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Phy 212: General Physics II 1

Chapter 20 Worksheet (2nd Law of Thermodynamics & Heat Engines)


Entropy:
1. A sample of 10.0 moles of a monatomic ideal gas, held at constant temperature
(1000K), is expanded from 0.10 m3 to 0.20 m3. Calculate the entropy change during this
process.

Vf
nRT ln
Ans. Q Vi
S = = = 10.0 mol 8.314 molJ K ln 2 = 57.6 KJ
T T
2. A sample of 10.0 moles of a monatomic ideal gas, held at constant pressure (1.5 atm or
1.52x105 Pa), is compressed from 0.10 m3 to 0.05 m3. Calculate the entropy change during
this process.
Ans.
Sf Qf Tf 3 V Tf 3 V T
dQ nRdT f pdV nRdT f pdV f 5
nRdT Tf
S = dS =
Si

Qi
T
=
Ti
2
T

Vi
T
=
Ti
2
T

Vi
T
= 2
Ti
T
= 5
2 nRln
Ti

S = 52 10.0 mol 8.314 molJ K ln 21 = -144. KJ


3. A sample of 10.0 moles of a monatomic ideal gas, held at constant volume (1.0 m 3), is
heated from 300 K to 400 K. Calculate the entropy change during this process.
Qf Tf 3
dQ nRdT 3 T
Ans. S = = 2
= 2 nRln f = 23 10.0 mol 8.314 molJ K ln 300K
400K
= 35.9 KJ
Qi
T Ti
T T
i
4. A sample of 1.5 moles of a thermally insulated (adiabatic) monatomic ideal gas is
expanded from 0.10 m3 to 0.20 m3. During the expansion, the pressure of the gas
decreases from 3.039x105 Pa to 2.026x105 Pa. Calculate the entropy change during this
process.
Sf Qf
dQ
Ans. S = dS =
Si Qi
T
= 0 KJ
Phy 212: General Physics II 2
Chapter 20 Worksheet (2nd Law of Thermodynamics & Heat Engines)
Heat Engines:
5. A Carnot heat engine consists of 2 isothermal and 2 adiabatic processes. Steps AB and
CD are isothermic and steps BC and DA are adiabatic. The temperature at CD (TH)
is 1500 K and the temperature at AB (TC) 300 K. For state A, P=2490 Pa & V = 3.0 m3,
and Carnot Engine performs 4.5x104 J of work. Note: the working fluid is 3 moles of ideal
diatomic gas.

A) Sketch the P-V diagram for this heat engine.

B) What is the efficiency of this heat engine?


TC
Ans. e=1- = 0.80
TH
C) How much heat energy (QH) is absorbed during the isothermic phase BC?

W 4.5 104 J
Ans. QH = = = 5.63 104 J
e 0.80
D) How much heat energy (QC) is released during the isothermic phase DA?

Ans. QC = -QH + W= -5.63 104J + 4.5 104J = -1.13 10 4J


E) What is the pressure at each point A-D? Calculate using the ideal gas law.
Ans.
VB 4
Get VB from QC: QC = WA B= nRTln = -1.13 10 J
V
A
QC -1.13104 J


J )(300K)
(3mol)(8.314 molK
3
VB = VA e nRT
= 3.0m e
= 0.663m3
(3mol)(8.314 molJ K )(300K)
PB= = 1.13 105Pa
0.663m3
1

nRTC

nRTB

TB

1

Get PC from PC VC = PB VB: PC = PB PC = PB


PC PB TCP

B

52

7

300K 5

PC = 1.13 104Pa = 3.16 106Pa


4
(1500K)(1.13 10 Pa)

5.63104 J
nRTH nRT QH
nRT H (3mol)(8.314 molK
J )(1500K)
Get VD from QH: VD = e = e

= 0.0531m3
PC PC
(3mol)(8.314 molJ K )(1500K)
PB= = 7.05 105Pa
0.0531m3
F) How much work is performed by the gas during each step?
WA B = QC = -1.13 104 J and WBC = 3
2 nRT = -4.49 104 J
Ans.
WCD = QH = 5.63 104 J and WDA = 3
2 nRT = 4.49 104J
Phy 212: General Physics II 3
Chapter 20 Worksheet (2nd Law of Thermodynamics & Heat Engines)

H) What is the change in entropy (SA-B) during AB?

