then y vy1 y1 w x dx is the general solution y x C1 y1 x  C2 y2 x .
dx

Second-order linear homogeneous differential equations with constant coefficients

d2y dy
General form: 2
 p  qy 0 , where p and q are constants.
dx dx
Characteristic equation: O2  pO  q 0

Roots of characteristic equation: O1 and O2 General solution

O1 and O2 are real but not equal y C1eO1x  C2eO2 x

O1 O2 O y C1eOx  C2 xeOx

O1 O2 a  ib y C1eax cos bx  C2eax sin bx

Cauchy-Euler equations
d2y dy
General form: ax 2 2  bx  cy 0 , where a , b and c are constants.
dx dx
Make the change of variable w ln x x e w , where w is the new independent variable which replaces x .
d2y dy
Then the DE becomes a 2  b  a  cy 0 ,which is a 2nd-order linear DE with constant coefficients.
dw dw
19

Second-order linear nonhomogeneous DEs

1. Find the general solution yc x C1 y1  C2 y2 of the corresponding homogeneous DE. This solution is
called the complementary solution.
2. Find some single solution y p x of the nonhomogeneous DE. This solution is called a particular
solution.
3. Add together these two functions to obtain the general solution of the nonhomogeneous DE.

Method of undetermined coefficients for DEs with constant coefficients

g x Choice for y p x

a n x a n x n  a n 1 x n 1  ...  a1 x  a 0 An x An x n  An 1 x n 1  ...  A1 x  A0

a n x e Dx An x eDx

an x sin Ex or a n x cos Ex An x sin Ex  Bn x cos Ex

a n x e Dx sin Ex or a n x eDx cos Ex >An x sin Ex  Bn x cos Ex @eDx

Determine the unknown constants by equating coefficients.

Variation of parameters

Given the nonhomogeneous DE


d2y dy
2
 p x  q x y g x ,
dx dx

1. Find the general solution yc x C1 y1 x  C2 y2 x of the corresponding homogeneous DE.


du y x g x du y1 x g x
2. Let 1  2 and 2 .
dx W > y1 , y2 @ x dx W > y1 , y2 @ x
3. Integrate these two equations to find u1 x and u2 x , omitting the integration constants.
4. A particular solution is y p x u1 x y1 x  u2 x y2 x .
5. The general solution is y x yc x  y p x .

RECTILINEAR MOTION

Let x denote displacement, v denote velocity, a denote acceleration, s denote speed, and d denote
distance travelled between t t1 and t t2 . Then:

dx dv d 2x
v a s v(t )
dt dt dt 2

v t dt a(t) dt
t2
x v d t1
s(t ) dt

x t2  x t1
The average velocity v on the interval t1 d t d t2 is given by v
t2  t1

20

SYSTEMS OF 2 FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
A solution vector of a system of linear first order differential equations X c(t ) A (t ) X (t )  F (t ) where
x (t ) p11 (t ) p12 (t ) g1 (t )
X (t ) , A (t ) and G(t )
y (t ) p21 (t ) p22 (t ) g 2 ( t )
is any vector that satisfies X c(t ) A (t ) X (t )  G(t ) on I.

Existence and Uniqueness

Theorem: Let each of the functions p11, p21, p12, p22, g1, and g2, be continuous on an open interval I:
a  t  b , let t0 be any point in I and let x0 and y0 be any given numbers. Then there exists a
unique solution of the system
dx
p11 (t ) x  p12 (t ) y  g1 (t )
dt
dy
p21 (t ) x  p22 (t ) y  g 2 (t )
dt
that also satisfies the initial conditions x(t0 ) x0 and y (t0 ) y0 . Moreover, the solution exists
on the interval I.

