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Sawomir Dutkiewicz,

Daniela Grochowska-apienis,
Synthesis of Poly(L(+) Lactic Acid)
Wacaw Tomaszewski by Polycondensation Method in Solution
Institute of Chemical Fibres
ul. M. Skodowskiej-Curie 19/27, 90-570 d, Poland
In this work. the results of the synthesis of high molar weight poly(L(+) lactic acid) (PLA)
which is able to thermally crystallise have been described. Such PLA can be used in fibre
formation. The synthesis of poly(L(+) lactic acid) was carried out in a solution of o-dichlo-
robenzene, p-xylene, o-chlorotoluene, and diphenyl ether. As a monomer, L(+)lactic acid
purified by distillation was applied. Stannous chloride and metallic tin were used as catalysts
in a quantity of 1.0 wt% calculated on the monomer. Polycondensation was carried out over
a period from ten to over 20 hours. The resulting poly(L(+) lactic acids) were characterised
by DSC, and the molar masses were measured by the GPC method. Their melting points,
thermostabilities, inherent viscosities, and flow indexes were also determined. The poly(L(+)
lactic acid) with the highest molar mass was obtained in the synthesis carried out in diphenyl
ether under vacuum.

Key words: poly(L(+) lactic acid), polycondensation, poylactide.

droxypropionic acid is ten times stronger causes a loss of the optical activity of the
than propionic acid [2]. initial acid (Figure 1).
CH3CH2COOH pKa=4.9
CH3CH(OH)COOH pKa=3.9 Poly(L(+) lactic acid) (PLA) is synthe-
sised by two methods: (1) the polymeri-
Lactic acid contains one asymmetric car- sation of L-lactide (cyclic dimer of lactic
bon atom, and it therefore occurs in two acid) and (2) the polycondensation of
enantiomeric forms. In the technological L(+) lactic acid (LA), which is carried out
synthesis of poly(lactic acid), this dextro- in bulk or in solution. So far, the synthesis
rotatory enantiomer (L(+) lactic acid) is of PLA from lactide is the best-known
n Introduction mostly used, which gives the crystalline method of synthesis. This process is used
poly(L(+) lactic acid) (PLA). A mixture in industry and numerous publications and
The production of plastics, and articles of enantiomers of lactic acid is applied patents are devoted to it. The direct poly-
produced from them, is expanding sys- in the food and tanning industries. The condensation of lactic acid in bulk is not
tematically. Simultaneously, the amount commercial lactic acid (LA), available applied on a greater scale, because of the
of waste is increasing because the major-
as an 85-92% aqueous solution, con- competitive reaction of lactide formation
ity of conventional plastics are resistant
tains an admixture of the linear dimer and the simultaneously occurring degra-
to the long-lasting action of weather
CH 3 CH(OH)COOCH(CH 3 )COOH, dation process. The polycondensation of
and/or drastic biological conditions.
i.e. laktyllactic acid, which is formed lactic acid in solution gives PLA with mo-
Both recycling and combustion are proc-
during the concentration of LA under lar masses ranging from the tens to a few
esses which permit only a partial solu-
atmospheric pressure. During the heat- hundred thousand. This process has been
tion of the above-mentioned problem.
ing of laktyllactic acid to the temperature well known since 1994. The outstanding
Thus, in recent years we have observed
of 180-250C, dehydratation occurs and achievements in this field belong to Japa-
intensive development in investigations
the cyclic diester-lactide is formed [3]. nese scientists [6-8]. In their works, L(+)
into biodegradable polymers. It seems
that one polymer which may meet our Lactide can occur in two optic active lactic acid from Purac without prior puri-
requirements and replace the majority of enantiomers, a racemic mixture and in fication was used as the starting material
popular plastics on the market is poly(L- mezo form [4 ]. in polycondensation. In the present work,
(+)-lactic acid) (PLA). This assumption we used as a substrate L(+) lactic acid
confirms the actuation of PLA production L(+) and D() lactic acids, as a conse- from Fluka which had been purified by
by world-famous firms, namely Cargill quence of the presence of the hydrogen distillation. In polycondensation carried
Dow Polymers (USA) and Mitsui Toatsu atom connected to an asymmetric carbon out in p-xylene and diphenyl ether, lower
Chemicals Inc. (Japan) [1]. atom, can undergo enolisation, [3] which molar masses of PLA were obtained than
in turn leads to autoracemisation, that that reported by the Japanese authors in
Lactic acid (-hydroxypropionic acid),
used as a substrate in the synthesis of
PLA, belongs to the hydroxyacids. Hy-
droxyacids are characterised by greater CH3 C COOH C C CH3CH(OH)COOH
acidity than acids devoid of hydroxy OH
groups, because the presence of hydroxy
groups (particularly in the position) L(+) lactic acid enol racemic LA
considerably facilitates the dissociation
of carboxyl groups. For this reason -hy- Figure 1. Racemisation of lactic acid.

