Está en la página 1de 24




International marketing is becoming more important to companies as the world shifts from
distinct national markets to linked global markets. Globalization brings homogenization of
consumer needs, liberalization of trade, and competitive advantages of operating in global
markets. Companies are forced to think and act globally in order to survive in such a dynamic
environment. All these elements have a deep impact on the development and the positioning of
companies on international marketplaces where competition is cruel. Furthermore, another
significant change concerns the customers since they are more demanding in term of quality, lead
time and order fulfilment. In this context, firms must be more and more flexible and reactive to
anticipate and to adapt to such changes. This quest for flexibility and reactivity affects the
conception and the management of firms and more generally their logistic systems and
contributes to the development of partnership relations, to the emergence of mergers or strategic
alliances between companies. As a result, a firm can no longer be considered as an isolated entity
but as a component of a wider supply network. International Firms have begun to implement
various strategies in order to remain competitive in world market. Logistics is one of the key
areas in the process of international marketing as the delivery of goods to the buyer is as
important as any other activity in business and marketing. Quite often, the most crucial part in
International trade is the timely delivery of goods at a reasonable cost by the exporter to the
importer. In fact, the prospective buyer may be willing to pay even higher price for timely
supplies. The emergence of logistics as an integrative activity, with the movement of raw
materials from their sources of supply to the production line and ending with the movement of
finished goods to the customer has gained special importance. Earlier on, all the functions
comprising logistics were not viewed as components of a single system. But, with emergence of
logistic as an important part of corporate strategy due to certain developments in the field of
international marketing has gained special significance. Before discussing the various aspects of
logistics, let us look at its definition:
According to Council of logistics management:

Logistics is the process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, effective flow
and storage of goods, services and related information from point of origin to point of
consumption for the purpose of conforming the customer requirement. This definition clearly
points out the inherent nature of logistics and it conveys that Logistics is concerned with getting
products and services where they are needed whenever they are desired. In trade Logistics has
been performed since the beginning of civilization: its hardly new. However implementing best
practice of logistics has become one of the most exciting and challenging operational areas of
business and public sector management. Logistics is unique, it never stops! Logistics is
happening around the globe 24 hours a day Seven days a week during fifty-two weeks a year.
Few areas of business involve the complexity or span the geography typical of logistics.


Word, Logistics is derived from French word loger, which means art of war pertaining to
movement and supply of armies. Basically a military concept, it is now commonly applied to
marketing management. Fighting a war requires the setting of an object, and to achieve this
objective meticulous planning is needed so that the troops are properly deployed and the supply
line consisting, interalia, weaponary, food, medical assistance, etc. is maintained. Similarly, the
plan should be each that there is a minimum loss of men and material while, at the same time, it
is capable of being altered if the need arises. As in the case of fighting a war in the battle-field,
the marketing managers also need a suitable logistics plan that is capable of satisfying the
company objective of meeting profitably the demand of the targeted customers.

From the point of view of management, marketing logistics or physical distribution has been
described as planning, implementing and controlling the process of physical flows of materials
and final products from the point of origin to the point of use in order to meet customers needs
at a profit. As a concept it means the art of managing the flow of raw materials and finished
goods from the source of supply to their users. In other words, primarily it involves efficient
management of goods from the end of product line to the consumers and in some cases, include
the 4 movement of raw materials from the source of supply to the beginning of the production
line. These activities include transportation warehousing, inventory control, order processing and
information monitoring. These activities are considered primary to the effective management of
logistics because they either contribute most to the total cost of logistics or they are essential to
effective completion of the logistics task. However, the firms must carry out these activities as
essential part of providing customer with the goods and services they desire.


The important of a logistics systems lies in the fact that it leads to ultimate consummation of the
sales contract. The buyer is not interested in the promises of the seller that he can supply goods at
competitive price but that he actually does so. Delivery according to the contract is essential to
fulfilling the commercial and legal requirements. In the event of failure to comply with the
stipulated supply of period, the seller may not only get his sale amount back, but may also be
legally penalized, if the sales contract so specifies. There is no doubt that better delivery schedule
is a good promotional strategy when buyers are reluctant to invest in warehousing and keeping
higher level of inventories. Similarly, better and/or timely delivery helps in getting repeat orders
through creation of goodwill for the supplier.