QC -1.13 104 J
Ans. SAB = = = -37.7 KJ
TC 300K
I) What is the change in entropy (SC-D) during CD?

QH 5.63 104 J
Ans. SCD = = = 37.7 KJ
TH 1500K
J) What is the net change in entropy (Suniverse) between the steps in H and I?

Ans. Suniverse = SAB + SAB = 0 KJ


6. Consider the following heat engine, where steps AB and CD are isobaric and steps
BC and DA are adiabatic (yes, the adiabatic steps should have a slight curvature).
Note: the working fluid in this engine is a monatomic ideal gas (10 moles).

3.50E+05

3.00E+05 C D
PA=PB=1.0x105 Pa
2.50E+05 PC=PD=3.0x105 Pa
Pressure (Pa)

2.00E+05
VA=0.40m3
1.50E+05 VB=0.20m3
VC=0.103m3
1.00E+05

B A VD=0.207m3
5.00E+04

0.00E+00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Volum e (m^3)

A) What is the temperature at each point A-D?


PV
Ans. T= TA=481 K, TB=241 K, TC=372 K, and TD=747 K
nR
B) How much work is performed by the gas during each step?
WA B = pV = -2.00 104J and WBC = 3
2 nRT = -1.63 104 J
Ans.
WCD = pV = 3.12 104 J and WDA = 3
2 nRT = 3.3 104J
C) What is the net work during the complete cycle?
WNet =WA B +WBC +WCD+WDA =-2.00 104 J-1.63 104J+3.12 104J+3.3 104 J
Ans.
WNet =2.79 104 J
Phy 212: General Physics II 4
Chapter 20 Worksheet (2nd Law of Thermodynamics & Heat Engines)
D) How much heat (QH) is absorbed by the gas?

Ans. Qin = QCD = ncp T= 7.80 104J

E) How much heat (QC) is discarded by the gas?

Ans. Qout = QCD = ncp T= -5.00 104 J

F) What is the efficiency of the heat engine?


W 2.79 104 J
Ans. e= = = 0.35
QH 7.80 104 J
G) What is the Carnot efficiency for the engine?
TC 241K
Ans. e=1- =1- =0.68
TH 747K
7. Consider the following heat engine (the Stirling Engine). Steps AB and CD are
isothermic and steps BC and DA are isochoric. The temperature at CD (TH) is 2500 K
and the temperature at AB (TC) 500
K. Note: the working fluid in this 250000
engine is an ideal monatomic gas (10
moles). C D
200000
A) What is the pressure at each point
A-D? Calculate using the ideal gas
law.
Pressure (Pa)

150000
Ans.
nRT
P= 100000
V
PA =8.31 104Pa
50000
PB=8.48 104Pa
PC=4.24 105Pa B A
PD=4.16 105Pa 0
0.488 0.49 0.492 0.494 0.496 0.498 0.5 0.502
B) How much work is performed by Volum e (m ^3)
the gas during each step?

VB 0.49
= 10.0 mol 8.314 molK 500K ln
2
WAB = nRT ln J
= -8.40 10 J
V
A 0.50
Ans. VB 0.50
= 10.0 mol 8.314 molK 2500K ln
3
WCD = nRT ln J
= 4.20 10 J
VA 0.49
WBC = WDA =0J
C) What is the net work during the complete cycle?
2 3 3
Ans. Wnet = WAB + WCD= -8.40 10 J + 4.20 10 J = 3.36 10 J

D) How much heat (Qin = QBC + QH) is absorbed by the gas?

