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This content provides you with a sample Piping Fabrication and Erection

Specification that is useful for field inspectors.

Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

This specification covers the minimum basic requirements for various aspects of the
above ground piping and in trench piping for the industrial plants as follow:

a) Shop and filed fabrication and erection of piping.

b) Installation of in-line instrument items like orifice flanges, control valves, rota
meters, safety valves, etc.

c) Installation of items like line mounted filters, ejectors sample cooler, etc.

d) Installation of expansion joints.

e) Fabrication & erection of pipe supports including installation of spring supports,


etc. both shop and field fabrication include cutting, threading, bending, welding,
bolting, etc.

Administration of material certificates, welding operations and execution,


administration of all destructive & non-destructive examination and all testing
operations as required by the applicable procedure and standards.

1.1. Where this specification and the petroleum refinery piping code ASME B31.3
conflict, this standard shall govern. Sound engineering practice shall be followed in
the absence of specified standards or specification subject to OWNER prior
approval.

1.2. CODES AND STANDARDS - Piping Fabrication and Erection

SpecificationStandards referred to in this specification shall be the latest editions,


including all revisions and addenda as listed below:

Process Piping ASME B31.3

Unified Inch Screw Threads ASME B1.1

Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch) ASME B1.20.1

Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings NPS 1/2 ASME B16.5

Through NPS 24
Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt welding Fittings ASME B16.9

Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and Treaded ASME B16.11

Butt Welding Ends ASME B16.25

Square and Hex Nuts (Inch Series) ASME B18.2.2

Welded and seamless Wrought Steel Pipe ASME B36.10

Stainless Steel Pipe ASME B36.19

Wrought Stainless Steel Butt Welding Fittings MSS-SP-43

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ASME-VIII

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ASME-IX

1.3. RELATED ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION

The following specifications are applied as supplement of this specification.

A. Piping Material

B. Construction Work for Piping

C. Pressure Test of Piping System

D. Cleaning for Pipe Lines

E. Welding Procedure for Piping

F. Welder Qualification Test

G. Inspection & Test of Piping Construction

H. Piping hanging & support

I. Piping Design

J. Marking & Color Coding

K. Painting Specification

2. DEFINITION
2.1. DIVISION OF WORK

All piping will be fabricated by a field construction crew either in a pipe spool
fabrication shop hereinafter referred to as the "shop (as per ------) or in-place
hereinafter called the "field".

2.2. PIPE SPOOL DEFINITION - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

The word pipe spool, as used in this specification, is a unit of prefabricated piping
consisting of pipe, fittings, flanges, and other components integral to the assembly.
This piping is assembled in the shop and conveyed to the construction site for
installation.

2.3. PIPE SPOOL INDEX

All pipe spools to be constructed by the fabricator are listed in the Pipe spool Index. Each
index is in numerical order for each field assembly area. The shop shall fabricate the pipe
spools in the order they are listed in the index, unless a list giving some other priority is
provided by Consultant.

The index will show for each pipe spool the pipe spool number, quantity of
identical pipe spools, revision mark, line number, material class, and special
information or treatment. The assembly area, revision date, and material are given at
the top of each sheet. Included with each index for each area is a Pipe spool Index
Revision page. This page is a record of all revisions to the pipe spool index. The
shop shall fill out and keep current the information columns on the pipe spool
indexes, and provide copies to Consultant when requested or completed.

3. DRAWING APPLICATION

3.1. PIPE SPOOL INDEX

All pipelines are identified with the line classification on the plan and isometric
drawing.

3.2. EXTENT OF PIPESPOOLS

Where field installed material connects to shop fabricated pipe spools, the shop
fabricated spool will include all branch connections for field piping, up to the first field
butt weld, first field socket weld, first screwed connection, or first flanged joint
including the first flange. Pipe spools in all sizes of butt welded and socket welded
construction will be prefabricated in the shop. Threaded piping and threaded
components which are installed as attachments to shop fabricated pipe spools shall
be termed field installed materials. Straight runs of piping indicated as random piping
are not pipe spools. These straight runs are installed by the field crews in random
lengths. The division between the three different types is shown on the drawings as
indicated in figure.

Here, "S" means shop fabricated, "F" means field-installed material and "R" stands
for field-installed random lengths. "FW" is a weld done in the field.