Thus, as effective logistics system contributes immensely to the achievements of the business
and marketing objectives of a firm. It creates time and place utilities in the products and thereby
helps in maximizing the value satisfaction to consumers. By ensuring quick deliveries in
minimum time and cost, it relieves the customers of 5 holding excess inventories. It also brings
down the cost of carrying inventory, material handling, transportation and other related activities
of distribution. In nutshell, an efficient system of physical distribution/logistics has a great
potential for improving customer service and reducing costs.

Logistics has gained importance due to the following trends

Raise in transportation cost.

Production efficiency is reaching a peak
Fundamental change in inventory philosophy
Product line proliferated
Computer technology
Increased use or computers
Increased public concern of products Growth of several new, large retail
chains or mass merchandise with large demands & very sophisticated logistics services,
by pass traditional channel & distribution.
Reduction in economic regulation
Growing power of retailers

As a result of these developments, the decision maker has a number of choices to work out the
most ideal marketing logistics system. Essentially, this system implies that people at all levels of
management think and act in terms of integrated capabilities and adoption of a total approach to
achieve pre-determined logistics objectives.

Logistics is also important on the global scale. Efficient logistics systems throughout the world
economy are a basis for trade and a high standard of living for all of us. Lands, as well as the
people who occupy them, are not equally productive. That is, one region often has an advantage
over all others in some production specialty. An efficient logistics system allows a geographical
region to exploit its inherent advantage by specializing its productive efforts in those products in
which it has been an advantage by specializing its productive to other regions. The system allows
the products landed cost (production plus logistics cost) and quality to be competitive with
those form any other region. Common examples of this specialization have been Japans
electronics industry, the agricultural, computer and aircrafts industries of United States and
various countries dominance in supplying raw materials such as oil, gold, bauxite, and
chromium. Further more Logistics has gained importance in the international marketing with the
following reasons:

1. Transform in the customers attitude towards the total cost approach rather than direct cost

2. Technological advancement in the fields of information processing and communication.

3. Technological development in transportation and material handling.

4. Companies are centralizing production to gain economies of scale.

5. Most of the MNC organizations are restructuring their production facilities on a global basis.

6. In many industries, the value added by manufacturing is declining as the cost of materials and
distribution climbs.

7. High volume data processing and transmission is revolutionizing logistics control systems.

8. With the advancement of new technologies, managers can now update sales and inventory
planning faster and more frequently, and factories can respond with more flexibility to volatile
market conditions.

9. Product life cycles are contracting. Companies that have gone all out to slash costs by turning
to large scale batch production regularly find themselves saddled with obsolete stocks and are
unable to keep pace with competitors new-product introductions.

10. Product lines are proliferating. More and more product line variety is needed to satisfy the
growing range of customer tastes and requirements, and stock levels in both field and factory
inevitably rise.

11. The balance of power in distribution chain is shifting from the manufacturers to the trader.


The General objectives of the logistics can be summarized as:

1. Cost reduction

2. Capital reduction

3. Service improvement

The specific objective of an ideal logistics system is to ensure the flow of supply to the buyer,

right product
right quantities and assortments
right places
right time
right cost / price and,
right condition
This implies that a firm will aim at having a logistics system which maximizes the
customer service and minimizes the distribution cost.

However, one can approximate the reality by defining the objective of logistics system as
achieving a desired level of customer service i.e., the degree of delivery support given by the
seller to the buyer. Thus, logistics management starts with as curtaining customer need till its
fulfillment through product supplies and, during this process of supplies, it considers all aspects
of performance which include arranging the inputs, manufacturing the goods and the physical
distribution of the products. However, there are some definite objectives to be achieved through
a proper logistics system. These can be described as follows:

1. Improving customer service: As we know, the marketing concept assumes that the sure way to
maximize profits in the long run is through maximizing the customer satisfaction. As such, an
important objective of all marketing efforts, including the physical distribution activities, is to
improve the customer service. An efficient management of physical distribution can help in
improving the level of customer service by developing an effective system of warehousing, quick
and economic transportation, all maintaining optimum level of inventory. But, as discussed
earlier, the level of service directly affects the cost of physical distribution. Therefore, while
deciding the level of service, a careful analysis of the customers wants and the policies of the
competitors is necessary. The customers may be interested in several things like timely delivery,
careful handling of merchandise, reliability of inventory, economy in operations, and so on.
However, the relative importance of these factors in the minds of customers may vary. Hence, an
effort should be made to ascertain whether they value timely delivery or economy in
transportation, and so on. One the relative weights are known, an analysis of what the
competitors are offering in this regard should also be made. This, together with an estimate about
the cost of providing a particular level of customer service, would help in deciding the level of
customer service.
2. Rapid Response: Rapid response is concerned with a firm's ability to satisfy customer service
requirements in a timely manner. Information technology has increased the capability to
postpone logistical operations to the latest possible time and then accomplish rapid delivery of
required inventory. The result is elimination of excessive inventories traditionally stocked in
anticipation of customer requirements. Rapid response capability shifts operational emphasis
from an anticipatory posture based on forecasting and inventory stocking to responding to
customer requirements on a shipment-to-shipment basis. Because inventory is typically not
moved in a time-based system until customer requirements are known and performance is
committed, little tolerance exists for operational deficiencies