Homogeneous systems
A system of 2 first order differential equations X c(t ) A (t ) X (t )  F (t ) is homogeneous if F(t ) 0
x
A set x i 1i , i 1,2 of 2 linearly independent solution vectors of X c(t ) A (t ) X (t ) is called a
x 2i
fundamental set of solutions on I.

x
The set x i 1i , i 1,2 is linearly independent on I if and only if the Wronskian
x2i
W ( x 1 , x 2 ) det[ x 1 (t ) x 2 (t ) ] z 0 on I.

The general solution of X c(t ) A (t ) X (t ) is given by X (t ) c1x 1 (t )  c2 x 2 (t ) .

Non-homogeneous systems

4. Find the general solution X c t C1x1 (t )  C2 x 2 (t ) of the corresponding homogeneous system of DEs.
5. Find some single solution x p t of the nonhomogeneous system of DEs. This solution is called a
particular solution.
6. Add together these two functions to obtain the general solution of the nonhomogeneous system of
DEs.

Variation of parameters

x11 (t ) x 21 (t ) x1i
Define )(t ) x (t ) where x i x , i 1,2 is a fundamental set of solutions.
12 x 22 (t ) 2i

Then x p (t ) )(t ) v(t ) is a solution of the non-homgeneous DE where v(t ) )


1
(t )g(t ) dt .
21

Homogeneous systems of 2 first order linear DEs with constant coefficients

Here X c(t ) AX (t ) where A is a 22 matrix.

dX
Solution process for the system Ax
dt
Calculate the eigenvalues O1 and O2 of A by finding the solutions of
a b 1 0
det O (a  O )( d  O )  bc 0.
c d 0 1

1) If the eigenvalues are real and distinct, determine the corresponding eigenvectors v1 and v 2 by
solving ( A  Oi I ) v i 0 , then write the general solution as x(t ) c1eO1t v1  c2eO2t v 2
2) For equal eigenvalues determine the eigenvector v 1 by solving ( A  O1 I ) v1 0 and the generalised
eigenvector by ( A  O1 I ) w v 1 then write the general solution as x(t ) c1eO1t v1  c2 eO1t (tv1  w)
3) If the eigenvalues are complex conjugates, determine the eigenvector for O1 P  iQ by solving
( A  O1 I ) v1 0 . The vector v 1 is complex: v1 a  bi with a and b real. Then write the general
solution as x(t ) c1e Pt (a cos vt  b sin vt )  c2e Pt (a sin vt  b cos vt )
4) If initial conditions are given, solve for c1 and c2 to obtain the specific solution for the IVP.

Stability properties of xc Ax , detA=ad-bcz0

Eigenvalues Type of equilibrium point Stability


O1 ! O2 ! 0 Node Unstable
O1  O2  0 Node Asymptotically Stable
O1 ! 0 ! O2 Saddle Point Unstable
O1 O2 ! 0 Proper or improper node Unstable
O1 O2  0 Proper or improper node Asymptotically Stable
O1 P  iQ O2 Spiral point
P!0 Unstable
Asymptotically Stable
P0
O1 iQ O2 Center Stable

Non-homogeneous systems with constant coefficient matrix


Method of undetermined coefficients

g t Choice for x p t

a n t a n t n  a n1t n1  ...  a1t  a 0 A n t A n x n  A n 1t n 1  ...  A1t  A 0

a n t eDt A n t eDt

a n t cos Et or a n t sin Et A n t sin Et  Bn t cos Et

a n t eDx sin Et or a n t eDx cos Et >A n t sin Et  Bn t cos Et @eDt

22

TAYLOR SERIES

The Taylor series of a function f about x a is

f n a f cc a
x  a 2  f a x  a 3  
f
ccc
f x
n 0 n!
x  a n f a  f c a ( x  a) 
2 6

The Maclaurin series of a function f is

f
f n 0 n f cc 0 2 f ccc 0 3
f x
n 0 n!
x f 0  f c 0 x 
2
x 
6
x 

The nth degree Taylor polynomial Tn,a x of the function f about x a is given by

n
f i a f cc a f n a
Tn,a x
i 0 i!
x  a i f a  f c a ( x  a) 
2
x  a   
2
n!
x  a n

The remainder function Rn,a x is defined by Rn,a x f x  Tn,a x .