3.3. ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Consultant will provide the isometric drawings for all 1-1/2 inch and larger for stainless steel
and 2 inch and larger for carbon steel . The isometric drawing will show also combined line
number, equipment nozzles to which the pipeline is connected, call outs and high point vents
and low point drains. A bill of material take off for the isometric shall be attached. The bill
shall include the code, size, quantity and description for each piping component.

3.4. SYMBOLS

Drawing symbols used on the piping drawings are defined on legend. The following
definitions specify what is required when certain letter symbols are used on the
drawings.

"FW" A field weld is the joining of two components, beveled for welding, made to drawing
dimensions, and to be welded at the construction site.

"FU" A fit-up weld is a field weld that allows some dimensional adjustment of a
pipe spool during final assembly. One of the mating ends is square-cut 3 inches longer than
the dimensions required. The other mating end is bevel-cut to the exact dimension indicated
on the drawings.

"DW" A dummy weld is a weld connecting a supporting appurt enance to a pipeline.


The support is an extension of the piping but with no connection into the fluid stream.

3.5. FIELD WELDS

The Construction contractor shall locate on the piping erection drawings, field welds or fit-up
welds as required for site erection, except no location will be shown for socket weld
connections between pipe spools built in the shop and those built at the construction site.

3.6. DIMENSIONS

Unless otherwise specify all dimensions terminating at a flange are measured from
the gasket face for raised-face flanges and flat-face flanges, and the raised face of
ring-joint flanges. Gaskets are indicated by a short line placed beside or between the
dimension limit lines. Only gaskets which have a different thickness than the material
class gasket are dimensioned.
Whenever an overall dimension does not appear on a drawing, the dimension is
assumed to be the sum of individual standard fitting lengths coincident with the piping
line class material.

4. FABRICATION

4.1. GENERAL - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Fabrication works shall comply with the drawings and this specification including
relevant Engineering and Construction Specifications.

4.1.1. All weld numbers and welders identification number shall be painted close to
the weld, to enable trace ability of each weld and each welder, socket welds shall be
numbered per fitting, e.g. S.W tee has one weld number.

4.1.2. Construction Contractor shall maintain the color coding on piping materials to
allow easy and quick reference in accordance with the project engineering
specification.

4.1.3. All materials included in the finished piping systems shall be undamaged.

4.1.4. Construction Contractor must provide adequate protection for piping, flange
faces, threaded connections, etc. to prevent damage during handling and storage.
Construction Contractor shall ensure that flange faces are protected from corrosion
or rust.

4.1.5. Piping shall be stored in a relatively clean, dry or well drained area on
elevated dunnage and protected against contact with salts or salty water.

4.1.6. All attachments to piping, i.e. saddles, pads, etc. are to be made of same
material to the pipe.

4.2. DIMENSIONAL - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

TOLERANCE

4.2.1. Wrought Bends

A. Wrought bends shall show no significant marks or corrugations and shall be smooth and
regular in outline. Flattening shall not exceed 8% of the pipe outside diameter for pressure
duties, or 3% of the pipe outside diameter for vacuum duties. There shall be no significant
thinning when the pipe bend radius is 5 x nominal diameter or greater.

B. In general thickness stainless steel pipe of equivalent to schedule 10S and thinner shall
not be bent.
4.2.2. Pipe Dimensions

Tolerances shall be 1.5mm from flange face to flange face, or centerline of pipe to flange
face.

4.2.3. Flange Face

Flange faces shall not be concave. Convexity from flange bore to joint face periphery
shall not exceed 0.15mm per centimeter width of joint face.

4.2.4. Squareness of Flanges

Flanges shall be square to the axis of the pipe to within an angle of 0 - 18' (0.3) I.E.
0.05mm per centimeter measured across the face of the flange, with the pipe adequately
supported.

4.2.5. Bolt Holes of Flanges

Flange bolt holes shall straddle the established centerlines (Horizontal or vertical). However,
flanged connections on equipment may vary and should be individually checked. When
these connections differ, the bolt hole orientation shall be indicated on the isometric piping
detail sheet. Holes in double flanged pipes shall be correctly aligned.