3. Reduce total distribution costs: Another most commonly stated objective is to minimize the
cost of physical distribution of the products. As explained earlier, the cost of physical distribution
consists of various elements such as transportation, warehousing and inventory maintenance, and
any reduction in the cost of one element may result in an increase in the cost of the other
elements. Thus, the objective of the firm should be to reduce the total cost of distribution and not
just the cost incurred on any one element. For this purpose, the total cost of alternative
distribution systems should be analyzed and the one which has the minimum total distribution
cost should be selected.

4. Generating additional sales: Another important objective of the physical distribution/logistics

system in a firm is to generate additional sales. A firm can attract additional customers by
offering better services at lowest prices. For example, by decentralizing its warehousing
operations or by using economic and efficient modes of transportation, a firm can achieve larger
market share. Also by avoiding the out-of-stock situation, the loss of loyal customers can be

5. Creating time and place utilities: The logistical system also aims at creating time and place
utilities to the products. Unless the products are physically moved from the place of their origin
to the place where they are required for consumption, they do not serve any purpose to the users.
Similarly, the products have to be made available at the time they are needed for consumption.
Both these purposes can be achieved by increasing the number of warehouses located at places
from where the goods can be delivered quickly and where sufficient stocks are maintained so as
to meet the emergency demands of the customers. Moreover, a quicker mode of transport should
be selected to move the products from one place to another in the shortest possible time. Thus,
time and place utilities can be created in the products through an efficient system of physical

6. Price stabilization: Logistics also aim at achieving stabilization in the prices of the products. It
can be achieved by regulating the flow of the products to the market through a judicious use of
available transport facilities and compatible warehouse operations. For example, in the case of
industries such as cotton textile, there are heavy fluctuations in the supply of raw materials. In
such cases if the market forces are allowed to operate freely, the raw material would be very
cheap during harvesting season and very dear during off season. By stocking the raw material
during the period of excess supply (harvest season) and made available during the periods of
short supply, the prices can be stabilized.

7. Quality improvement: The long-term objective of the logistical system is to seek continuous
quality improvement. Total quality management (TQM) has become a major commitment
throughout all facets of industry. Overall commitment to TQM is one of the major forces
contributing to the logistical renaissance. If a product becomes defective or if service promises
are not kept, little, if any, value is added by the logistics. Logistical costs, once expended, cannot
be reversed. In fact, when quality fails, the logistical performance typically needs to be reversed
and then repeated. Logistics itself must perform to demanding quality standards. The
management challenge of achieving zero defect logistical performance is magnified by the fact
that logistical operations typically must be performed across a vast geographical area at all times
of the day and night. The quality challenge is magnified by the fact that most logistical work is
performed out of a supervisor's vision. Reworking a customer's order as a result of incorrect
shipment or in-transit damage is far more costly than performing it right the first time. Logistics
is a prime part of developing and maintaining continuous TQM improvement.

8. Life-Cycle support: A good logistical system helps to support the life cycle. Few items are sold
without some guarantee that the product will perform as advertised over a specified period. In
some situations. the normal value-added inventory flow toward customers must be reversed.
Product recall is a critical competency resulting from increasingly rigid quality standards,
product expiration dating and responsibility for hazardous consequences. Return logistics
requirements also result from the increasing number of laws prohibiting disposal and
encouraging recycling of beverage containers and packaging materials. The most significant
aspect of reverse logistical operations is the need for maximum control when a potential health
liability exists (i.e.. a contaminated product). In this sense, a recall program is similar to a
strategy of maximum customer service that must be executed regardless of cost. Firestone
classical response to the tyre crisis is an example of turning adversity into advantage. The
operational requirements of reverse logistics range from lowest total cost, such as returning
bottles for recycling, to maximum performance solutions for critical recalls. The important point
is that sound logistical strategy cannot be formulated without careful review of reverse logistical

