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ANO 2008 PRUEBAS SELECTIVAS PARA INGRESO EN LA. ESCALA SUPERIOR DE TECNICOS DE TRAFICO - ACCESO LIBRE SEGUNDO EJERCICIO DE LA OPOSICION EJERCICIO DE IDIOMA (INGLES) Este ejercicio consiste en la realizacién de una TRADUCCION al castellano, sin diccionario, del texto redactado en inglés que a continuacion se le presenta. Para la practica de este ejercicio dispondra de un tiempo de dos horas. TEXTO “YOUNG DRIVERS: THE ROAD TO SAFETY” Madrid 25 de septiembre de 2008 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 13, EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Globally, 16-24 year-old drivers are greatly over-represented in crash and traffic fatality statistics, They pose a greater risk than other drivers to themselves, their passengers and other road users. This problem imposes great social and economic costs on individuals, families and societies. ‘This report is the result of two years of collective effort by experts in the field of young driver risk from throughout the countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (QECD) and the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT). The project focused on the high levels of risk associated with young, novice drivers of passenger vehicles', including fundamental causes and concrete options for action. Young drivers are defined as those below the age of 25, keeping in mind that the minimum licensing age varies from country to country. However, it should be noted that many of the proposed countermeasures would be relevant for all novice drivers. ‘The ECMT Ministers have established the target of a 50% reduction in traffic-related deaths in the period 2000-2012. Similar commitments have been made within the European Union and by many national governments. A 2003 United Nations General Assembly Resolution recognised the high cost of traffic crashes on global human health, and resulted in the UN Road Safety Collaboration led by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Addressing the issue of young driver risk — particularly that of young men ~ will be essential to achieving the goals of these initiatives. ‘What is the scope and nature of the problem? ‘Traffic crashes are the single greatest killer of 15-24 year-olds in OBCD countries. It is estimated that over 8 500 young drivers of passenger vehicles were killed in OECD countries in 2004.2 This included almost 4 000 in the US, over 750 in Germany, 645 in France, and over 300 in both Japan and Spain. Within the OECD, young drivers typically represent between 18% and 30% of all billed drivers, although people in the same age group only represent between 9% and 13% of the total populations in their countries. Furthermore, for each young driver killed, more than 1.3 passengers or other road users likely also die in the same crashes, based on findings from the US and the Netherlands. National data from various countries indicate that crashes involving a young driver account for between 20% and 30% of tolal road traffic fatalities. Clearly, young drivers ply 2 disproportionate role in the overall public health problem of road traffic safety risk. While data are not generally available for countries that are not part of the OECD, it mus be assumed that their young driver situations are similar. This would include some ECMT countries where overall road safety levels are lower than those of most OECD members. Worldwide, WHO data show that, in 2002, traffic crashes were the second greatest cause of death for persons aged 15-29, and the greatest for men in the same age group. Death rates for young, novice drivers have decreased in many countries in recent decides, However, these reductions have mirrored overall improvements in road safety, and death rates for 18-24 year-old drivers typically remain more than double those of older drivers. In other words, despite overall improvements in road safety, the specific problem of young driver risk is not being YOUNG DRIVERS: THE ROAD TO SAFETY -1SQN 924 119385 ECR 2006 14 executive st niga resolved. However, in general, the situation lor young verall standards of driver safety: Death rates for young men are consistently much higher than those of their female counterpar lien by a factor of three ot more. Large differences remain after taking into consideration the fet that men drive mote than women. Data [rom the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK have shown that young male drivers” relative risk, compared co that af older drivers, has increased considerably over the last decade. Whether adjusted for exposure or not, the high crash fatality and injury rates of yo novice drivers represent a major public health ale sue. Young drivers have high numbers of crashes when driving at night and/or on weekends, when canying similarly aged passengers, and as a resull of speeding. Alcohol and driving without seat bells remain key factors in young driver crashes and resulting deaths and injuries. Drug-driving, especially involving cannabis, is increasing, particularly among young men, and becomes especially dangerous when mixed with aleohol, and for habitual users. Young people are over-represented in single-car and loss-of-control crashes, and crashes where the driver is turning across oncoming traffic. Apart from the enormous social costs, young driver crashes impose a huge economic cost burden on societies. In the US alone, goverment estimates state that crashes involving 15-20 year-old drivers cost $40.8 billion in 2002. What are the key factors behind the probten Why do young drivers have such high crash rates? The response can be summarised under three general headings: experience, age and gender. The universal problem of young, novice drivers is inexperience. As most people lear to drive while they are young, inexperience explains much of the high levels of young driver risk. Furthermore, a minority of young drivers fails to manage a complex range of additional risk factors — many of which are related to age and gender ~ and is thus involved in a further disproportionate number of fatal crashes. BJPRE ANO 2007 PRUEBAS SELECTIVAS PARA INGRESO EN LA ESCALA SUPERIOR DE TECNICOS DE TRAFICO ~ ACCESO LIBRE SEGUNDO EJERCICIO DE LA OPOSICION EJERCICIO DE IDIOMA (INGLES) Este ejercicio consiste en la realizacién de una TRADUCCION al castellano, sin diccionario, del texto redactado en inglés que a continuacién se le presenta. Para la practica de este ejercicio dispondré de un tiempo de dos horas. TEXTO “YOUTH DECLARATION FOR ROAD SAFETY” Madrid 10 de septiembre de 2007 Youth Declaration for Road Safe’ You get a phone call to inform you that your friend has been seriously injured in a car crash on his way home from a late night party.You are one of the first to hear. You rush to the hospital, but by the time you reach there, your friend has already died. You don't even have a chance to say goodbye. You have to tell your other friends that they have lost a buddy but you don't know what to say. They are devastated. You witness a crash on a rural road. Two little girls are walking along the roadside and are struck by a speeding vehicle. You and a few other passersby frantically try to find them transport to the local hospital. it takes more than an hour for them to reach the hospital and the services there are inadequate. Both little girls die on that same day.You return home traumatized by the Incident, wishing you could have done more to save their lives. You are among a group of school children on a class field trip. The schoo! bus Is packed with more than 50 of your excited classmates. The road is long and dangerous, the weather conditions are very poor and seat-belts in the bus are absent. The bus driver, who has been drinking alcohol, loses control of the buson an embankment, and it swerves off the road into a ditch. Four boys and three girls are killed instantly, among them one of your dearest friends. Many of the children are severely injured. Think about these tragedies for a moment... Each day, more than 3000 lives are abruptly ended because of a road traffic crash while many more people survive but are left with life-changing injuries. In a split second, a crash transforms lives forever through the loss of beloved fathers and mothers, sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, grandchildren, colleagues, classmates and friends. Each and every one of these deaths causes Immense pain and suffering. Some emotional wounds never heal. Now imagine that you could turn back time and prevent these tragedies from happening in the first place. If your friend had been wearing his seat-belt, if the vehicle had not been speeding and had been properly maintained, if the little girls had a safer place to walk and had been more visible, if the bus driver had not been driving while under the influence of alcohol, if the state of the road had not been sO poor, if appropriate medical services had been available... There are so many actions that could have been taken. We cannot turn back time and save those who have