4.3. WELD DETAILS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

4.3.1. Butt Welds

The term "Butt-Weld" refers to circumferential butt joints only. Special requirements
may be imposed where longitudinal welds are to be made and these welds shall not
be carried out before Consultant has approved the methods to be used. Longitudinal
and spiral welds existing in pipes as produced at the mill are outside the scope of this
specification.

4.3.2. Weld Preparation

Weld preparation shall be in accordance with the following:

A. Preparation standard shall be applied to ASME B31.3 and the modifications to the
standard contained within clause 5.3.6 of this specification.

B. Ends shall be beveled or square cut for welding as follows:

1) Beveled for wall thickness greater than 2.3mm

2) Square cut for wall thickness 2.3 mm and less

4.3.3. Root Gaps


Spacers shall be used while tack welding pipe and fittings in position to insure proper
gap and full penetration in welding. The tack welds complying with the requirements
of ASME B31.3, 328.5.1(C) may be allowed to become a part of the finished weld,
whereas those not complying are not acceptable and must be chipped out before
completing the weld.

4.3.4. Bore Matching and Alignment

Bore matching and alignment shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3. Where pipe,
fittings and flanges are to be joined by circumferential butt-welds, the corresponding
parts shall be modeled and matched so that any misalignment at the inside of the
piping shall not exceed 1/16 inch at any point of the circumference of the joint.

Fit-up work may include pressing, hammering, local heating or grinding as required to reduce
any misalignment due to diameter tolerances, out-of-roundness or unequal wall thickness of
the parts of less than 1/16 inch. parts having unequal wall thickness and bores shall be
prepared in accordance with one of the details shown in ASME B31.3.

4.3.5. Cutting

A. Pipes may be cut mechanically by sawing or grinding machine.

B. Cutting method involving heating e.g. Flame or arc cutting for carbon steel are
allowed providing the cut edge is machined or ground back sufficientl y far to give
specified parent material properties at the cut edge with a minimum of 1.5 mm.

C. Plasma-jet cutting may be use to cut austenitic stainless steel pipes and other
materials.

D. Flame cutting of austenitic stainless steel pipe is not allowed.

E. Other methods of cutting may be used providing written approval is obtained


from Consultant.

4.3.6. Welding Position of Longitudinal Seams

Longitudinal seams in seam welded pipe shall be located so as to clear openings and
external attachments possible. Longitudinal seams in adjoining courses shall be preperably
at 180but a minimum between seams are in accordance with construction specification.

4.4. BRANCH WELDS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Branch connections shall be located as indicated on the piping detail sheet or


isometric piping drawings. All branch connections shall be designed in accordance
with Para. 304.3 of ASME B31.3. Forged or extruded branch connections are
preferred.
4.4.1. No Fitting

Branches shall be of 'Stub-in' design in accordance with Construction Specification 0000-


S1830-003 and ASME B31.3.

4.4.2. Forged branch attachments (Brancholets) shall be of the type specified on


Consultant's drawings and fitted accurately to the contours of the run pipe.

4.4.3. Reinforcing Pads

A. For pressure reinforcement

Reinforcing pads required by the referenced code or by piping detail sheets shall be provided
with at least one vent hole if fully welded. The hole shall be drilled and tapped with a 1/8 inch
pipe thread for testing and venting. The tapped hole shall be plugged using wood, plastic or
mastic material not capable of retaining pressure.

B. For structural attachment

Reinforcing pads for structural attachment shall be provided with an untapped hole of 1/4
inch (6 mm) diameter for venting.

C. Where reinforcing pads are fitted either for branches or structural attachments they shall
be accurately shaped so that no gap larger than 1/8 inch (3.0mm), measured before
welding, shall exist between the periphery of the pad and the pipe to which it fits.

4.4.4. Mitered Bends

Mitered bends shall be in accordance with piping material specification ------. The number of
cuts shall be as stated on the drawing. Mitered bends are used only when specified on the
drawings and shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 Chapter V. A joint efficiency not
exceeding 70% shall be used in the strength calculations for mitered bends. The welds in
mitered bends shall penetrate the full thickness of the pipe and the bead on the inside of the
throat shall be smooth and have an even curvature. In order to prevent a notch effect.