9. Movement consolidation:

As the logistical system aims at cost reduction through integration, consolidation One of the
most significant logistical costs is transportation. Transportation cost is directly related to. the
type of product, size of shipment, and distance. Many Logistical systems that feature premium
service depend on high-speed, smallshipment transportation. Premium transportation is typically
high-cost. To reduce transportation cost.. it is desirable to achieve movement consolidation. As a
general rule, the larger the overall shipment and the longer the distance it is transported, the
lower the transportation cost per unit. This requires innovative programs to group small
shipments for consolidated movement. Such programs must be facilitated by working
arrangements that transcend the overall supply chain.


The development of interest in logistics after industrial revolution and world war II contributed
to the growth in scope of logistical activities. The following areas are the major scope of

Demand forecasting

Distribution communication
Inventory Control
Material Handling
Order Processing
Part & Service Support
Plant and Warehouse side selection
Salvage & scrap disposal
Traffic & transportation
Warehousing & Storage
Time & Place Utility
Efficient Movement to Customer
Return goods handling
Customers Service


The following are the system elements of logistics:

1. Order processing
2. Warehousing
3. Inventory control
4. Transportation
5. Information monitoring
6. Facilities

Order processing:

The starting point of physical distribution activities is the processing of customers orders. In
order to provide quicker customer service, the orders received from customers should be
processed within the least possible time. Order processing includes receiving the order,
recording the order, filling the order, and assembling all such orders for transportation, etc.
the company and the customers benefit when these steps are carried out quickly and
accurately. The error committed at this stage at times can prove to be very costly. For
example, if a wrong product or the same product with different specifications is supplied to
the customer, it may lead to cancellation of the original order (apart from loss in the
credibility of the firm). Similarly, if the order is not executed within a reasonable time, it may
lead to serious consequences. High speed data processing techniques are now available
which allow for rapid processing of the orders.


Warehousing refers to the storing and assorting products in order to create time utility. The
basic purpose of the warehousing activity is to arrange placement of goods, provide storage
facility to store them, consolidate them with other similar products, divide them into smaller
quantities and build up assortment of products. Generally, larger the number of warehouses a
firm has the lesser would be the time taken in serving customers at different locations, but
greater would be the cost of warehousing. Thus, the firm has to strike a balance between the
cost of warehousing and the level of customer service.

Inventory Control and Management:

Linked to warehousing decisions are the inventory decisions which hold the key to success of
physical distribution especially where the inventory costs may be as high as 30-40 per cent
(e.g., steel and automobiles). No wonder, therefore, that the new concept of Just-in-Time-
Inventory decision is increasingly becoming popular with a number of companies.

The decision regarding level of inventory involves estimate of demand for the product. A
correct estimate of the demand helps to hold proper inventory level and control the inventory
costs. This is not only helps the firm in terms of the cost of inventory and supply to
customers in time but also to maintain production at a consistent level. The major factors
determining the inventory levels are: The firms policy regarding the customer service level,
Degree of accuracy of the sales forecasts, Responsiveness of the distribution system i.e.,
ability of the system to transmit inventory needs to the factory and get the products in the
market. The cost inventory consists of holding cost (such as cost of warehousing, tied up
capital and obsolescence) and replenishment cost (including the manufacturing cost).


Transportation seeks to move goods from points of production and sale to points of
consumption in the quantities required at times needed and at a reasonable cost. The
transportation system adds time and place utilities to the goods handled and thus, increases
their economic value. To achieve these goals, transportation facilities must be adequate,
regular, dependable and equitable in terms of costs and benefits of the facilities and service

Information monitoring:

The physical distribution managers continuously need up-to-date information about

inventory, transportation and warehousing. For example, in respect on inventory, information
about present stock position at each location, future commitment and replenishment
capabilities are constantly required. Similarly, before choosing a carrier, information about
the availability of various modes of transport, their costs, services and suitability for a
particular product is needed. About warehousing, information with respect to space
utilization, work schedules, unit load performance, etc., is required. In order to receive all the
information stated above, an efficient management information system would be of immense
use in controlling costs, improving services and determining the overall effectiveness of
distribution. Of course, it is difficult to correctly assess the cost of physical distribution
operations. But if correct information is available it can be analyzed systematically and a
great deal of saving can be ensured.