already died on our roads, but we can prevent such needless losses of life occuring In the future Together we can make road crashes history. Youth Deciaration for Road Safety| Background Globally road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death for youth aged between 40 and 24 years. Of the 1.2 million people who lose their lives in road traffic crashes each year, almost a third of them are youth under the age of 25 years. More than 90% of these fatal crashes occur in low-income and middle-income countries. In these settings, road users most likely to be involved In a crash are pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and passengers, while in high-income countries they are drivers. The cost of road crash injuries is estimated to be between 1% - 1.5% of the gross national product in low-income and middle-income countries, increasing to 2% in high-income countries. If no action Is taken, road traffic deaths are predicted to escalate exponentially in the years ahead. Opening Against this background, we, the youth of the world, the future leaders and hope for tomorrow, have gathered at the World Youth Assembly for Road Safety on 23- 24 April 2007 in Geneva, Switzerland. we have written and adopted this declaration to make every young man and woman in the world aware of the global problem of road traffic injuries, show our commitment to address the problem, and urge the world to take action to prevent road crashes. We can no longer accept that the lives of our friends and family members are senselessly destroyed on the road. Because road traffic injuries and deaths can be predicted and therefore prevented, the world has an obligation to stop them. As potential victims of road traffic crashes, we, the youth of the world, stand up for ourselves and call for the right to travel safely on the world's roads. Being young road users ourselves, we know what is on the minds of our peers, their likes and dislikes and the kind of messages that will reach them. Therefore, we need to be listened to when road safety initiatives are being developed and implemented. our commitment We, the young people of the world, have respect for our lives. Because life Is So fragile, we have to do our best to live safely and encourage others to do the same. We realize that road safety has as much to do with a safe road environment as with safe driving behaviour. With respect to road safety in particular, we fully acknowledge the importance of youth involvement to make road safety a reality. We call for awareness among all youth on the high risks they run in becoming involved in road traffic crashes on the world’s roads. We call upon all youth to serve as role models on the road and to promote road safety among their friends and families - particularly their younger brothers and sisters. specifically, we ask all youth to never drive under the influence of alcohol and drugs, shun speeding, refrain from aggressive behaviour on the roads, use helmets when riding on motorcycles and bicycles, wear seat-belts when travelling in motor vehicles, and ensure that they are visible when walking or cycling on the roads. Furthermore, we call upon all youth to stand up and participate in local, national and international road safety campaigns and programmes. It is our responsibility as emerging young leaders to stand up and do our part in demanding our safety on the worlds roads. Our efforts alone do not suffice! We therefore must also call upon our parents and guardians, our schools and universities, the communities where we live, the policy- makers in government throughout the world, community-based organizations active in road safety, private sector companies, the media, celebrities and the entertainment sector, to take responsibility and work together with us. “Adopted by the Youth Delegates from more than 100 countries at the World Youth Assembly for Road Safety, Geneva, Switzerland, 2007” = IRICEN ANO 2006 PRUEBAS SELECTIVAS PARA INGRESO EN LA ESCALA SUPERIOR DE TECNICOS DE TRAFICO - ACCESO LIBRE SEGUNDO EJERCICIO DE LA OPOSICION EJERCICIO DE IDIOMA (INGLES) Este ejercicio consiste en la realizacién de una TRADUCCION al castellano, sin diccionario, del texto redactado en inglés que a continuacién se le presenta. Para la prictica de este ejercicio dispondrd de un tiempo de dos horas. TEXTO “WIVES AS PRIMARY BREADWINNERS” Madrid 14 de septiembre de 2006 Wives as primary breadwinners One of the most dramatic transformations in the labour market in recent decades has been the tremendous growth in the labour force participation of married women. As a result, dual- eamer, husband-and-wife families are quickly becoming the norm, shattering the image of the ‘traditional’ family in which the husband is the only breadwinner Reasons for the sustained increase in dua-earer couples are many, including the rise in women's educational attainment, the increase in their fullime employment rate, and expanded occupational opportunities. Other reasons, particularly for couples with children, involve increased acceptance of alternative work atrangemenis (flexible work hours, compressed work schedules, telework), expanded childcare options, and changes to parental leave. Together these factors have improved women’s access to better-paying jabs and their ability to rise in the ranks. While for some couples the rising cost of living may have made two incomes a financial necessity, for others it may be a matter of both spouses pursuing their own interests or aspirations. One notabie corollary has been an increase in wives earning more than their husbands. Between 1967 and 1982, the proportion of wives who were primary breadwinners rose from 11% to 18% and hovered around 19% throughout most of the 1980s. The steady rise was likely the joint effect of women's long-term movement into higher-paying managerial and professional occupations, more women working full time, and better matemity benefils, combined with the much slower rise in men's average earnings over the period. During the recession of the early 1990s, the proportion of women who ware primary eamers jumped lo 25%, mainly because men in high-wage and manufacturing jobs experienced periods of unemployment. The proportion continued at approximately 1 in 4 dual-earner couples for the rest of the decade even as employment levels improved, hitting a high of 29% in 2003, or about 1.4 million couples. The continued rise suggests that women in the role of primary breadwinner is not likely a temporary phenomenon resulting from a recessionary period. Challenges facing less traditional couples This reversal of traditional earnings pattems may come at a price, however. The distribution of household eamings between spouses has been found to affect gender roles, spending pattems, and household decision making. Although findings have been mixed, women’s share of household income can be an important determinant in the decision to purchase home services such as cleaning or child care. This is an example of the persistence of traditional roles, since the income of these women is being used to buy services that reflect women's traditional role. Another study found that among couples in which the wife outearned the husband by more than 50%, the husbands did more housework, although their id the lion's share. Moreover, wives, regardless of earnings, maintained the ity for organizing the household and making sure things got done. This uneven division of labour may become a source of tension, which can lead to dissatisfaction with the relationship and perhaps a higher incidence of divarce, in the same vein, another study found that when women were the chief wage eamers (by at least $10,000 more a year), complicated systems of shifting money into various spending pools were used to maintain the traditional role of the man as provider. Also, full-time employed men in dual-eamer couples who endorsed traditional gender roles were more likely to experience lower ‘marital-role quality’ when their wives’ market-based success threatened their need to be the primary provider. In contrast, among their full-time employed wives, a higher marital- role quality was associated with greater participation by their husbands in child care. On the positive side, some men may welcome the sharing of the financial burden, and the family 2s a whole can become a stronger economic unit as a result. A working wife may also allow a man to be financially supported while he switches careers or starts his own business, or if he becomes unemployed. Primary-earner wives: older and more educated Primary-earner wives differ from other working wives in many ways. For one, they are slightly older. in 1994, the difference was only marginal: a median age of 39 versus 38. In 2003, the median age was 43 versus 41, and the gap appears to be growing. Their husbands were also slightly older, with a median age of 45 in 2003, compared with 43 for primary-earner husbands. Primary-earner wives are also generally more educated than secondary-earner wives ard primary-eerner husbands. In 2003, 