4.4.5. Beveled Ends

Refer to Construction Specification XXX

4.4.6. Fillet Welds

Refer to Construction Specification XXX

4.5. BENDING - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

4.5.1. Bends shall conform dimensionally to the drawings and relevant clauses of this
specification. Hot bend is not permitted.
4.5.2. Cold Bending

A. Cold bends to a centerline radius greater than five (5) times the nominal pipe diameter
may be manufactured without a subsequent heat treatment unless a heat treatment is
specified on the project specification, piping detail sheets, or isometric drawings.

B. Cold bends to a radius less than five (5) times the nominal pipe diameter is not allowed.

C. Bending after completion of fabrication to meet dimensional requirements shall not be


carried out without the approval of the engineer.

5. WELDING - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

5.1. WELDING PROCESS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

5.1.1. Basic welding requirements are to be in accordance with ASME B31.3.


Welders shall be approved in accordance with the relevant clauses of this standard.

5.1.2. Welding shall be carried out by one, or a combination of the following


processes:

A. Shield metal arc welding (SMAW)

B. Inert gas metal (MIG)

C. Tungsten inert gas with filler wire (TIG)

The (SMAW) and (TIG) processes are preferred as welding process.

5.1.3. Backing rings shall not be used without prior written content and approval
of Consultant.

5.1.4. Where tack welding is carried out, tacks shall be as large as possible and to the
satisfaction of the Consultant inspection. Tack welds shall be removed so that they do not
form part of the finished weld unless they are produced fully qualified and tested welders to
the same procedure as the finished weld, in which case they may be absorbed into the
finished weld.

5.1.5. Flange faces shall be kept free from weld spatter and arc strike.

5.2. WELDING PROCEDURE - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

5.2.1. Welding procedures are to be qualified in accordance with the ASME boiler
and pressure vessel code section IX and ASME B31.3, and shall be approved by
Consultant before any work is carried out.
5.2.2. Welder's competence shall be determined in accordance with Welder Qualification
Test

5.2.3. It is fabricator's responsibility to reference each weld to its welder and


correct procedure.

5.2.4. Electrodes and filler wires shall conform to the requirements specified in
para. 7.1.

5.2.5. Requirements for mixed metal welds are specified in para. 6.

5.2.6. Fusion faces may be prepared by sawing, chipping, machining or grinding.


They shall be smooth and free from defects and together with the adjacent material
shall be thoroughly cleaned of oil, grease, paint and shall be free from all rust, scale,
ice/water for a distance of 50 mm from the edge of the weld.

5.2.7. The visible surface of all welds are to be clean of slag, regular uniform in contour,
without undercuts, crack or blowholes and free from spatter.

5.2.8. Weld reinforcement: The thickness of weld reinforcement shall not exceed the
following, considering the thinner component being joined:

Component Thickness (in.) Maximum Reinforcement (in.)

1/2 and Under 1/8

from 1/2 to 1 5/32

Over 1 3/16

For double welded joints this limitation on reinforcement shall apply separately to the weld
reinforcement inside and outside. The finished internal and external surfaces of the weld
shall merge smoothly into the component surfaces or the weld toe.

5.2.9. When unacceptable defects are found in complete welds, they are to be removed by
grinding, chipping or machining.

5.2.10. The basic principles of the welding procedure initially used are to be
employed for repair of faulty welds.

5.3. SPECIAL PROCESS CONTROL - Piping Fabrication and Erection


Specification

5.3.1. Work control procedure shall be prepared prior to start the special process
such as heat treatment. Processing and result of special process shall be recorded
and maintained to verify the work quality.
5.3.2. Heat Treatment of flame-cut edges for carbon steel is not required when the
edges are dressed back in accordance with para. 4.3.5. B where dressing back
proves to be impossible, then such undressed or partly dressed edges shall be stress
relieved before welding.

5.3.3. Preheating - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

A. When the welding procedure does not include pre-heating and the ambient conditions
are such that the metal temperature of the parts to be welded are below 4C, the surface in
a zone extending 15 mm each side of the joint is to be heated to 20C "Handwarm"
before welding commences.

B. Preheating shall be carried out in accordance with ASME B31.3 unless para. 5.3.4. A
applies.

C. In addition to the requirements of ASME B31.3, when rutile and cellulosic


electrodes are used, then preheat shall be applied on wall thicknesses of 20 mm
(3/4") and above.