The Facilities logistics element is composed of a variety of planning activities, all of which
are directed toward ensuring that all required permanent or semi permanent operating and
support facilities (for instance, training, field and depot maintenance, storage, operational,
and testing) are available concurrently with system fielding. Planning must be comprehensive
and include the need for new construction as well as modifications to existing facilities.
Facility construction can take from 5 to 7 years from concept formulation to user occupancy.
It also includes studies to define and establish impacts on life cycle cost, funding
requirements, facility locations and improvements, space requirements, environmental
impacts, duration or frequency of use, safety and health standards requirements, and security
restrictions. Also included are any utility requirements, for both fixed and mobile facilities,
with emphasis on limiting requirements of scarce or unique resources.


Supply chain management (SCM) has been defined as "a process-oriented approach to
procuring, producing, and delivering products and services to customers. SCM has a broad
scope that includes sub-suppliers, suppliers, internal operations, trade customers, retail
customers, and end users. It spans all movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-
process inventory, and finished goods from point-of-origin to point-of-consumption. The
term supply chain management was coined by strategy consulting firm Booz Allen Hamilton
in 198.Supply chains are dynamic and complex reaching into many customers and back into
many suppliers throughout the world. It exists in both service and manufacturing
organizations, although the complexity of the chain may vary greatly from industry to
industry and firm to firm. The following definitions are the evidence of role played by the
logistics business development.

Definitions of Supply Chain Management

A strategic concept that involves the understanding and managing of the sequence of
activities - from supplier to customer - that add value to the product supply chain.
The supply chain encompasses all activities associated with the upstream and downstream
flow and transformation of goods and information from the raw materials stage (extraction),
through to the end user.

Supply chain management is the collaborative effort of multiple channel members to design,
implement, and manage seamless value-added processes to meet the real needs of the end

Traditionally, marketing, distribution, planning, manufacturing, and the purchasing

organizations along the supply chain operated independently. These organizations have their
own objectives and these are often conflicting. Marketing's objective of high customer
service and maximum sales conflict with manufacturing and distribution goals. Many
manufacturing operations are designed to maximize throughput and lower costs with little
consideration for the impact on inventory levels and distribution capabilities. Purchasing
contracts are often negotiated with very little information beyond historical buying patterns.
The result of these factors is that there is not a single, integrated plan for the organization and
there were as many plans as businesses. Clearly, there is a need for a mechanism through
which these different functions can be integrated together. Supply chain management is a
strategy through which such integration can be achieved.

An example of a simple supply chain for a single product works as follows: From the
production house the product starts it journey and travels through to the supplier, distributor,
retailer and ends at the hands of the consumer. This whole journey is a well managed
mechanism and controlled by supply chain management. When it goes global and the journey
of the product covers multiple countries, then it is called global supply chain management.
Global supply chain management has emerged as a major topic in the age of globalization
and now it is sitting at the heart of the whole business system. With globalization, business
has become more complex and Global supply chain management not only mobilizes products
but also the entire value added chain, in which financial activities and sharing of information
are also included. Big companies have many hubs around the world. Raw materials, finished
products, finance and other pertinent information travel from one hub to the next. Global
supply chain management has become the basis of the whole operation. The cost of
production and profitability is dependant on the global supply chain as well as how well
employees throughout the company are trained for such fast-paced tasks.


One of the main function of logistics is to make the goods and services available to the place
where there is demand for the product. Supply chain is the process that is involved from the
procurement of raw materials till the outcome as finished products. The logistics and the
supply chain management is the two sides of a coin. They are interrelated and they function
on their own simultaneously. Some experts distinguish supply chain management and
logistics while others consider the terms to be interchangeable. From the point of view of an
enterprise, the scope of supply chain management is usually bounded on the supply side by
your supplier's suppliers and on the customer side by your customer's customers. The
logistics plays an important role between sources of demand and sources of supply. The
supply chain management is the planning and management of all activities involved in
sourcing and procurement, conversions, and logistics management activities, including
coordination and collaboration with suppliers, intermediaries, third party service providers
and customers to facilitate integration of supply and demand management within and across

Supply chain management is used in filling the gaps and the logistics is used in closing the
gaps. Thus we can say that the supply chain management and logistics are part and parcel of
a solution to the same purpose. Overall productivity of the organization increases if the
supply chain management and logistics goes hand in hand.