Taylors Formula: If f has n  1 derivatives in an interval I that contains the number a , then for
x in I there is a number z strictly between x and a such that the remainder function can be
expressed as
f n1 z
Rn,a x x  a n1
n  1 !
The Taylor series Tn,a of a function f converges to f at x (i.e. Tn,a x o f x ) if lim Rn ,a ( x) 0 .
n of

The radius of convergence R of a Taylor series Tn,a of a function f , is the maximum value of R
such that Tn,a x o f x as n o f for all x a  R, a  R .

xn
Useful limit: lim 0
nof n!

Important Maclaurin series and their radius of convergence

f
1
1 x n 0
x n
1  x  x 2  x3   R 1
f n
x x 2 x3
ex
n 0 n!
1 x 
2 6
  R f
f
x 2n1 x3 x5 x7
sin x
n 0
 1 n
2n  1 !
x  
6 120 5040
 R f
f
x 2n x2 x4 x6
cos x  1 n
n 0 2n !
1  
2 24 720
 R f

23

f
x 2 n1 x3 x5 x 7
tan 1 x  1 n
n 0 2n  1
x   
3 5 7
R 1

FOURIER SERIES

Theorem: Suppose that f and f c are piecewise continuous on the interval  L d x  L . Further,
suppose that f is defined outside the interval  L d x  L so that it is periodic with period 2L . Then
f has a Fourier Series

a0 f mSx mSx
f x
2 m 1
 am cos
L
 bm sin
L

where

1 L mSx
am f x cos dx, m 0,1,2,
L L L
1 L mSx
bm f x sin dx, m 1,2,
L L L

(i) If  L  x  L and f has both left and right derivatives at x then the Fourier series F of f at x
converges to F ( x) 1[ f
2
( x )  f ( x )] where f ( x ) lim y o x , y ! x f ( y ) and
f ( x ) lim y o x , y  x f ( y ) .

(ii) If the right derivative of f exists at x  L and the left derivative of f exists at x L , then at both
x  L and x L the Fourier series F of f converges to F ( L) F ( L) 12 [ f ( L )  f ( L )]

Even/Odd Properties: If f is an even function then its Fourier series coefficients are given by

L
mSx
f x cos
2
am dx, m 0,1,2,
L 0 L
bm 0, m 1,2,

If f is an odd function then its Fourier series coefficients are given by

am 0, m 0,1,2,
2 L
mSx
bm
L 0
f x sin
L
dx, m 1,2,

Fourier Cosine/Sine Series: If f is defined on the half interval 0 d x  L then its Fourier Cosine
series is given by

a0 f mSx
f x  am cos
2 m1 L

24

2 L mSx
am f x cos dx, m 0,1,2,
L 0
L

and its Fourier Sine series is given by

f
mSx
f x b m sin
m 1 L

2 L mSx
bm f x sin dx, m 1,2,
L 0 L

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS

Problem Eigenvalue Eigenfunction


ycc  Oy 0, 0  x  p n 2 S2 nSx
On ,nt1 yn ( x) sin
y (0) y ( p) 0 p2 p
ycc  Oy 0, 0  x  p n 2 S2 nSx
On ,nt0 yn ( x ) cos
yc(0) yc( p) 0 p2 p
ycc  Oy 0, 0  x  p
On
2n  1 2 S2 , n t 1 yn ( x ) sin
( 2n  1) Sx

y (0) yc( p) 0 2p
2
4p
ycc  Oy 0, 0  x  p
On
2n  1 2 S2 , n t 1 yn ( x ) cos
( 2n  1) Sx

yc(0) y ( p) 0 4 p2 2p
ycc  Oy 0, x  p n 2 S2 nSx
On ,nt0 y1n ( x ) sin
p2 p
y ( p) y ( p)
yc( p) yc( p) nSx
y2 n ( x ) cos
p

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Linear second order partial differential equation




Au xx  Bu xy  Cu yy  Du x  Eu y  Fu G ( x, y )

Separation of variables:

Substitute u ( x, y ) X ( x)Y ( y ) into the partial differential equation and separate the variables to obtain two
ordinary differential equations in the variables x and y.