30% had @ university degree, compared with 21% of secondary-eamer wives and 25% of primary-eamer husbands. Only 35% had a high school ciploma or less, compared with 42% of secondary-eamer wives and 40% of primary-earer husbands. Moreover, more than one-third of primary-eamer wives had more education then their husbands (data not shown). This educational pattern is similar to that of a decade earlier, only less pronounced. Managerial and professional occupations more frequent With their higher education levels, primary-eamer wives have increased their presence in higher- paying occupations. In 2003, these women were more likely than secondary-earnar wives to be employed in managerial and professional occupations (40% versus 26%). Nevertheless, even though these positions were typically high-paying, primary-eamer wives stil could not maich the earning power of primary-eamer husbands in the same occupational group. Primary-eamer wives in managerial and professional occupations eamed on average $68,000 annually while their male counterparts earned $83,000. In general, primary-eamer wives eared less than primary-earner husbands in each of the occupational groups examined. Primary-eamer husbands had a somewhat different occupational pattern, with 40% working in occupations related to construction, manufacturing and processing. Primary-earner husbands in this group had average eamings of $48,000. Another 37% were employed in managerial and professional occupations (with average eamings of $83,000). Secondary- eamer husbands were found mostly in these same occupational categories, but their average earings were less than half those of primary-eamer husbands. ANO 2005 PRUEBAS SELECTIVAS PARA INGRESO EN LA ESCALA SUPERIOR DE TECNICOS DE TRAFICO (ORDEN . INT/1147/2005 de 11 de abril, BOE del 29-04-2005) - ACCESO LIBRE- SEGUNDO EJERCICIO DE LA OPOSICION EJERCICIO DE IDIOMA (INGLES Este ejercicio consiste en la realizacién de una TRADUCCION al castellano, sin diccionario, del texto redactado en inglés que a continuacién se le presenta. Para la practica de este ejercicio dispondra de un tiempo de dos horas. TEXTO “INTERNATIONAL SURVEY ON RISKS ON ROADWAYS" Madrid, 14 de septiembre de 2005 INTERNATIONAL SURVEY ON RISKS ON ROADWAYS, This international survey seeks to identify and classify risks for roads by asking questions about the types of risks and damage affecting roads and road infrastructures that may cause major socioeconomic problems. These problems in turn have an impact on human and industrial activities, as do natural disasters. The questionnaires were mailed out in November 2000. The survey involved two stages. Stage One Stage one of the survey was conducted on the basis of a questionnaire addressed to 95 PIARC member countries. Thirty responses were received. The countries which responded are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Chad, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States and Zimbabwe. The survey results showed that the disasters caused by accidents during transport of dangerous goods occurred more frequently in the category of disasters due to human, social or industrial activity. The other risks identified are fires in tunnels, fires near roads, accidents related to the chemical industry, nuclear accidents and terrorism. The responses also show that landslides and floods rank among the four leading disasters: as well as, earthquakes and avalanches. The other natural disasters identified in the questionnaires are volcanic eruptions, cyclones, rockslides, snowstorms and windstorms. Stage Two Stage Two of the survey sought to obtain more detailed information on the risks of natural and man-made disasters in 20 selected countries based on the results of the first questionnaire. The countries that sent replies are Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom and United States. In the light of these responses, the risks can be presented according to the following classification: Natural disasters + Earthquakes + Floods + Landslides + Avalanches + Other disasters: volcanic eruptions, cyclones, rockslides, snowstorms and windstorms. Disasters caused by human, social or industrial activity 1. Incidents involving road vehicles * Major road accidents + Overloaded vehicles causing severe damage to the road network + Objects falling on the road network + Fire in enclosed spaces such as tunnels + Train, boat or aiplane crashes on highway infrastructures. 2. Incidents involving spills * Toxic spills on the road network + Accidents involving toxic spills 3. Incidents resulting from the proximity of housing + Explosions or fires in industrial sectors located near highways + Radioactive spills resulting from the nuclear transformation process 4. Incidents resulting from social disruptions + Terrorist attacks or result of a war affecting the road network + Strikes of drivers on roads + Vandalism. 18 INTERNATIONAL SEMINARS Many countries are facing the threat of natural disasters every year in spite of efforts made by a wide range of authorities including road authorities. Especially in developing countries where they are facing lack of pian, equipment and money have suffered from ever growing natural hazards partly due to changes of global conditions such as global warming effects, In addition to these natural hazards to. roads so-called manmade hazards disturb safe and smooth road transportation and highway structures. Road experts and decision-makers have relatively less opportunities to exchange their experiences and information on risks associated with natural hazards and social, industrial and economic activities. Gut ANO 2004 PRUEBAS SELECTIVAS PARA INGRESO EN LA ESCALA SUPERIOR DE TECNICOS DE TRAFICO - ACCESO LIBRE CUARTO EJERCICIO DE LA OPOSICION EJERCICIO DE IDIOMA (INGLES) Este ejercicio consiste en la realizacién de una TRADUCCION al castellano, sin diccionario, del texto redactado en inglés que a continuacién se le presenta. Para la practica de este ejercicio dispondra de un tiempo de dos horas. TEXTO “EUROPEAN ROAD SAFETY CHARTER” Madrid,10 de noviembre de 2004 uropean Road Safety Charter (SIGNATORY) 1, the undersigned [name, address), represented by [name and position of person signing) Having authority, decision-making, economic or social powers or a mandate to represent, And, in this capacity having a share of the responsibility for road safety in the European Union, (PREAMBLE) Whereas the number of road accident victims in Europe at present is unacceptable, and the most effective possible measures need to be taken to reduce this number in the shortest possible time, Whereas coordinated action between the many parties having responsibility, in one capacity or another, is more likely to achieve the intended results, Believing that there are effective measures available to encourage road users to apply safety rules and even to take further measures, for example in order to reduce the exposure of users to the risks of accidents; and believing that the scope of such measures will be all the greater ifa critical number of stakeholders commit themselves to them, Subscribing to the objective of reducing the number of deaths on the roads by at least 50% by 2010, Confident in the sense of responsibility of the individuals and organisations concerned, Avware that actions to promote road safety entail extremely low costs compared with the human, social and economic cost of unsafe roads, (OBJECTIVE) UNDERTAKE TO IMPLEMENT, PROACTIVELY, THE MEASURES WITHIN THE SPHERE OF MY RESPONSIBILITY AND ACTIVITIES SO AS TO SPEED UP PROGRESS ON ROAD SAFETY. UNDERTAKE IN PARTICULAR, WITHIN THE BOUNDS OF MY RESPONSIBILITY AND SPECIFICITIES AND IN CONFORMITY WITH AT LEAST ONE OF THE FOLLOWING PRINCIPLES: (PRINCIPLES) 1 To take the measures within my sphere of responsibility to contribute to the abovementioned objective of reducing the number of road deaths. 2 To include road safety actions and safoty performance measurement among my major objectives and principal decision-making criteria, in particular in the context of research activities, organisation and investment ‘and in the more general framework of the organisation of professional activities, so as to draw up a veritable road safety plan, 3. To share with the competent bodies responsible for road safety technical and Statistical information making for a better understanding of the causes of accidents, the injuries caused by accidents and the effectiveness of preventive and palliative measures. 