5.3.4. Normalizing

Normalizing shall be carried out as follows:

Temperature 920C/950C

Time/Inch of Thickness 1 Hour

Minimum soaking time 1/2 Hour

Cooling shall be uniform at a rate less than 250Cper hour down to 300C, thereafter
cool in still air.

5.3.5. Stress Relieving - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

A. Irrespective of pipe wall thickness, PWHT shall be performed on all type joints
butt, socket, etc, for piping classes A2T3MR, AUT3P, B2T3MR, B2T6MR, D2T3MR,
A2D2, B2D2V, BCDX, D2D2V, for other piping classes PWHT shall be carried out in
accordance with ASME B31.3.

B. After completion of final P.W.H.T. hardness test shall be performed in accordance


with ASME B31.3. One test is required in the weld and one test is required in the heat
affected zone (HAZ).

C. Welds produced in austenitic stainless steel shall not require stress relief, unless
this is specifically called for in the drawings or pipeline specifications.
5.3.6. Temperature Measurement

Temperature measurement shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3.

5.3.7. A record of the time/temperature for normalising and stress relief must be kept.

6. MIXED METAL WELDS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

6.1. CARBON AND AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS - Piping Fabrication and


Erection Specification

6.1.1. Where welds are to be produced between carbon steels and austenitic stainless
steels, the weld procedures, welding techniques etc., shall be those appropriate to the
austenitic stainless steel.

6.1.2. Electrodes and filler wire shall be ER 309, E309, or ER NiCr3, ENiCr Fe3 the
choice depending on service conditions. Any heat treatment required shall be that
appropriate to the grade and thickness of carbon steel involved. The welding
procedure proposed shall be approved in writing by Consultant.

6.2. LOW ALLOY (CHROME MOLYBDENUM, ETC.) AND CARBON STEELS

6.2.1. Where welds are to be produced between low alloy steels and carbon steels, the
above procedures, electrodes, filler wires, welding technique and heat treatment etc., shall
be appropriate to the grade and thickness of the low alloy steel involved. Electrodes must be
of the basic type.

6.3. DIFFERENT GRADES OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS - Piping


Fabrication and Erection Specification

Where welds are to be produced between differing grades of stainless steels, the
weld procedures, electrodes, filler wires, welding techniques, etc., shall be those
required by the higher grade of material.

6.4. LOW ALLOY (CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM ETC.) AND AUSTENITIC


STAINLESS STEEL - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

6.4.1. Where welds are to be produced between low alloy steels and austenitic
stainless steels, the weld procedures, welding techniques, etc., shall be those
appropriate to the austenitic stainless steel.

6.4.2. Electrodes and filler wires shall in general be of higher alloy content than the
austenitic stainless steel. Any heat treatment required shall be that appropriate to the
grade and thickness of low alloy steel involved.

7. MATERIALS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification


7.1. ELECTRODES AND FILLER WIRES

7.1.1. For Carbon Steel Pipes

A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.1, AWS A5.2 and AWS A5.18.

B. Electrodes to be used for general butt welding of low carbon steel pipes will be as
follows:

1) Pipe wall thickness up to 19 mm (0.75") use cellulosic electrodes E6010 and E7018.

2) Pipe wall thickness 19mm (0.75") and above and special carbon steel (for low
temperature or high carbon content), ER70S-3 & basic electrodes E7018.

7.1.2. For Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes

A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.4 and AWS A5.9.

B. Electrodes to be used for general butt welding of austenitic stainless steel will be rutile
type EXXX-16.

7.1.3. For Alloy Steel Pipes

A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.4 and AWS A5.5.

B. Welding electrodes to be used for general butt welding of alloy steel piping shall be as
follows:

PIPE ELECTRODE ASTM SPECIFICATION A335 AWS-ASTM CLASSIFICATION Grade


P9, 9%Cr-1% Mo Grade P7, 7%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P5, 5%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P22, 2-
1/4%Cr-1% Mo Grade P11, 1-1/4%Cr-1/2% Mo Grade P12, 1%Cr-2% Mo E 505-15 E 7Cr-
15 E 502-15 E9018-B3 E8018-B2 E8018-B2

7.1.4. For Carbon-Molybdenum Alloy-Steel Pipes

A. All electrode and filler wires shall comply with AWS A5.5.

B. Welding electrode shall be 7018 A1.

7.1.5. Welding Dissimilar Metals

A. The dissimilar metal welds should be avoided whenever possible, using instead some
mechanical joint such as a thread or flanged connection.