66 FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2003, Vol. 11, No. 4 (43)
analogous syntheses. The polycondensa- stannous chloride anhydrous (Fluka) Table 1. Influence of the conditions of
tion of L(+) lactic acid in o-dichloroben- and powdered tin (for analysis) reaction on thermostability PLA.
zene and o-chlorotoluene was carried out (SERVA) - the grain size of <0.01
Decrease of polymer mass during
under atmospheric pressure and has not so mm were used as received. the first two hours heating
far been described in the literature. Sample (in wt%)
Description of PLA samples 160C 180C
The PLA obtained in the polymerisation In this work polymer samples of the p-Xy - 37 1.6 6.8
of lactide and/or in the polycondensation following description were applied: o-ChB - 20 2.8 18.8
of LA in the solution is constructed from letters denotes the solvent in which the
identical structural units. Both polymers synthesis of PLA was carried out, and the
~0.01 mm) was added to this solution,
have only different end-groups that numbers refer to the time of reaction, e.g.
and the reaction mixture was heated. The
influence some of their physico-chemical DPE-28 denotes that PLA was obtained
water was azeotropically distilled off,
proprieties [6,8]. in diphenyl ether in 28 hours. and fresh solvent was added during the
distillation to keep the reagent concentra-
The main aim of this work was to obtain Purification of lactic acid tion constant. The reaction was carried
high molar mass poly(L(+) lactic acid) The commercial lactic acid was dehy- out until a clear distillate appeared in
with a high degree of crystallinity that dratated during heating under vacuum the receiver. Then a tube packed with
makes it useful in fibre formation. (~15 mm Hg) at a temperature of 50C. 40-50 g of 4 type dry molecular sieves
The heating was stopped when the tem- was mounted onto the apparatus, and the
perature reached 70C (without changing reaction was continued at 180C for sev-
n Experimental Part
the pressure). Then the apparatus was eral hours in a closed circulation system
Reagents desiccated, and the residue was distilled for the solvent. During the synthesis the
L(+) lactic acid containing 10-15% of under vacuum (10 mm Hg) at a tempera- control samples were taken out, until the
water (Fluka, Swotzerland). ture of 112-136C. reaction mixture attained the maximum
The following solvents were used viscosity.
without purification: It should be noted that in conditions
diphenyl ether (DPE) (Aldrich) - of distillation of L(+) lactic acid, side Then the metallic tin was filtered off, and
purity 99%; products of this polycondensation may the resulting solution was poured into an
o-chlorotoluene (o-ChT) (Aldrich) be formed, e.g. laktyllactic acid, which excess of methanol (of five times greater
- purity 99% (GC); could contaminate the distillate. There- volume). The resultant white powder was
o-dichlorobenzene (o-ChB) (Aldrich) fore in the next part of this work, the washed several times with methanol and
- purity 99% spectrophotometric grade; distilled L(+) lactic acid will be referred dried at 80C for 2 h. The final product,
p-xylene (p-Xy) (Aldrich) - 99% to as the product of distillation of L(+) called further poly(L(+) lactic acid, was
HPLC grade; lactic acid. not additionally purified before analysis
of its physico-chemical properties.
chloroform, pure (PPH POCh S. A.,
Gliwice); Synthesis of poly(L(+) lactic acid)
Syntheses in p-xylene and in o-chloro-
methanol, pure (PPH POCh S. A., Polycondensation of LA in solution
toluene were carried out analogously
Gliwice). under atmospheric-pressure
at temperatures of 138C and 159C
In addition: 80 g of the product of distillation L(+)
respectively. In the case of the reaction
molecular sieves 4A, Chemiczne lactic acid was dissolved in 300 mL of o-
in p-xylene, stannous chloride was used
Przedsiebiorstwo Reagents Splka dichlorobenzene in a three-necked flask
as a catalyst in the quantity of 1 wt%
z.o.o. Lublin; (0.5 dm3). 0.8 g of metallic tin (grain size
(calculated on the amount of monomer).
It was dissolved in methanol during the
0,55 precipitation of PLA.
inherent viscosity, dl/g; c=0.2g/dl