25

COMPLEX NUMBERS

Cartesian Form: z a  bi where i 2 1 , Re( z ) a Im( z ) b

Equality: a  bi c  di a c and b d

Addition/Subtraction: a  bi r c  di a r c  b r d i
Multiplication: a  bi c  di ac  bd  ad  bc i
Conjugate: If z a  bi then z a  bi , zz a2  b2

z1 z1 z2
Division:
z2 z2 z2

Polar Form: z r cis T r >cos T  i sin T @ , mod(z ) z r arg(z ) T

Cartesian l polar form: a r cos T b r sin T


, T >0,2S
b
r a2  b2 tan T
a
Multiplication (polar): If z1 r1 cis T1 and z2 r2 cis T 2 then z1 z2 r1r2 cis T1  T 2

z1 r1
Division (polar): If z1 r1 cis T1 and z2 r2 cis T 2 then cis T1  T2 , r2 z 0 .
z2 r2

De Moivres Theorem: If z r cis T then z n r n cis nT for n Z .

Roots: If z r cis T and n Z  then


1 1
T  2Sk
zn rn cis , k 0,1, 2,, n  1
n

Sets in the Argand Plane: Line - ^z : a Im( z )  b Re( z ) 1`


Circle - ^z : z  P R` ( P the circle centre, R the radius)

Eulers Relationship: r cis T reiT

26

VECTORS

Vectors in R2

y
Cartesian x, y to polar r , T : r x2  y 2 tan T
x

Polar r , T to Cartesian x, y : x r cos T y r sin T

For vectors a a1, a2 a1i  a2 j and b b1, b2 b1i  b2 j :

Addition and Subtraction: arb a1 r b1 , a 2 r b2

Scalar Multiplication: ka ka1 , ka 2 where k is a scalar.

Magnitude: a a12  a22 a a

1
Unit Vector: a a
a

Dot Product: a b a1b1  a2b2


ab a b cos T where T is the angle between a and b .

Vectors in R3

For vectors a a1, a2 , a3 a1i  a2 j  a3k and b b1, b2 , b3 b1i  b2 j  b3k :

Addition and Subtraction: arb a1 r b1 , a2 r b2 , a3 r b3

Scalar Multiplication: ka ka1 , ka2 , ka3 where k is a scalar.

Magnitude: a a12  a 22  a32 a a

1
Unit Vector: a a
a

Dot Product: ab a1b1  a 2 b2  a3b3


ab a b cos T where T is the angle between a and b .

Cross Product: aub a2 b3  a3b2 , a3b1  a1b3 , a1b2  a2 b1


|| a u b || a b sin T where T is the angle between a and b .
aub b u a

Projections

For vectors in either R2 or R3:

27

vb
Projection of v onto b : projb v b
bb

projb v v b b

Component of v along b : comp b v v b

Relative Displacement and Velocity

The displacement/position of A relative to B : A B r rA  rB .

The velocity of A relative to B : A vB vA  vB .

VECTOR CALCULUS

Vector Valued Function Definition

A vector valued function is a function whose domain is a subset of R , and whose range is a subset of
Rn . A function whose domain and range are both subsets of R is called a real valued function.