4 To contribute to preventing road traffic accidents by pursuing high-quality actions in one or more of the following areas: * initial and continuous driving training and information, + motor-vehicle equipment and ergonomics, 9 10. CONC * infrastructure designed to minimise the risks of accidents and their gravity and to encourage safe driving, To develop and implement technologies for reducing the consequences of road traffic accidents, To contribute towards the development of means of uniform, continuous and appropriate monitoring of compliance with traffic rules by persons acting in my ame or under my authority and penelising any offenders in a uniform, rapid and proportionate way. To create a framework encouraging the introduction of continuous education actions and the rehabilitation of high-risk drivers, To endeavour to contribute, wherever possible, to a better understanding of the causes, circumstances and consequences of accidents in order to draw lessons from them in order to avoid their repetition. To contribute towards ensuring that effective and high-quality, medical, psychological and legal assistance is available for road accident victims. To accept post-evaluations by peers, in accordance with appropriate confidentiality rules, of the measures taken to improve road safety and, where necessary, to draw lessons from them to review the measures. )MMITMEN The following action: To deliberately take the initiative of implementing measures going beyond the regulatory requirements in force, namely [io be completed by the signatory] Done at ..., (Signature) ANO 2003 PRUEBAS SELECTIVAS PARA INGRESO EN LA ESCALA SUPERIOR DE TECNICOS DE TRAFICO (Orden. INT/1062/2003 de 16 de abril, BOE del 5-05-2003) ~ SISTEMA GENERAL DE ACCESO LIBRE SEGUNDO EJERCICIO DE LAS OPOSICIONES EJERCICIO DE IDIOMA (INGLES) Este eercicio consiste en la realizacién de una TRADUCCION al castellano, sin diccionario, del texto redactado en inglés que a continuacién se le presenta. Para la préctica de este ejercicio dispondrd de un tiempo de dos horas. TEXTO “THE AUSTRIAN ROAD SAFETY PROGRAMME (EXECUTIVE SUMMARY)” Madrid, 2 de julio de 2003 Executive Summary Traffic accidents result in a large social and economic loss for society. In the last 20 years, programmes have been developed in many countries in order to raise traffic safety standards. As a result, some Member States of the European Union have managed to reduce the number of traffic ‘elated deaths to half the number reported in Austria. Therefore, the Austrian government decided in January 2002 to carry out a comprehensive road safety programme. The numeric goat ofthis programme is to halve the current total of traffic deaths by 2070. This brochure presents the basis for the Austrian Road Safety Programme and the compre- hensive list of measures some of which are already being carried out as part of a framework of initial measures (known as the ,start package’). This programme will, for the first time in Austria, create a structured approach for traffic safety work and present an overview of possible steps to reduce accidents. The basis of this work ‘comes from the scientific as well as interdisciplinary work of the Austrian Road Safety Board (KfV). The primary objective of this effort will be the reduction of deaths and injuries to be achieved by effective implementation and financing, securing political and social acceptance and cost-effec- tiveness. Successful traffic safety programmes distinguish themselves through long-term and clearly worked-out methods as well as through a detailed catalogue of measurements and evaluation pians. Such programmes should be further guaranteed by passing the relevant traffic safety legis- lation as well as setting clear definite reduction goals and putting in place the necessary financing for programmes readily aveilable. Also, having an ongoing measure of effectiveness and transpar- ency of such effort is ust as important. Having a platform in which experiences can be exchanged as well as gaining the support of these measures at the federal, state and local levels are major challenges that are necessary in order for this programme to be successful. Historically, there has always been the tendency in establishing traffic safety measures to focus either on driver or technology failures as a cause of an accident. Today, there is an interna- tional trend to implement a failure tolerant traffic system. The Austrian Road Safety Programme also follows this trend. Drivers should not solely be made responsible for accidents in the future since other aspects of the traffic system, such as infrastructure planning and the preparedness for handling traffic demand, traffic flows and traffic conflicts also are responsible in certain respects. In this safety programme, four basic fields of action come into focus: human behaviour, infrastructure, vehicles and transport policy and legal framework. Altogether, there are 26 priority areas and over a hundred concrete specific measures that are at the heart of this programme: (© The area of human behaviour focuses on restraint systems, alcohol and other drugs, driving speeds, basic driver education and advanced driver training, pedestrian safety, driver fatique, motorised two-wheeler drivers, following distances, daytime running lights and traffic education. ‘Austcian foad Safety Programme 2002 - 2010 © The area of infrastructure focuses on the following areas: black spot treatment, safety on rural roads, tunnel safety, driving in the wrong direction on motorways, safety man- ‘agement in urban areas, safety audits, motorway roadwark zones, the properties of road surfacing materials and road-side Telematics. © The area of vehicles includes the areas sive vehicle safety. : accident data recorder, lorry safety and pas © The area of transport policy and legal framework covers the themes of heavy goods transport, legislation, fand use planning and influencing mode choice. In the start package, some of the main points of this programme will be implemented in the short term, with part of these packages already being carried out in 2002. These comprise meas- ures on seat belts and child restraints, driving under the influence of drugs, headways, driving speeds, motorised two-wheeless, pedestrian safety, black spats, tunnel safety and motorway roadwork zones. The premise that underlies the Austrian Road Safety Programme is: © Every death and serious injury resulting from traffic accidents is one too many © The effective safety work in the rail and aviation sectors should serve as a model for road transport © Anralthy economy has, on pure economic grounds alone, to reduce accident costs, By the year 2010, this programme should contribute to the eventual reduction of road fatali- ties by 50% and the reduction of injury accidents by 20%. By carrying out the described measures, the target of reducing fatalities by 259% and injury accidents by 10% should be reached in 2004. ANO 2002 PRUEBAS SELECTIVAS PARA INGRESO ENLA ESCALA SUPERIOR DE TECNICOS DE TRAFICO (0. INT/822/2002 de 5 de abril, BOE del 16-04-2002) ~ SISTEMA GENERAL DE ACCESO LIBRE EJERCICIO DE IDIOMA (INGLES) Este ejercicio consiste en la realizacién de una TRADUCCION al castellano, sin diccionario, del texto redactado en inglés que a continuacién se le presenta. Para la practica de este ejercicio dispondra de un tiempo de dos horas. TEXTO “ THE ROAD:KEY TO MOBILITY AND THE ECONOMY” Madrid, 27 de junio de 2002 THE ROAD KEY TO MOBILITY AND THE ECONOMY by Wanda DEBAUCHE, French-Speaking Secretary of the PIARC Technical Committee on Freight Transport (C19) |. Mosiuiry oF Peopue ano Goons IS ESSENTIAL TO THE PROPER FUNCTIONING OF ANY Economy F reedom of movement of people, goods and capital is ‘one of the major founding principles of the European Union. An efficient transport system is a necessary condition for the proper functioning of a market economy. Regional accessibilily, whether for person flows or goods flows, is particularly important because itis a prerequisite for trade and therefore economic development. Transport must be a means to guarantee people's freedom of movement for work and leisure activities. The development of transport systems has enlarged their horizons and choices, particularly as ragards housing, work, etc. Transport not only of people but also of raw materials and finished products must be ensured under good conditions. Globalisation of the economy requires production and distribution centras to be accessible by transport modes suited to the nature of the finished products and/or caw ‘materials and their specific handling requirements, Il. THe Roao Sector is INSTRUMENTAL IN THE COUNTRY’S ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT T he road sector plays a role in ihe country's economic and social development mainly through the employment it creates both in its core activities and spillover activities. This secior also contributes lo the Belgian economy through ils participation in public linance |n addition, the road sector has positive externalities that {uel the country’s economic growth, Firstly, through a stimulating effect on business activity. And secondly through the benefit to the community of new infrastructure and improved conditions of growth. This provides users with @ more efficient network resulting in time savings, increased movement of people, goods and services, greater productivity and competitiveness of economic agents, a better return on investment, improved access to the most isolated regions, regional development, the expansion of tourism — all positive elements thal have a longer-term structural effect on