Polycondensation of LA in solution
0,45 o-chlorotoluene under reduced pressure
p-xylene 85 g of the product of distillation L(+)
o-dichlorobenzene lactic acid was dissolved in 400 mL of p-
0,35 xylene in a four-necked flask (0.5 dm3).
0.85 g of metallic tin (grain size ~0.01
mm) was added to this solution, and the
0,25 reaction mixture was heated at 136C to
remove azeotropic water, until a clear
distillate appeared in the receiver. Then,
0,15 the p-xylene was removed under reduced
0,1 pressure (~300 mm Hg) at temperature
not exceeding 146C. Next, 250 mL of
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
diphenyl ether was added and the reac-
polycondensation time, h
tion mixture was heated at 130C under
vacuum (12-15 mm Hg). The process
Figure 2. Influence of polycondensation time on inherent viscosity of PLA.

FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2003, Vol. 11, No. 4 (43) 67
was carried out in a closed system and Viscosity measurements ing, the molar mass of the resulted poly-
the circulated solvent removed residual Viscosity measurements were performed mer increased insignificantly, and after
water from the reaction mixture. Water in chloroform at a temperature of 25C in 37 h of the reaction the resulting polymer
was absorbed by molecular sieves placed an Ubbelohde viscometer with capillary had inh=0.22 dl/g and m.p.=163C.
in the receiver, as described in the previ- 0a and K=0.00498. Inherent viscosity
ous example. The procedure of isolating was calculated according to the follow- Synthesis of PLA in o-dichlorobenzene
the resulting products was similar to that ing equation: in the presence of metallic tin pro-
described above. ceeded with considerably higher speed
hinh = ln hrel / c
in comparison to that with p-xylene
Analysis of products where: because of the significantly higher re-
Determination of molar masses by GPC hrel - relative viscosity, action temperature (159C). PLA with
method c - concentration of polymer, g/dl. the highest viscosity was obtained after
The polymers molar masses were de- 15 h of polycondensation. The samples
termined by the GPC method on a Type Determination of flow index
for viscosity determination were in this
Determination of flow indexes were per-
1050 Hewlett Packard chromatograph case taken at rather large intervals (every
formed on a Melt Flow Tester apparatus of
with an HP 1047A RI detector in chlo- 5 h), and so the plot viscosity vs. time
type P/N 6941.000 (CEAST) using a load
roform as a mobile phase at a flow rate of polycondensation (Figure 2) should
of 2.16 kg and a spinneret of 0.5 mm.
of 1.0 mLmin-1. One Pl gel Mixed D be considered as approximation. On the
column (7.8600 mm; 5 m; Polymer other hand, the presence of thermodegra-
Laboratories Ltd.) was used for deter- n Results and Discussion dation was observed because of the high
mination. The samples (concentration temperature process (cf. Table 1). It can
of polymers: 3 mg/mL) were filtered In this work the synthesis of PLA was
therefore be assumed that the maximum
through 0.2 m-pore size membrane fil- carried out in chemically different sol-
of the resultant PLAs viscosity should be
ters. The injection volumes of the sample vents and at various temperatures. Metal-
reached between 13 and 18 h of the proc-
solution were 70 l. The calibration of lic tin and stannous chloride were used as
ess. The melting point Tm of polymer
the column was performed with narrow catalysts in quantity of 1 wt%, calculated
according to the amount of monomer. after 20 h of polycondensation was equal
polystyrene standards. to 130-132C.
The progress of the polycondensation of
Determination of melting points L(+) lactic acid in solution was controlled
by regular sampling small amounts from Samples obtained in different solvents,
The melting points of the resulting PLA o-ChB-20 (at 180C in o-dichloroben-
were determined on Botius (Nagema) the reaction mixture and determining the
viscosity of the isolated poly(lactic acid). zene after 20 h) and p-Xy-37 (at 140C
In every synthesis we tried to obtain PLA in p-xylene after 37 h), were subjected
with the highest molar mass. to thermal stability analysis after being
DSC measurements
dried to the constant mass at 120C. The
The DSC measurements were carried
Synthesis of PLA in p-xylene was carried loss of mass of the polymers analysed
out under a nitrogen atmosphere with
out in the presence of stannous chloride over two hours at temperatures of 160
samples sealed into the standard DSC
as a catalyst at 138C. After 20 h of heat- and 180C is shown in Table 1.
aluminium sample kits. The following
thermal cycle was employed:
First, sample I was heated up to a
temperature about 20C above the CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3
melting point; next, cooled down to H (O CH C )nO CH C O CH C (O CH C )m OH
about 10C; then, sample II was heated O O O O
up to the same temperature as in the
first stage. The samples investigated
had weights within the range of 5 to 15 CH3 CH3 CH3
mgs. Both heating and cooling rates were H (O CH C )nO CH C OH + CH2 CH C (O CH C )m OH
20C/min. O O O O