Differentiation

dr r t  h  r t
Definition: rc t lim
dt h o0 h

Rule: If r t f t i  g t j  h t k then rc t f c t i  gc t j  hc t k

rc t
Unit Tangent: T t
rc t

Integration

Indefinite Integral: > f t i  g t j  h t k@dt f t dt i  g t dt j  h t dt k


f t dt i  g t dt j  h t dt k
a > f t i  g t j  h t k@dt
b b b b
Definite Integral:
a a a

Curvilinear Motion

Let r denote displacement, v denote velocity, a denote acceleration, and s denote speed. Then:

v t r c t a t vc t rcc t s t v(t ) rc(t )


r t v t dt v t a(t) dt

28

The speed s t of an object will be increasing if sc t ! 0 , and deceasing if sc t  0 . Alternatively,
the speed of an object will be increasing if v t a t ! 0 , and deceasing if v t a t  0 . These
results only apply if s t z 0 .

Uniform Circular Motion

An object moving in uniform circular motion in R2 has displacement given by


r t A cos Zt  b i  A sin Zt  b j .

Projectile Motion

Assuming that the only force acting on an object moving in R 2 is that of gravity, then a t 0, g ,
where g is the acceleration due to gravity.

FUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLES

A function of two variables is a rule f : A o B is a rule that assigns each element ( x, y ) in a set
A R2 exactly one element f x, y in a set B R .

The level curves of a function of two variables z f x, y , are the curves with equations f x, y k ,
where k is a constant in the range of f .

If f is a function of two variables x and y , its partial derivatives of f are defined by

wf f x  h, y  f x , y
fx lim
wx ho0 h
wf f x, y  h  f x, y
fy lim
wy ho0 h

The second partial derivatives of f are

w2 f w
f xx fx
wx 2 wx
w2 f w
f yy
wy

fy
wy 2
w2 f w
f xy fx
wywx wy
w2 f w
f yx
wxwy wx

fy

If f is defined on a disk D that contains the point a, b , and f xy and f yx are both continuous on D ,
then f xy f yx .

29

If f is a function of two variables x and y , then the gradient of f is the vector function f
wf wf
defined by f , . The gradient vector points in the direction of steepest ascent.
wx wy

If f is a function of two variables x and y , then the directional derivative of f in the direction of a
unit vector u is given by Du f f u .

A function f of two variables x and y , has a critical point at x, y a, b if


f x a, b 0 f y a, b

or if one of the partial derivatives does not exist.

Suppose that all of the second partial derivatives of f are continuous on a disk with center a, b and
that f x a, b 0 and f y a, b 0 , and define the Hessian matrix

f xx a, b f yx a, b
H a, b
f xy a, b f yy a, b

Then
x If det H a, b ! 0 and f xx a, b ! 0 , then f a, b is a local minimum.
x If det H a, b ! 0 and f xx a, b  0 , then f a, b is a local maximum.
x If det H a, b  0 , then f a, b is a saddle point of f .

MATRICES

Row Operations

Consider a system of linear equations in augmented matrix form >A | b @ , where Ri is the i th row, R j
is the j th row, and k is a scalar. The following elementary row operations (EROs) can be applied:
x Ri l R j ( i th row interchanged with j th row)
x th
Ri o Ri  kR j ( k times the j th row added to the i row)
x Ri o kRi ( i th row multiplied by k )

Matrix Operations

For m u n matrices A and B , n u p matrix C and scalar k where:

a11 a12  a1n b11 b12  b1n c11 c12  c1 p


a c  c2 p
a22  a2n b
21 b22  b2 n 21 c22
A 21 B C
           

am1 am 2  amn bm1 bm 2  bmn cn1 cn 2  cnp

30

then

ka11 ka12  ka1n a11  b11 a12  b12  a1n  b1n


ka  ka2 n a  b  a2 n  b2 n
kA 21 ka22 A B 21 21 a22  b22
       

kam1 kam 2  kamn am1  bm1 am 2  bm 2  amn  bmn

a11c11  a12c21    a1ncn1 a11c12  a12c22    a1ncn2  a11c1 p  a12c2 p    a1ncnp


a c  a c    a c
21 11 22 21 2 n n1 a21c12  a22c22    a2ncn2  a21c1 p  a22c2 p    a2ncnp
AC
   

am1c11  am 2c21    amncn1 am1c12  am 2c22    amncn2  am1c1 p  am2c2 p    amncnp

a11 a21  am1


a a22  am 2
AT 12
   

a1n a2 n  amn

Algebraic Properties

For m u n matrices A , B and D , n u p matrices C and E , and p u q matrix F :