the economy, But although economic growth is closely linked to an increase in transport, the extension of infrastructure alone cannot ensure regional development. Economic and social accompanying measures must be implemented at the same time, Il. Mosiity DEVELOPMENT HAS LED TO CONFLICT BETWEEN TRANSPORT AND THE ENVIRONMENT here has been a tremendous increase in travel demand for both people and goods over the past few decades, under the influence of many factors that are both economic (such as growth, increase in purchasing power or Globalisation of production activities) and demographic, sociological or cultural (ageing population, increasing female employment rate, generation effects). Between 1970 and 1997, the transport of people increased by some 140% (passenger-kilometres) whereas the transport of goods increased by 70% (lonne-Kilometres). This increase in travel was particularly marked in the road sector, whose market shares increased considerably to the detriment of the other transport modes. Le eonttit transport-environnement Up to the beginning of the 1990s, mobility policies tended lo respond to an increase in demand for mechanised transport by simply developing transport capacities (supply), thus resulting in further demand to which the supply again responded through an increase in capacity. This snowball effect, combined with a regional development “non-policy’, fostered the spatial dispersal of activities and has now led to conflict between transport and the environment. aed nottaton ‘katona | lta prsson ‘owed ‘epasin oees ‘Gore Cara da Recherches [Baliaoa) Sauces Rood Rasaarh Carte (Bagon) Mobility, which has @ key role in development, is clearly in danger today. Traffic congestion, not only on the roads but also on the railways and in the air, is generating many economically wasted hours and a range of increasingly worrying adverse effecis such as noise, stress, road hazard, atmospheric and aesthetic pollution, and energy and space consumption Although the increase in mobility has declined slightly, itis set lo continue in the future. Thus by the year 2015, passenger tralfic should increase by more than 30% and freight trafic by around 70%, And the road's dominant position should be maintained for both person trips and {reight anspor Conttict between transport and the environment ANO 2001 PRUEBAS SELECTIVAS PARA INGRESO EN LA ESCALA SUPERIOR DE TECNICOS DE TRAFICO (O.M. 28-03-2001, BOE del 14-04-2001) - SISTEMA GENERAL DE ACCESO LIBRE- EJERCICIO DE IDIOMA ( INGLES Este ejercicio consiste en la realizacién de una TRADUCCION al castellano, sin diccionario, del texto redactado en inglés que a continuacién se le presenta, Para la prictica de este ejercicio dispondra de un tiempo de dos horas. TEXTO “ SAFETY AND ENVIRON-MENTAL PROTECTION: COMMON GOALS? Comparison of the methods of dissuasion in various cities of Europe and across the world. Madrid, 29 de octubre de 2001 SAFETY AND ENVIRON- MENTAL PROTECTION: COMMON GOALS? The theme of this interesting study deals with the following questions: To what extent do safety measures have an effect on reducing road traffic accidents? And can environmental protection measures have any influence uponsafetystandards? ‘The Swiss council for the prevention of accidents - cpa (Advice Centre for Acci- dent Prevention) finds that safety measures can be assessed, with the development of appropriate instrumen- tation, as to whether they serve the aims afenvironmental protection, whether they are harmful to it, or whether they are “environmentally neutral". One should imagine that safety measures in harmony with environmental soundness, as wellas supporting environmental protection ‘measures which increase safety, serve the general goodof society, and withthem the desired behaviour can be produced. This isa most critical point, because questions of safety play no central role with the population or with decision-makers. Experts in safety and in he environment have assessed the possible benefits and disadvantages, as well as the financial costs and the degree of realisation and compliance of the various measures Recommendations for the Prevention of Accidents It is indeed surprising that only a small proportion of safety measures have (posi- tive) effects on the environment. Safety ‘measures appropriate to the environment affect road traffic. Pasitive effects on the environment are achieved by two technical, two educational, and three legal measures (see Table). ‘The list of priority measures arising from this table serves the bfu as a connecting theme and a line of discussion in the planning as well as the implementing of accident prevention measures, 10 recognise the synergy effect and to strive Jor co-operation with other centres with similar tasks in other fields. As regards the activity of the bfiy there arises a demand 10 assess prevention efforts and to propagate environmentally sound measures. If such a synergy effect (environment and safety) occurs, this is to be communicated to the politicians and to the population, as well as being taken into consideration in the planning and implementation of prevention schemes. Itcan be said in summary that this report leaves no definite conclusion, since only cautious cost/benefit assessments of the various measures could be underiaken However it was established that ecological aspects were perfectly justi- fiabe in determining a safety policy, and ‘hat there are positive interactions between accident prevention and environmental protection. Comparison of the methods of dissuasion in various cities of Europe and across the world Paris Ist October 1997: alternate traffic. The Prefectdemanded ofroad-users that they resort to car-sharing and to public irans- port, free of charge for all in the He-de- France that day. Police Headquarters decided 10 reduce the maximum speed limit authorised on the Ile-de-France by 20 kph Athens An alternate traffic system was inaugu- rated in 1982. By it, from Monday 10 Thursday, from 7 o'clock in the morning until 8 o'clock in the evening, traffic is restricted to private cars on the basis of 10 the last two figures on their number plate (odd or even). When pollution lev- els (nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, ozone) reach danger point, the authori- ties ban traffic in the centre for the next day, and impose a 30% reduction in the fuel consumption of polluting factories. Rome When the red alert is triggered, traffic is forbidden during the afternoon. Only service vehicles and vehicles equipped with catalytic converters are exempt. The Italian authorities point out that the pollution rate has been reduced by 50% since 1993. The latter being more and more numerous, traffic tendsto be similar (o that on other days, but the authorities indicate that the level of pollution has nevertheless fallen by 50%, Since 1993, the situation hasseena netimprovement: in 1996, the lower level ~“attention” ~ was reached on 20 days, as against 100 three years eartier. Los Angeles The “Smog” capital is attempting ro re- solve its problems, by impasing restrie- tions on the automobile industry whichare the most severe in the United States with regard 10 the emission of noxious substances. The “Car-Pooling” ‘measure, which urges businesses through fiscal deductions to encourage their em- ployees to share their vehicles for jour- nne3s to and from work, isin fact a part Jailure. Since 1991, unleaded petrol has been obligatory in this State. Every two ‘years, renewal of the vehicle inspection certificate is subject to an examination ‘Sor toxic emissions. Californians may in- ‘form on drivers causing pollution by tel- ‘ephoning a toll-free number. Oslo For ten years, car drivers have been obliged 10 pay a toll each time they enter the city. This measure is designed to fi- nance the construction of new roads and tunnels. In order 10 reduce traffic jams. Each crossing currenily costs 12 Krone (1 GBP). Mexico Alternate traffic schemes, according to umber plate, have been applied since 1989, but despite everything, the air qual- ity is ata disturbing level for 330 days of the year. On 27 September, the 17 mit- lion inhabitants of the capital experi- enced the most heavily polluted day of the year 1997 (for ozone). For the second time in 1997, the authorities triggered “Phase 1” of their Emergency Plan. The ‘wo principal measures consisted of ban ning 40% of cars. and suspending con- laminating industrial activities to @ pro- portion of 30 t0 40%, PRUEBAS SELECIIVAS SUE Mion 1b ANO 2000 PRUEBAS SELECTIVAS PARA INGRESO EN LA ESCALA SUPERIOR DE TECNICOS DE TRAFICO (O.M. 13-03-2000, BOE del 25-03-2000) - SISTEMA GENERAL DE ACCESO LIBRE - EJERCICIO DE IDIOMA (INGLES Este ejercicio consiste en Ia realizacién de una TRADUCCION al castellano, sin diccionario, del texto redactado en inglés que a continuacién se le presenta. Para la practica de este ejercicio dispondré de un tiempo de dos horas. TEXTO “ROAD ACCIDENTS” Madrid, 4 de septiembre de 2000 I. ROAD ACCIDENTS Road safely tends fo be regarded by most countries as a social problem, albeit