Measurements of thermal stability Figure 3. Thermal break-up of PLA chain upon the formation of molar mass stabiliser.
Measurements of the thermal stability of
PLA were performed on a TGS -1 ther-
mobalance with a UK -1 (Perkin-Elmer) CH3 CH3 CH3
temperature programmator unit at a heat- H(O CH C ) OH + H( O CH C )y OH H( O CH C )x + y OH + H2O
ing rate of 10C/min and under a nitrogen O O O
flow of about 30 mL/min. The analysis of
thermostability of PLA samples, obtained
H(O CH C )z OH H(O CH C) OH +
in the syntheses in p-xylene (140C) and z-2
in o-dichlorobenzene (180C), was per- O O O O CH3
formed at temperatures of 160C and
180C respectively. Figure 4. Equilibria observed during polycondensation of LA: PLA - H2O and PLA - lactide.

68 FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2003, Vol. 11, No. 4 (43)
It has been found that the lower tempera- (determined for polystyrene standards). crystalline phase during cooling (crystal-
ture of PLA synthesis favours the forma- Poly(L(+) lactic acids) with the above- lisation from melt) or during repeated
tion of polymers with higher thermal mentioned physico-chemical properties heating of polymer (the cold crystalli-
stability and molar mass, and with lower could be successfully used in the sation). Table 3 shows three samples of
tendency to create by-products. The fast production of semi-finished articles and PLA, o-ChT-22, DPE-27, and DPE-36,
growth observed in the molar mass, and final products such as cast profiles, foils, which were obtained after different heat-
then its fall during polycondensation in packaging, and fibres. ing times (22, 27, and 36 h) in o-ChT (at
o-dichlorobenzene, may be connected 159C) and DPE (at 130C). In the DSC
with the formation of molar mass stabi- Figure 5 shows the dependence of measurements during the second heating,
liser as a result of the thermal rearrange- inherent viscosity vs. Mn and Mw of PLA it was observed that DPE-27 reproduces
ment of PLA. samples from Table 2. Point inh=0.7 a considerable part of crystalline phase,
(in Figure 2) corresponds to the control whereas DPE-36 reproduces only a
One possible way to thermodegrade PLA sample of polymer removed after 22 h minimum part, and o-ChT-22 remains
is the thermal break-up of the ester bond during the synthesis of DPE-36. amorphous.
upon formation of the acidic stabiliser of
molar mass (Figure 3) [9]. According to some authors [11], PLA The melting points of DPE-27 and DPE-
with Mn 25104 already has reasonable 36 samples (cf. Table 3), as determined
For the synthesis performed under atmos- physical proprieties for commercial use. by the DSC method, differ only slightly
pheric pressure, the highest viscosity of from the values reported in the literature
polymer was obtained in the polyconden- The essential, valuable property of poly- for poly(L(+) lactic acid) synthesised