Ans. Qin = QCD + QDA = 4.20 103J + 2.49 105J= 2.53 105J
Phy 212: General Physics II 5
Chapter 20 Worksheet (2nd Law of Thermodynamics & Heat Engines)
E) How much heat (Qout = QDA + QC) is discarded by the gas?

Ans. Qout = QAB + QBC= -8.40 102 J - 2.49 105J= -2.50 105J
F) What is the efficiency of this Stirling engine?
W 3.36 103 J
Ans. e= = = 0.013
Qin 2.53 105 J
G) What is the Carnot efficiency for this engine?
TC 500K
Ans. e=1- =1- =0.80
TH 2500K
H) What is the change in entropy (SB-D) during BD?

TH QCD
S =SBC +SCD= 32 nRln +
Ans.
TC TH
4.20 103 J
S = 23 10.0 mol 8.314 molJ K ln 2500K
500K + = 202.4 KJ
2500K

I) What is the change in entropy (SD-B) during DB?

QAB 3 T
S =SAB +SBC= + 2 nRln H
TC TC
Ans.
-8.40 102 J 3
S = + 2 10.0 mol 8.314 molJ K ln 2500K
500K
= -202.4 KJ
500K
J) What is the net change in entropy (Suniverse) between the steps in H and I?

Ans. Ssystem =Suniverse=0 KJ

Statistical Interpretation of Entropy:


8. Consider a system of 2 identical coins, with equal probability of heads or tails,
respectively.
A) How many possible unique configurations are possible in this system?
Ans. Wtot = XN - 1 = 22 1 = 3
B) What is the multiplicity of configurations (W) that both coins will and on tails?
N! 2!
Ans. W= = = 1, n1="heads" & n2="tails"
n1!n2! 0!2!
C) What is the entropy of the state when they are tossed and both land on tails?

Ans.
S = k ln W = 1.38 10-23 KJ ln 1 = 0
D) What does your answer in (C) imply about that state of the 2 dice system? Be as
specific as possible.
Ans. All tails represents a perfectly ordered state and this corresponds to S=0, the
lowest possible entropy state.
Phy 212: General Physics II 6
Chapter 20 Worksheet (2nd Law of Thermodynamics & Heat Engines)
9. Consider a system of 5 identical dice, with equal probability of landing on any side,
respectively.
A) How many possible unique configurations are possible in this system?
Ans. Wtot = 6 (yahtzee) + 30 (full house) + 30 (4-of-a-kind) + 120 (3-of-a-kind) + 120 (2
pairs) and 360 (1 pair) = 667 unique combinations (states)
B) What is the multiplicity of configurations (W) that all dice will land on the same value
(i.e. a Yahtzee)?
N! 5!
Ans. for any particular Yahtzee value: W = = =1
n1!n2!n3!n4!n5!n6! 5!0!0!0!0!0!
C) What is the entropy of a Yahtzee state (all the same value) for the 5 dice system?

Ans.
S = k ln W = 1.38 10-23 KJ ln 1 = 0
10. In information theory, entropy (measured in bits) is used to define a lower boundary
on the necessary number of numerical bit digits required to uniquely specify all possible
states of an information system (e.g. unique letters of an alphabet).
A) What is the entropy of a 36 character alphabet letter (incl. 10 numbers) system?
Assume that all letters and numbers are equally probable.
N 36
1 1
Ans: Sin bits=- 1.443 pi ln pi =- 1.443
i=1 i=1 36
ln
36

= 1.443 ln 36 =5.2 bits

A minimum of 6 bits is necessary to uniquely express this character system.


B) What is the entropy of this 36 character alphabet letter system, when numbers are 5
times more probable that letters?
Ans: Note, the probability of each character is: 26pL + 10 P# = 26pL + 10.5pL = 1
Therefore: pL = 1/76 & p# = 5/76.

10 26

Sin bits=- 1.443

p# ln p# +
i=1
p ln p
i=1
L L

50 5 26 1
Sin bits=- 1.443 ln + ln = 4.7 bits
76 76 76 76
A minimum of 5 bits is necessary to uniquely express this character system.