a high level of social apathy can be noted. Generally speaking, the result in everyday practice is that the aim of reducing the number of road accident victims does not recewe high priority. Many different ways to shine a light on road hazard problems have been tried out, so that “eyes are opened’. For example, rather than by presenting the annual (small) Probability of dying in an accident, one has attempted to draw attention to the protien: * by calculating the probability of an individual becoming involved in an accident at some time during hisiher life, or by estimating the economic Consequences of road accidents (1 to 2% of a country’s Gross National Product), * oF by pointing out that young people often become the victims of a road accident (the principal cause of death amongst people aged between 18 and 45), and therefore that road hazard leads to a high number of “lost years of life", * oF by showing how many people will have a fatal accident in the next twenty years if policy remains unaltered (¢.g, 400,000 in all countries of Central and Reston Europe), * pu by reporting that there is no technological system in existence today (such as transport by rail, air, energy production, etc.) that has led to so many fatalilios « end will continue to do so - as the current road transport system, But, to date, all these descriptions do not seem to have ben successful in drawing the attention of the general public and the politicians to the problem of road hazard here are a number of explanations for this. The large majority of all trafic accidents hardly makes any impression on the general public or on the press, in contest me Another explanation is that many people believe that road accidents are unavoidably associated with road transport systems, Finally, the fact should be mentioned that road safely measures are rarely popular, neilher amongst road users, nor politicians, because they cost money and frequently fesirict individual freedom, while the - anticipated positive - result of these monaures can rarely be determined. ‘A study conducted in Norway amongst top level decision makers in the road seclor in that country throws.a disconcerting light on this matter (Koltzow, 1993): « Three principal impediments fo safely interventions weré identified: () mobility is considered as primary importance; the freedom of the car is difficut to restrict, (i) as @ consequence there is much more lobbying for mobility than for safely, and (ii) road safety commitments and policies are week, even among some of those responsible. » There may be an underlying factor to explain the apathy towards road hazard: hardly any individual, including politicians and policy makers, experiences road hazard as a personal problem. People think that they are only rarely personally affected by the consequences of road accidents. But, it is easy to calculate that many persons will be affected in their lifetime, one way or another, in a serious way by road accidents. However, the difficulty which has to be overcome is that road traffic is not perceived as a dangerous activity. Therefore, skill is required to solve this paradox of a social problem which is nol experienced as such by the individual. What should in any case be realized is that the scope and nature of the problem must be documented as thoroughly as possible, and brought to the attention of decision makers and road users. On this basis, the road user and people at large, including the decision-makers and politicians, will have to acknowledge the problem of road hazard in its true proportions: as a public health problem, as an economic problem, as a social problem and as a traffic problem. Only then will the impression disappear that only others (can) have an accident. Public awareness must be increased to ensure that road safety measures, which cost money and restrict freedom, are introduced and accepted. Again and again, the dilemma between road safety and other objectives will have to be investigated and solved, if “optimal road safety resull” is to be achieved. In this regard it is difficult to imagine the government (central and local) not playing a prominent role, even if it were only to set the right example. Perhaps attention can be drawn to the probiem in an entirely different way: by demonstrating that it can be tackled successfully. improving road safely has proven not to be an impossible task. In highly-motorized countries, there has been no question of a considerable reduction in the number of road accident victims, even though mobility was constantly on the rise. However, growth in mobility has not led to a Parallel growth in the number of road accident victims. More striking stil; a growth in mobility in many countries has even gone along wilh a drop in the number of road accident victims. Could both these approaches (profiling road hazard as a real social problem, and a problem that can be tackled successfully) lead to the support of politicians and policy makers of course supported by a more manifest (and professionally conducted) lobby from the public and social organizations? Alter all, to date there is no country anywhere in the world where people are totally satisfied about the way in which the problem is tackled or satisfied about the resulls of this approach. There is no country in the world where the high level of road hazard is accepted as inevitable, even in those countries where a high level of mobility is linked lo a relatively low number of road accident victims. What is the perspective for road safely, if road transport as we know it today does not undergo a fundamental change in the coming decades (roads in a historically and geographically determined situation, various modes of transport thai use the same physical space, variations in speed limits between 5 to 150 knv/h, the individual as an independent, decision making being and ioads where few restrictions are imposed)? Can the number of road accident victims be (further) reduced by 10%, 50% or even by 90%? And how can the various countries in the world learn from each other? PIARC - 13+ 13.01.8- 1996 BRUEBAS/SE. _ SUPERIOR DE TE@NICO! LIBRE PRO ANO 1999 it MINISTERIO DEL INTERIOR DIRECCION GENERAL DE TRAFICO PRUEBAS SELECTIVAS PARA INGRESO EN LA ESCALA TECNICA DE LA J.C.T. (0.M.31-05-99, BOE de! 15-06-99) - SISTEMA GENERAL DE ACCESO LIBRE.- EJERCICIO DE IDIOMA (INGLES) Este ejercicio consiste en la realizacién de una TRADUCCION al castellano, sin diccionario, del texto redactado en inglés que a continuacién se le presenta. Para la préctica de este ejercicio dispondra de un tiempo de dos horas. TEXTO THE SAFETY OF OLDER CAR DRIVERS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION Madrid, 11 de Noviembre de 1999 The safety of older car drivers in the European Union Life expectancies are increasing in most developed countries all over the world, including the EU. As a result the number of older people in the population in these coun- tries is increasing more rapidly than the population as a whole. Moreover, the proportion of the older population who hold driving licences, particularly older women, has also been increasing over the yeers and is expected to continue to do so in the future. Some figures ‘The population of the 15 EU-Mem- ber States in 1994 was about 369,900,000 and the age group concerned, of 65 years or over, represented about 15 per cent of the population. It is interesting to observe that the number of drivers in the 65 and over" age group has been increasing over the. last decade at a rate of about 1.4 per cent a year - a higher rate than in any other age group. The oldest group of drivers (over 85 years) is expected to grow at the fastest rate, about 1.9 per cent a year over the next 25 years, Foundation for Road Safety Research According to data from the Inter- national Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD), the total num- ber of fatalities (all road users) in the EU countrios in 1994 was about 46,700 and the number of fatalities involving car occupants was just over 21,900. Fatalities among car occupants in the "65 and over" age group has been in- creasing at rate of about 1 per cent a year over the last decade. It is significant that this growth is about 0.4 per cent per year less than the growth of this age group over the same period and much ess than the growth in the driver population. Older drivers’ performance failings The AA Foun- dation for Road Safety Research carried outan in- teresting study analysing the sensory, cog! tive and physi: cal capabilities of drivers de- clining with age. These impair- ments vary con- siderably from driver to driver. Although — the consequences of these failings are not observed in normal driving conditions, they correspond to the type of accident in which older drivers are in- volved. Helping older drivers The measures proposed to help older drivers to continue to drive safely as long as possible relate to vehicle design, road design and advice to drivers. Improved vehi cla design for elderly people in- cludes the positioning and use of