B. There are innumerable combination of dissimilar alloys which could be jointed, and most
of these combinations are special cases which must be handled on an individual basis,
with the welding procedure depending on the intended use.
C. The composition of the joining metal must be compatible with both alloys, or a buffer
layer must be placed between them.

D. If high temperatures are involved, particularly if cycle, the coefficients of thermal


expansion of the parent metals and diluted weld metal must be considered.

E. If hardenable alloys are involved, consideration must be given to eliminating hard areas
and brittle areas, or to restoring strength, hardness and toughness, depending on whether
or not the design requires a high strength member.

F. If corrosion is involved, galvanic attack and resistance to process corrodents must be


taken into account.

G. Mechanical, formability and other fabrication operations may require special


consideration.

H. Welding electrodes shall be in accordance with Specification XXX.

7.1.6. The particular brands of electrodes and wires chosen shall be approved in writing by
the engineer before use.

7.1.7. Storage of electrodes and other welding materials shall be in accordance with
the vendor's instructions.

7.1.8. Refer to following specification for complete list of electrodes and filler
materials.

7.2. GRINDING WHEELS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

7.2.1. For Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes

A. Grinding shall be carried out using resin bonded alumina or silicon carbide grinding
wheels. Rubber bonded wheels or wheels containing sulphur shall not be used.

A. Wheels previously used on ferritic steels shall not be used on the carbon
steels.

7.3. WIRE BRUSHES - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

All wire brushes used on austenitic stainless steel pipes shall be of stainless steel.

8. INSPECTION AND TEST - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Inspection shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 and the following inspection
requirements.

8.1. PROCEDURE AND RECORD - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification


8.1.1. Inspection and test procedure/plan shall be prepared and approved prior to inspection
activity.

8.1.2. Result of inspection and test shall be recorded and maintained to verify the
quality of items and activities.

8.2. RADIOGRAPHY

Radiography shall be applied in accordance with Inspection & Test of Piping Construction

8.3. VISUAL EXAMINATION

Visual examination shall be carried out in accordance with Inspection & Test of Piping
Construction

8.4. PRESSURE TEST

8.4.1. Pressure testing shall be carried out in accordance with ASME B31.3 andPressure
Test of Piping System

8.4.2. Extent of pressure testing shall be indicated on the line list.

8.4.3. Pressure testing shall be hydrostatic unless otherwise stated.

8.4.4. Shop testing of finished fabricated piping is not required unless specified.

8.4.5. Where site hydraulic testing is to be avoided, all shop fabricated piping, including
make-up lengths and lengths with loose flanges, shall be shop tested hydraulically. Provision
shall be made by the fabricator for closing the open ends of pipe for this test. Where this
procedure is required, it will be specified on the drawings and pipeline specifications.

8.4.6. All pressure testing shall be carried out after the application of any specified heat
treatment.

8.4.7. For austenitic stainless steel pipelines, hydrostatic tests shall be carried out using
clean water unless other fluids are specified on the drawings or pipeline specifications.
Particular attention must be paid to using potable water. Chlorine content of less than 50
PPM should be used wherever possible, water having a chlorine content above 100 ppm
should not be used in any circumstances, and where it is necessary to use water within a
range of 50-100 ppm, lines shall be flushed with a chlorine-free liquid with a short period of
testing.

9. CLEANING - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

9.1 All bores of all fabricated piping shall be free from all sand, scale, weld spatter
etc. refer also to para. 5.2.7 and 5.2.8.
9.2. If special cleaning is required, this will be the subject of a special specification.

9.3. The cleaning of austenitic stainless steel pipe surfaces prior to welding shall not
involve the use of hydrochloric acid, chlorine compounds, or water with a chloride
content in excess of 50 ppm.

10. PROTECTION AND PACKING

10.1. DRAINING OF BORES - After hydrostatic testing and cleaning, where


specified, the bores of pipes shall be thoroughly drained and the ends immediately
sealed in accordance with para. 10.2.