Commutative Law: A B B A

Associative Law: A  B  D A  B  D AC F A CF

Distributive Law: A C  E AC  AE

Identity Matrix

The identity matrix is a square matrix with ones along the main diagonal entries and zeros in all other
entries.
1 0  0
0 1  0
I
   

0 0  1
Property of the Identity: AI IA A for any matrix A and appropriately sized identity.

Matrix Inverse

If A and B are square matrices such that AB BA I , then A is said to be invertible and B is called the
inverse of A (denoted A1 ).

a11 a12 1 a 22  a12


For a 2u 2 matrix A a the inverse A 1  a where
21 a 22 det( A ) 21 a 11

det( A) a11 a 22  a12 a 21 is called the determinant of A . If det( A) 0 then A is not invertible (i.e. A is
singular).
31

> @
For a general n u n matrix A , use EROs to convert the augmented matrix >A | I @ to the form I | A1 . If A is
singular then this is not possible.

32

Differentiation and integration formulas

dy
dx
y y dx
0 a (constant) ax  C

n 1 x n 1
nx x ( n z 1 )
n
C
n 1
1 1
 2
or  x 2 or x 1 ln x  C
x x
ax
a x ln a ax C
ln a
ex ex ex  C
1 1
log a x x ln x  x  C
x ln a ln a
1
ln x x ln x  x  C
x
cos x sin x  cos x  C

 sin x cos x sin x  C

sec 2 x tan x ln sec x  C

 cot x cosec x cosec x ln cosec x  cot x  C

tan x sec x sec x ln sec x  tan x  C

 cosec 2 x cot x ln sin x  C


1
sin 1 x x sin 1 x  1  x 2  C
1 x 2

1
 cos 1 x x cos 1 x  1  x 2  C
1 x 2

x tan 1 x  ln 1  x 2  C
1 1
tan 1 x
1 x2 2
cosh x sinh x cosh x  C

sinh x cosh x sinh x  C


1
sinh 1 x x sinh 1 x  1  x 2  C
1 x 2

1
cosh 1 x x cosh 1 x  x 2  1  C
x 1
2

x tanh 1 x  ln 1  x 2  C
1 1
tanh 1 x
1 x2 2

MAT2437 Differential Equations Formula Sheet 14


f h
Laplace Transforms: L^ f t ` s F s e f t dt
 st
lim e  st f t dt
h of
0 0

Behaviour of F s as s o f : lim F s lim L^ f t ` s 0


s of s of

Function f t L-1 ^ F s ` Laplace transform F s L^ f t ` s


1
1 , s!0
s
n!
tn , s ! 0 , n 1,2,3,
s n 1
1
e at , s ! a , s ! 0 L^ ` s
sa
s
cos at , s!0
s  a2
2

a
sin at
s  a2
2

a
sinh at , s !a
s  a2
2

s
cosh at , s !a
s  a2
2

1 
t2 3/ 2
, s!0
2s
 12 S
t , s!0
s
Shifting theorem 1: e at f t F s  a

Shifting theorem 2: uc t f t  c e  cs F s

f c t sF s  f 0

f cc t s 2 F s  sf 0  f c 0

t n f t  1 n F ( n ) ( s )
0 , t  c e  cs
uc t , ct0
1 , t t c s
T
1
f t , f t  T f t Ts
e  st f t dt
1 e 0
f , t t0
G t  t0 e  st0
0 , otherwise
t t
f * g (t ) 0
f (t  u ) g (u )du 0
f (u ) g (t  u )du F ( s )G ( s )

MAT2437 Differential Equations Formula Sheet 15