seat belts, air bags and side im: pact protection as well as vehicle equipment - improved headiights, automatic transmission and the power assistance of some vehicle functions. Road design should be more user-friendly for elderly drivers, junctions should simplify decisions which have to be made by car drivers, traffic signs should be easily seen and urban safety management measures should slow traffic down in busy urban or residential areas. Regarding ad- vice to drivers, some drivers re- main unaware of the deterioration in their driving capabilities. They need to be encouraged to have their eyesight checked regulerly and to wear spectacles. They should also know of the potential impairing effects of drugs taken for medical purposes. Eventually the older driver may have to give up driving. Source: The sofaty of older car drivers in the European Union, by G.Maycock, ‘AA Foundation for Road Safety Research, Tor ERSF Norfolk House Priesiley Road, Basingstoke Hampshire RG24 ONY ‘Great Britain ToL: (+444) 01255 494 604 (24 hours) The effect of sex and car characteristics on accident types among elderly drivers in inland The increase in the elderly popu- ation will be particularly rapid in Finland. Helsinki University pub- lished @ study that is based on 33.651 accidents recorded in the motor vehicle insurance claim statistics regarding the years 1987 to 1994. The study investi- gated the variation of risks with accident types in different age and sex groups of drivers over 60 years. Some car characteristics like vehicle weight, engine vol- ume etc. were also studied in re- lation to the risks. Injury risk was found to increase very quickly with the increasing age of a driver and it was also higher for women than for men. Information on mileage, active and passive drivers, and driving habits were collected during @ weeklong cus- tomer enquiry (questionnaire) conducted at all Finnish car ii spection centres. The insurance data covers the following type of accidents: intersection (88%), rear-end (81%), turning (79%), single-vehicle (48%) and pedest ans (31%). People in the age group of 75 years and over have 3-5 times higher injury risks in all accident types than 60-64 year old licence holders. Accident types and mileage Elderly drivers have a much lower Proportion of __single-vehicle crashes than of other accident types and a much higher propor- tion of intersection crashes and accidents involving two vehicles or more. They have a higher per- centage of right-of-way offences and most of them sometimes make incorrect turning manoeu- vres. About 45% of these acci- dents occur at intersections. The accident risk at intersections for male drivers of 75 years and over is approximately 6 times and for female drivers about 11 times her than for the age group 60- 64. The injury risks are the lowest for the age group 60-64 and the highest for the 75 and over-age group in all accident types. Fe- male drivers have a higher injury risk compared to male drivers in same-direction, rear-end and tersection accidents. Male drivers have higher injury risk in head-on accidents compared to female drivers. Elderly male drivers have igher accident involvement risk in all accident types compared to female drivers. Risk rate versus car characteristics There are no big differences be- tween car characteristics. The biggest car models seem to have a lower accident involvement risk as compared to other size classes. Somehow, elderly drivers’ injury risk decreases as the engine vol- ume of cars increases. An expla- nation for this could be that those elderly drivers still drive higher mileage and possess bigger and more comfortable cars. They are more experienced and therefore have a lower number of accidents compared with their mileage. Extremely high injury risk is ap- Parent for cars with very low en- gine power (under 45 HP), be- Cause these cars are often small, Old and equipped with old-fash: ioned safety belts and without any safety construction in the car body. Conclusions and counter-measures In this study it appears that the sex of drivers has a substantial ef- fect on elderly drivers’ accidents. For example in rear-end accidents the risk for men in the age group 60-64 is 1.7 times higher than that for women. In the age group 75 and over the risk is the reverse and is 1.9 times higher for female than for male drivers in all acci- dent types. Providing longer amber signal time and protecting left-turn Phases could possibly minimise dangerous manocuvres by el- derly drivers at intersections con- trolled by traffic signals. In addi- tion, the transformation of inter- Sections (without signals) to roundabouts could help elderly drivers. In general, elderly people have a narrower ‘field of vision ind they often fail to heed traffic signs. It might be possible to re. duce the height of traffic signs Where they can be seen more easily. Other means to help elderly drivers at problematic. intersec- tions are: reducing the number of igns, cleaning the signs, better winter maintenance. This is nec- essary because, in situations with large traffic volume and difficult traffic situations, eldarly drivers fail to notice stop signs at inter- sections without signals. Source: The Effect of sex, car characteris (ies, accident types among elderly drivers in Finland, Mohammed Shafigul Mannan. Helsinki University of Technology, PO. ‘BOX 2300, Fin-02015 HUT. FINLAND AX: (++358)9 4515079 e-mail: mmannan@ce.hut.f ANO 1998 PRUEBAS SELECTIVAS PARA INGRESO EN LA. ESCALA TECNICA DE LA J.C.T. 1998 ~ SISTEMA GENERAL DE ACCESO LIBRE - EJERCICIO DE IDIOMA (INGLES) Este ejercicio consiste en la realizacién de una TRADUCCION al castellano, sin diccionario, del texto redactada en inglés que a continnacién se le presenta. Para la préctica de este ejercicio dispondrad de un tiempo de dos horas. i XTO ROAD TUNNELS Design for safety, comfort and aesthetics ’ Madlriel, 9 dle diciembre de1998. There is 2 growing concern as to the feeling of confidence and comfort while driving in tunnels. Another Problem is the difficulty in evaiuat- ing the effect of tunnel design on driver behaviour and traffic safety. The Norwegian Public Roads Admin- istration recently focussed these Problems in an international sympo- sium. {In Norway, more than 800 road tun nets have been built to overcome communication problems in re- gions with mountains and fjords, as well as in urban areas. A large num- ber of the tunnels are situated on roads with light traffic, and oxperi- ence shows that it is possible 10 combine austerity in design with a high safety level in relation to sur- face roads Much effort has been made to de velop simpte and cost-effective lin ings for water and frost protection of the tunnels, A project “road tun: hol finings" has been established to Provide a1 basis for codes, quality ontral, contracting and further de velopment, One of the subproj Goals with lining chesign in relation to traffic safety, comfoct and ats thaties However, there is growing concern in society regarding the feeling of confidence and comfort while driv- ing in tunnels. This fact is especially true for recent projects including very long tunnels, and subsea tun- nels with long slopes. Internation. ally, it is often difficult to “sell” the tunnel concept when planning road Projects. To counteract this trend, ar chitects, psychologists, artists and lighting consultants have been con- sulted to make tunnels design more attractive, Although there are many types of design for making tunnels more at- tractive, no common design princi ples or guidelines have so far been agreed upon. Another problem is the difficulty in evaluating the effect the designs have on driver behaviour and traflic safely, As a consequence, the Norwegian Public Roads Admin istration has organised a sympo- sium last October The behaviour of drivers seems to be dependent on traffic volume, tun tcuret, an in particular, driv. vepetionce, Less than 5% of avoid tunnels beeause of snd claustrophobia, Must ansinty drivers slow down and move away from the tunnel wall towards the middle of the road when entering the tunnel. Once into the tunnel, they increase speed and drive closer to the tunnel wall. The distance they keep is dependent of the level of lightning and the optical guidance indicated, for instance, by “cats’ eyes". However, some nervous drivers slow down, while half the drivers ( in Norway) drive faster than the speed limit. Attention to these findings is essential when designing tunnels with a view to safety and confidence, The contributors were agreed on the general image problems of road tun- nels. The psychological factors in- volved in driving through long tun- nels were stated to be the sense of confinement, claustrophobia and fear of being trapped. A monotonous visual environment promotes a lack of concentration, orientation and connection with the surface. To counteract this image, the key points for the design of road tunnel linings were found to be: * Signing + Lighting * Colours + Emergency equipment + Lining materials + Ornamentation/patterns. Lining/colours