10.2. PROTECTION - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

10.2.1. Pipe-ends and flange faces shall be properly protected against the ingress of
dirt, mechanical damage and atmospheric corrosion. The term "pipe-end" shall
include any weld preparation. The protection applied shall not be capable of passing
into the bore of the pipe.

10.2.2. Threaded connections shall be fitted with a line class plug or covered with a
plastic sheet securely wired or taped to the spool.

10.2.3. Socket weld connections shall be fitted with taped polyethylene plugs or
plastic sheet securely wired or taped to the spool.

11. ERECTION - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

11.1. VALVES

Valves equipped with chain wheels shall have the stems arranged so that chains do not fall
on equipment. Hooks shall be provided to hold chains clear of operating areas. Chain
wheels will be shown on the piping drawings. Install valves so that the stems are not below a
horizontal position. Orient all valves so that the hand wheels do not obstruct passageways.

11.2. FLANGED JOINTS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Protect all flange faces from damage. Take care not to mar the faces of the flanges. Bring all
flanged joints up flush so that the entire flange face bears uniformly on the gasket, and then
take up with uniform bolt tension. In bolting joints with spiral wound gaskets, the gasket
shall be compressed until the raised faces of the flanges uniformly contact the compression
gauge ring.

11.3. FLANGED OR BUTT WELDED EQUIPMENT CONNECTION

A flange cover shall be kept on all flanged connections to pumps, compressors, turbines, and
similar equipment until ready to connect the piping. Piping connecting to mechanical
equipment, such as pumps, turbines, and compressors shall be fitted-up in close parallel
and lateral alignment, prior to tightening the bolting or welding the joints. The installation
shall be approved by the inspector prior to tightening the bolting. Carbon steel piping that
has not required post-weld heat treatment may be heated for minor corrections in fit. The
temperature shall not exceed 660 Cooling of the pipe shall not be accelerated by the
application of water. The inspector shall be notified when heating for fit-up is required.

11.4. RESTRICTIONS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

All restrictions which would interfere with filling, venting, draining, or flushing shall not be
installed until after completion of the pressure test and line flushing operations. This includes
orifice plates, flow nozzles, venturis, rotameters, PD meters, turbine meters, magnetic
meters, strainer screens, and similar in-the-line equipment.

11.5. TEMPORARY GASKETS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Protect gaskets from damage until final installation is complete. When temporary make up at
flanged joints is required in piping systems using special gaskets, make up the joint with a
less expensive sheet gasket and save the special gasket for the final installation.

11.6. PIPE SUPPORTS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

All field supports shall be installed in accordance with the standard drawings. If the field
supports are not installed or are unavailable when the piping is erected, u se temporary
blocking or other adequate means of support until the field supports can be installed. Careful
consideration must be given to the support of 2-inch and smaller piping to prevent excessive
deflection.

11.7. EXPANSION JOINTS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Check the expansion joint specification for special instructions. Corrugated expansion joints
shall be installed with length extended or compressed for the ambient temperature condition
at erection, depending on anticipated direction and magnitude of movement after the line
reaches the operating temperature. Make a final check to see that shipping ties have been
removed after line tests and that any preset that may be specified has been accounted for.

11.8. TEMPORARY STRAINERS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Temporary suction strainers shall be installed at the suction nozzles of all pumps and
compressors before pipeline flushing. They shall be located between the suction block valve
and the equipment.

11.9. SPRING HANGERS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

The variable and constant support type spring hangers are preset, for the cold condition, in
the factory. The gags and shipping spacers should be removed until after hydrostatic testing
of the line has been completed.
Any dimensional adjustments that have to be made to the load flange on the
compression-type springs, or to the rod assembly on suspended-type springs, should be
made before the gags are removed. Once the spring is unblocked it is very difficult to make
any adjustments.

11.10. PLATFORM HOLES - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

Platform holes for piping have been sized for pipe or insulation outside diameter plus
approximately 25mm clearance. Field welds are necessary for the installation of flanged
pipespools unless the platform supports are intended to be clear of piping, the field shall add
or relocate any structural supports and stiffeners required because of holes made for piping.

11.11. THREADED CONNECTIONS - Piping Fabrication and Erection Specification

All pipe threads shall be taper-pipe threads in accordance with ASME B1.20.1 without
exception. Teflon tape shall be used for all threaded joints where the design temperature in
205C or below.