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DISCUSSION:

THE ACTIVITY IS ALL ABOUT THE ADDER AND MIXER CIRCUITS. THIS
ACTIVITY HAVE TO ANALYZE THE ADDER AND MIXER CIRCUITS FOR THE
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER.THE FIRST PART IS A SET UP IS TO USE
EXTERNAL BIASING CIRCUITRY TO INSURE A NULLING OR ZERO VOLTS AT
THE OUTPUT WITH ZERO APPLIED TO BOTH INPUTS.WHILE THE SECOND
PART IS ABOUT THE INVERTING TERMINAL NEGATIVE IS AT VIRTUAL
GROUND, NO INTERACTION SHOULD OCCUR AND THE ISOLATION
BETWEEN THE SIGNAL INPUTS SHOULD BE MAINTAINED. DENOTAVELY,
THE ADDER AND MIXER CIRCUITS IS A VERY FLEXIBLE CIRCUIT
INDEED.ENABLING US TO EFFECTIVELY ADD OR SUM TOGETHER SEVERAL
INDIVIDUAL INPUT SIGNALS. IF THE INPUT RESISTORS ARE ALL EQUAL A
UNITY GAIN INVERTING ADDER CAN BE MADE. TO START WITH THE
ACTIVITY, WE SET UP THE CIRCUIT THAT WE ARE GOING TO CONSIDER
FOR OUR EXPERIMENT.WE DIVIDED OUR GROUPMATES TO WORK ON THIS
EXPERIMENT. OTHER WAS COMPUTED THE COMPUTED VALUE AND OTHER
WAS CONTRUCTING THE CIRCUITS.SHOWN IN FIGURE 5-29 IS THE
CONFIGURATION THAT WE FOLLOWED IN ABLE FOR US TO DETERMINE
THE V1 AND V2. IN CONNECTING THE CIRCUIT. WE FIRST CONSIDER THE
DATE SHEET OF 741 OM AMP. PRECISELY THE FIGURE 1 AMPLIFIES THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO INPUT VOLTAGES BY RF/RIN, WHICH IS
THE OVERALL GAIN FOR THE CIRCUIT. THE POLARITY OF THE VOLTAGE
SOURCES PROVIDING VCC TO THE OP-AMP.BY MIXERS ARE OFTEN USED
AS ADDERS THAT GIVES DIFFERENT EMPHASIS TO EACH INPUT SIGNAL
THEN COMBINE INPUT TOGETHER INTO ONE SIGNAL. TABLE 1.1 SHOWS
THE RELATIONSHIP OF VOLTAGE AND PIN OF THE OMP AMP. AS OUR COPY
THE CALCULATED VALUE GETS 0.0 VOLTS.THE MEASURE VALUE GETS A
LITTLE SAME WITH THE CALCULATED VALUE.AFTERWARDS WE
CONTINUED OUR EXPERIMENT WITH NEXT ONE.WE ADJUST V1 TO +1 AND
VARY V2 TO VOLTAGE SETTING OF 0,1,2,3 AND 4 VOLTS.THEN THE
OUTPUT VOLTAGE NOW BECOMES PROPORTIONAL TO THE SUM OF THE
INPUT VOLTAGES V1, V2, V3, V4, V5.AS WE GO ALONG WE ARE
SUCCESFULLY DONE THE NEXT TABLE. ANOTHER PROCEDURE IS ALL
ABOUT MIXER. WE CONNECT THE OP AMP AS A MIXER. THEN AGAIN WE
ARE SET V1 AND V2 TO 0 VOLTS AMPLITUDE OF EACH.THIS MIXER
CREATES NEW FREQUENCIES FROM TWO SIGNALS APPLIED TO IT. THE
BASIC PROPERTY OF THIS MIXER DEVICE IS THAT ITS OUTPUT IS NOT
DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO ITS INPUT, BUT TO THE PRODUCT OF ITS
INPUTS. FINALLY, WE MEASURE THE VC USING OSCILLOSCOPE.OVERALL,
WE WITNESS THAT OUR DESIGN ADEQUATELY MET SPECIFATION AND HAD
REASONABLY GOOD PERFORMANCE. THE VOLTAGE DIVIDER UP TO ADDER
AND MIXER.ATLEAST WE LEARN ABOUT OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS.SIMPLE
CIRCUITS CONTAINING OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS CAN BE USED TO
PERFORM MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS, SUCH AS ADDITION,
SUBTRACTION, AND MULTIPLICATION, ON SIGNALS.ANOTHER IMPORTANT
APPLICATION OF AN OP-AMP CIRCUIT IS THE VOLTAGE FOLLOWER, WHICH
SERVES AS AN ISOLATOR BETWEEN TWO PARTS OF A CIRCUI

CONCLUSION:

IN THIS EXPERIMENT, WE STUDIED OPAMP CIRCUITS AND IMPLEMENTED


SOME DIFFERENT USING METHODS,FIRST CIRCUIT IF THE INPUT IS HIGHER
THAN ZERO, THE OUTPUT IS +VCC; AND THE INPUT IS LOWER THANZERO,
THE OUTPUT IS -VCC. WE ARE NOW ABLE TO DETERMINE AND ANALYZE
THE HOW TO MEASURE INPUT-OUTPUT AMPLIFIER
RELATIONSHIP(VO/VIN).WE LEARN THE STUDY OF BASIC CONFIGURATION
OF OPAMP , SIMPLE MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS.LASTLY, THE SUMMER
AMPLIFIER IS USED TO SUMTHE INPUT VOLTAGES WHICH ARE USED TO
DIGITAL SIGNAL. ALL THE CURRENTS ACROSS THE RESISTANCES ARE
DIFFERENT EACH OTHER, SO THE SUMMING VALUE IS DIFFERENT.
BECAUSE OF THE USING INVERTING INPUT, THE OUTPUT VOLTAGE ISALSO
INVERTED. TO SUM UP, IN THESE CIRCUITS, WE LEARNED DIFFERENT
KINDS OF OP-AMP CIRCIUTS WHICH ARE VERY IMPORTANT TO BEING AN
ELECTRICAL ENGINEER. THE VERY ESSENCE OF THE THIS EXPERIMENT IS
THAT WE ARE ABLE TO HAVE A REALISTIC VIEW OF THE THINGS THAT WE
DISCUSSED IN OUR ELECTRONICS 2 LECTURE ABOUT THE ADDER AND
MIXRER CIRCUITS.
REFERENCES:

http://hibp.ecse.rpi.edu/~connor/education/EIexp-proj-
lect/exp_04_IOBoard

http://physics.niser.ac.in/labmanuals/sem4/Advanced_Electronics_Lab_Ma
nual

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_mixer

http://www.analog.com/library/analogdialogue/archives/43-09/edch
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