It was pointed out that a sense of confinement occurs when the height of the ceiling is reduced. Since light colours promote a feeling of spa- ciousness, a light coloured ceiling should encourage a sense of well- being and confidence. Taking this ar- gument further, light coloured walls should also provide a feeling of space. The greater the light inside, the higher will be the level of visual control. On the other hand, the Nor- wegian designs mainly have dark ceilings, the argument being that drivers should be encouraged to rect their attention to the road, anda light ceiling would introduce a dis- turbing element. During the symposium, it was pointed out that the lighting level is Not decisive in achieving the optical guidance desired. However, the ef- fect of pollution should be’ consi ered when a tunnel is de: igned. The use of patterns may also have an important impact on the driver's be- haviour. Patterns with vertical ele- ments alone, for example, provide cues regarding speed and wall cur- vature. Since this makes the driver more aware of speed, such vertical patterns may be used to influence the driver to reduce ( or increase } speed. Patterns with horizontal ele- ments alone appear to give visual ‘cues regarding the change in inclina- tion of the road, but becomes more difficult to interpret in curved tunnel sections, Emergency equipment Safety installations, such as emer- gency telephones, shelter areas, lay- byes and signposting systems, con- tribute to the visual control level in- side the tunnel. Norwegian studies reveal that 60-70 percent of drivers listen to the radio when driving through tunnels provided with an- tennas. This makes it possible to transmit information on special events, and to give drivers encour- agement and confidence. However, emergency telephones are used in Jess than 50 percent of the events that warrant their use. To improve this situation, the Norwegian repre- sentatives strongly recommended changing the sign from ‘SOS’, which is the EU standard, to "Service Tele- phone”. Final remarks The subject of road tunnel lining is currently in its initial phase. Much work and consideration is required to arrive at solutions that will pro- duce the desired effecis on road tun- nel safety, comfort and aesthetics. TUNELES DE CARRETERA Una concepeién en pro de la seguridad, la comodidad y la estética. La circulacién por el interior de los tiineles en condiciones que deparen una sensacién de confianza y comodidad en el viajero se ha convertido en una preocupacién creciente, Problema afiadido es la dificultada de evaluar el efecto que sobre el comportamiento del conductor y sobre la seguridad vial presenta el diseiio del timel, El Departamento Noruego de Vias Pablicas ha abordado estos problemas en una conferencia internacional. En Noruega se han construido mas de 800 tineles con el propésito de resolver los problemas de comunicacion que plantean aquellas zonas donde abundan montafias o fiordos, 0 también los trazados urbanos. Un considerable nimero de tineles esti localizado en carreteras con escaso nivel de trifico, mientras que la experiencia pone de relieve que es posible combinar la austeridad en el disefio con un alto nivel de seguridad comparable al de las vias de superficie. Se han Ilevado a cabo importantes trabajos destinados a desarrollar revestimientos simples y rentables que protejan a Jos tineles del agua y del frio, a la vez que se ha implantado un proyecto denominado “revestimientos para ttineles de carretera” orientado proporcionar el fundamento de referencia para los cédigos, control de calidad, contratacién y desarrollos ulteriores. Una de las ribricas del proyecto concieme especialmente la concepcién del revestimiento y sus consecuencias sobre el tréfico vial, la comodidad y la estética Con todo, es cada vez mayor el interés social por la confianza y la comodidad a la hora de circular por los timeles. Un hecho que se confirma especialmente en el caso de proyectos recientes entre los que cabe citar la consiruccién de ttneles de gran longitud, 0 de tiineles submarinos de pendiente aguda, En el plano internacional suele resultar trabajoso “vender” el concepto de tinel al planificar proyectos viales. En contrapartida a a tendencia, se ha sondeado a arquitectos, psicélogos, artistas y consultorias encargadas de iluminacién con el fin iltimo de mejorar el aspecto interior de los tineles. ‘Aunque abundan los tipos de disefio capaces de lograr dicha mejora, no existen todavia unos principios o normas comunes. Una dificultad afiadida es la de evaluar el impacto de dichas concepciones sobre el comportamiento del conductor o sobre Ia seguridad vial. En consecuencia, el Departamento Noruego de Vias Publicas organiz6 una conferencia el pasado mes de octubre. Comportamiento del conductor. El comportamiento del conductor parece estar en relacion de dependencia frente al volumen de tréfico, estindar del tinel y, en particular, la experiencia de la conduccién. Algo menos del 5% de los conductores evitan los tuneles debido a problemas de ansiedad y claustrofobia. Muchos conductores reducen la velocidad y se desplazan hacia el centro de la calzada una vez que penetran en el timel. Ya en el interior, aumentan otra vez de velocidad y se pegan mas a la pared del tinel, La distancia que mantienen depende del nivel de iluminacién y del marcador éptico, por ejemplo, “los captafaros” Sin embargo, algunos conductores especialmente nerviosos reducen la velocidad, mientras que lz mitad de los conductores (en Noruega) conducen por encima del limite de velocidad. Prestar atencién a estos datos es crucial a In hora de concebir tineles con vistas a la seguridad y la confianza. Los entes consultados se mostraron uninimes en cuanto a las deficiencias generales de imagen que presentan los tineles de carretera, En su opiniéa, los factores psicolégicos que intervienen en la conduccién por tiineles de grandes dimensiones son la sensacion de Confinamiento, la claustrofia y el miedo de estar atrapado. Un entomo visual monétono favorece Ia falta de concentracién, de orientacién y de conexién con la superficie. Para Contrarrestar esta impresién, se eligieron como puntos clave de la concepcién del revistimiento de tinel ~ La sefializacion. ~ La iluminacion ~ Los colores. ~ El equipo de emergencia. ~ Los materiales de revestimiento. ~ Decoracién/diseiios. Revestimiento/colores Se sefialé. que la impresién de confinamiento se produce cuando ia altura del techo es reducida. Puesto que los colores claros amplian la impresién espacial, una techumbre envuelta en color suave favoreceria el bienestar y la confianza, Y llevando el argumento mas all, las paredes del mismo color suave facilitarian Ia sensacién de espacio. Cuanta mas luz en el interior, mayor serd el nivel de control visual. Por otra parte, en la mayoria de las concepciones utilizadas en Noruege predominan los colores oscuros, so pretexto de que los conductores prestarin asi més atencién a la carretera, mientras que con un techo iluminado se introduciria un elemento distorsionador. Durante la Conferencia, se sefialé que el nivel de iluminacién no es decisivo a la hora de conseguir la orientacin dptica deseada. Sin embargo, deberd tenerse en cuenta el factor “contaminacién” a la hora de considerar el disefio del tinel La utilizaci6n de disefios puede afectar también de manera relevante al comportamiento del conductor. Los disefios limitados a elementos verticales, por ejemplo, proporcionan indicaciones relativas a la velocidad y Ia curvatura de la pared. Puesto que de esta forma ol conductor es mas consciente de la velocidad, convendria utilizarlos a fin de influenciar an él e inducirlo a una menor (0 mayor) velocidad. Los disefios con elementos horizontales dnicamente parecen proporcionar indicaciones visuales relativas al cambio en la inclinacién de la carretera, pero su interpretaci6n es mas problemitica en los tramos curvados del tunel, pamiento de emergencia Los dispositivos de seguridad, como teléfonos de emergencia, zonas resguardadas o de estacionamiento, sistemas de sefializacién, contribuyen a mejorar el nivel de control visual dentro del tiniel. Los estudios realizados en Noruega ponen de manifiesto que el 60-70 por ciento de los conductores escuchan Ia radio mientras conducen a través de un tunel equipado con antenas. De esta forma puede transmitirse informacién sobre acontecimientos especiales, favoreciendo la sensacién de confianza entre los conductores. Sin embargo, los teléfonos de emergencia s6lo se utilizan en el 50% de los casos en que se prevé su utilizacién. Para mejorar esta situacién, los representantes de Noruega se mostraron firmemente partidarios de sustituir Ia sefial “SOS”, que es el estindar europeo, por la de “Teléfono de Servicio” Observaciones finales La cuestion del revestimiento de los tuneles de carretera se halla actualmente en su fase inicial. Queda mucho trabajo y reflexién por delante hasta alcanzar las soluciones que permitan alcanzar los efectos deseados de cara a la seguridad, comodidad y estética en Jos tineles de carretera.