sation carried out in o-chlorotoluene (o- mers designed for fibre formation is the by the polycondensation method in
ChT-22) (Figure 2). The molar masses ability to regenerate, after melting, the solution [6]. The melting point of o-
Mn and Mw of this polymer, as deter-
mined by the GPC method, were equal to Table 2. Inherent viscosity and Melt Flow Index for some samples of PLA.
2.6104 and 6.7104 respectively.
inh, dl/g MFI, g/10 min
All syntheses were performed with dry- Sample 180C 190C
c=0.1 g/dl c=0.2 g/dl
ing solvent during the process and its after 6 min after 30 min after 6 min after 30 min
circulation in the closed system. This is o-ChT-22 0.53 0.53 14.94 29.75 21.56 -
of essential significance for the progress DPE-27 0.94 1.01 0.97 4.25 2.52 17.81
of polycondensation, despite the equi- DPE-36 0.87 0.92 0.61 1.10 0.93 3.38
librium process of PLA formation [10]
(Figure 4).
Table 3. Thermal properties of some samples of PLA (Tg - glass transition temperature, Tcc/
Hcc - cold crystallisation temperature/enthalpy, Tm/Hm - melting temperature/enthalpy,
Polycondensation of L(+) lactic acid Tc/Hc - melt crystallisation temperature/ enthalpy, n.d. - not detected, I/II - first/second
under reduced pressure (12-15 mm Hg) heating).
was performed in diphenyl ether at 130-
135C. As a result, two poly(L(+) lactic Heating, 20C/min Cooling, 20C/min
acids) DPE-27 and DPE-36, after 27 Sample
and 36 h of the reaction, were obtained Tg, Tcc, DHcc, Tm, DHm, Tc, DHc, Tg,
C C J/g C J/g C J/g C
respectively. Their physicochemical
I 61.5 n.d. n.d. 151 48.5 n.d. n.d. 57
properties, especially their low flow o-ChT-22
II 58 n.d. n.d. 151 0.36 - - -
indexes at 180 and 190C (cf. Table 2), I 56 n.d. n.d. 161 59.2 n.d. n.d. 59.5
were better than for the other polymers II 59 136 9.0 165 9.3 - -
previously obtained. DPE-36
I ~58 n.d. n.d. 158 52.6 n.d. n.d. 58.5
II 58.5 134 2.2 162 1.5 - - -

Poly(L(+) lactic acids) showed fibre-form-

ing properties and threads were success-
fully formed from them. The best ther-
mostability in melt was shown by DPE-36.
inherent viscosity for c=0,1g/dl

The differences of its flow indexes, after Mn
30 minutes and after 6 minutes at 180 and Mw
190C, were not great, and were equal to 0,8

0.49 and 2.45 respectively (cf. Table 2),

which is the important parameter in the 0,7
process of fibre formation. When fibres
are spinning from the melt, the time which 0,6
the polymer spends in the apparatus in the
melting state is considerably shorter, and it 0,5
lasted not more than 12 minutes. 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000
Mn, Mw, g/mol
The Mn of PLA as determined by the
GPC varied from 2.6104 to 4.0104 Figure 5. Dependence between inherent viscosity and molar masses of PLA samples.

FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2003, Vol. 11, No. 4 (43) 69
ChT-22 differs considerably from the
values given in literature. That difference
TEXTILES & HEALTH can probably be explained by the high
temperature of polycondensation in
SCIENTIFIC NETWORK this solvent, which causes the partial
racemisation of the resulting polymer
The Polish Textiles & Health Scientific Network (TEXMEDECO NET) [7,8]. The glass transition temperatures
was established as an initiative of the Textile Research Institute, d, Poland of studied poly(lactic acids) agree with
(Instytut Wkiennictwa - IW) and other R&D centres which are active in the area of: the literature data [6].
MED-TEXTILES: textiles for medical treatment,
ECO-TEXTILES: textiles safe for human health,
ENVIRO-TEXTILES: textiles protecting against physical, chemical and biological n Conclusion
hazards. The best results of polycondensation of
The 1st group covers all textile fabrics assisting medical treatment and prophylaxis. L(+) lactic acid in solution were obtained
(textile dressings, antibacterial fabrics, textile prostheses and implants, and modern using diphenyl ether as the solvent. The
intelligent textiles applied in medical diagnostics and treatment). temperature of the synthesis of poly(L(+)
The 2nd group covers research works and studies aiming at protecting human (skin, lactic acid) should not exceed 140C; at
respiratory and thermoregulating systems) against negative effects of textile fabrics. higher temperatures racemisation can oc-
The 3rd group comprises textile fabrics protecting humans against harmful effects cur. The poly(L(+) lactic acids) obtained
of external factors (electromagnetic and electrostatic fields, UV and IR radiation, in diphenyl ether showed fibre-forming
microorganisms). properties.
The TEXMEDECO NET was registered on the basis of a formal decision of the
In recent years the whole world has seen
Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology in Warsaw on 31.01.2003.
great interest in improving the methods
The Networks primary goals: of synthesising poly(L(+) lactic acid) and
integration of R&D centres into the networks activity (local and international levels), the products of its processing. In the near
utilisation of integrated R&D achievements in scientific co-operation . future PLA may have the opportunity to
network development - modification or integration with European Networks,
substitute the popular plastics, and so
inclusion of scientific potential in thematic consortia created in European Union, also within
the 6th Framework Programme of European Union.
further intensive investigation into the
polycondensation of lactic acid in solu-
These goals should be accomplished through: tion should be carried out.
preparation - on the level of Network Work Groups - of own thematic proposals for mutual
research projects,
organising own conferences or seminars to promote achievements of network member References
institutions and to stimulate research contacts in Poland and abroad,
getting into contacts with existing in the UE scientific networks acting in the similar field, 1. Lunt J.: Polym. Degrad. and Stab. 1998,
integration of member institutions activities to respond to the calls of the 6th Framework 59, 145.
Programme of European Union, 2. Mastalerz P.: Organic chemistry (Chemia
search for new partners in Poland and abroad to work together within the networks scope. organiczna), PWN, Warszawa, 1986,
The TEXMEDECO NET comprises 18 R&D institutions ( covering 3. Holleman A., Richter F.: Organic chemi-
the following areas: textiles, medicine, occupational medicine and leather industry. stry (Chemia organiczna, PWT, Warsza-
The IW acts as the Networks coordinating institution, represented by Jadwiga Sjka- wa, 1952, p. 251.
4. Kharash G.B., Sanches-Riera F., Se-
Ledakowicz, Ph.D., Eng., the network coordinator.
verson D. K.: Polymers of Lactic Acid
The following bodies form the Network structure: General Assembly, Steering in Plastics from Microbes, Mobley D.P.,
Committee and Work Groups (Med-, Eco and Enviro-Textiles) which act on the basis Ed. Hanser Publishers, Munich, New York
of the Statute and specific Regulations. 1994, p.114.
5. Duda A, Penczek S., Polimery, 2003, 48, 16
The annual TEXMEDECO NET CONFERENCE is the forum of information 6. Ajioka M., Enomoto K., Suzuki K., Yama-
exchange and presentation of scientific achievements of network members. guchi A.: J. Environm Polymer Degrad.
1995, 3, (4), 225.
The TEXMEDECO NET has an open character. R&D institutions of different state, 7. US 5 310 865 - 1994.
scientific and technical organisations, producers (SME), and others representing 8. Ajioka M., Enomoto K., Suzuki K., Yama-
various disciplines can have their contribution in network activities. guchi A.: Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 1995, 68,
9. Rafler G.: Poly-L-milchsure- Synthe-
We welcome any new members both from Poland and abroad !!! se, Modifizierung, Eigenschaften: 3rd
Interested parties should contact the Network Coordinating Office: International Conference on Renovable
Textile Research Institute, Brzeziska Street 5/15, 92-103 d, POLAND Materials Naro-Tech 2002 Erfuhrt.
e-mail: 10. Moon S. et. al.: J. Polym. Sci. Part A:
Jadwiga Sjka-Ledakowicz, Ph.D., Eng. - network coordinator Polym. Chem. 2000, 38, 1673.
tel (+4842) 6163 110, e-mail: 11. Lipisky E.S., Sinclair R.G., Chem. Eng.
Ms Katarzyna Grzywacz - info officer - network secretary Prog., 1986, 82, 26.
tel (+4842) 6163 195, fax (+4842) 6792638,
Received 28.10.2003 Reviewed 20.11.2003

70 FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2003, Vol. 11, No. 4 (43)