The need of supply chain management has been identified as follows:

Improve operations
Increasing levels of outsourcing
Increasing transportation costs
Competitive pressures
Increasing globalization
Increasing importance of e-commerce
Manage inventories

Principles of Supply Chain Management

1. Principle of Selective Risk Logistics systems should be designed so that system

performance objectives are directly related to the importance of the product or customer.

2. Principle of Information Selectivity Logistics information systems should be designed to

produce a focus on actionable and significant events.

3. Principle of Information Substitution Systems should be designed to use information in

place of other resources whenever possible.

4. Principle of Transaction Simplification Systems should be designed to improve the

efficiency and effectiveness of transactions.

5. Principle of Variance Reduction Systems should be designed to reduce the unplanned

variance in the system.

6. Principle of Inventory Velocity Systems should be designed to facilitate the flow of

inventory from raw material through the end user.

7. Principle of Shared/Shifted Risk The system should be designed to shift the risk to channel
members best able to bear it.


International Logistics
While preparing for a major market launch and penetration in the US, the world's largest
Consumer Product Company turned to R+L Global Logistics for an international logistics


During the planning phase, the international company discovered that its traditional ocean-based
transportation and logistics model could not meet time-critical deadlines. To avoid outages on the
retailers shelves, the company needed reliable solutions from a transportation and logistics
company with a history of crafting international logistics solutions.

Ensuring that the products arrived in the stores well ahead of the launch date was absolutely
essential for marketing success. In addition to the time constraints, the goods would have to be
moved efficiently from the Far East to the US and be successfully put into the distribution supply
chain without interruption.

In order to resolve the problem, the company identified five critical requirements of a new
logistics provider:

A proven track record of on-time delivery

A full complement of international and domestic logistics services
A knowledge of product launch for major retail promotions
Leading edge automation and technology for tracing and tracking shipments
A sound reputation for crafting reliable and flexible logistics solutions in time-critical


As time was running out, the company turned to one of its minority-owned suppliers, R+L
Global Logistics, for help.
Working closely together, the two companies were able to craft a workable solution and deploy
the resources necessary to move the goods to the required destinations ahead of the deadlines.

A critical success factor was R+L's ability to identify and secure a fleet of Boeing 747 freighters,
which were chartered to transport the goods from the Far East to the US. R+L Global's
experience in international shipping enabled them to quickly satisfy the charter requirements by
identifying the right airline with the right schedule, at the right price.

Another essential advantage was R+L Global's ability to coordinate directly with the supplier to
receive the goods. On receipt, R+L arranged to have the airline pallets built in compliance with
aircraft contours and specifications, and tendered them directly to the Charter operator in order to
expedite the process.

Upon arrival in the US, R+L Global was responsible for the recovery of the airline pallets,
breaking them down, and rebuilding the thousands of loose cartons onto Chep pallets in order
to comply with the customer's stringent distribution requirements.

The entire process from the origin airport to the clients distribution center was completed in two

Working in close partnership with the customer, manufacturer, global partners, and airlines, R+L
Global was able to meet each of the time-critical deadlines. All of the products were delivered
intact and on time for a successful market launch.

In addition to a successful outcome, R+L Global was also able to validate the customer's internal
initiative to invest in the ongoing development of minority-owned suppliers. R+L Global
Logistics was rewarded with a "valuable supplier" status by the customer and afforded new
opportunities to expand their offerings.

R+L Global Logistics' ongoing commitment to reliability enabled us to exceed our customer's
expectations and validated our reputation as a value-added partner and a model Minority
Business Enterprise.

Thakur College of Science and Commerce

(ISO 9001:2008 Certified, NAAC Re-Accredited Grade-A)





ROLL NO: 9502 E-commerce SEM-2




I, hereby certify that Mr. Swapnil Sawant of Thakur College of Science and Commerce of E-commerce (Semester 2) has completed a project on International Logistics in
Academic year 2015-16. This information submitted is true and original to the best of my
Internal Examiner External Examiner

Student Signature

First I would like to thank the Mumbai University for providing project section as a part of E-commerce curriculum. This project is the blessing of many people who have
supported me through this, I would heartily thank project guide Prof. RAKHI
BHATTACHARYA for being my soul guide throughout the project.


Seri Pag
al e
no. Particulars no.
1 Introduction
Concept of
2 logistics