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Parrots, also known as psittacines /stsanz/,[2][3] are birds of the roughly 372 species in 86 genera that make up
the orderPsittaciformes,[4] found in most tropical and subtropical regions. The order is subdivided into three
superfamilies: the Psittacoidea ("true" parrots), the Cacatuoidea (cockatoos) and the Strigopoidea (New Zealand
parrots).[5] Parrots have a generally pantropical distribution with several species inhabiting temperate regions in
the Southern Hemisphere as well. The greatest diversity of parrots is in South Americaand Australasia.

Characteristic features of parrots include a strong, curved bill, an upright stance, strong legs, and
clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly coloured, and some are multi-coloured. Most parrots exhibit little or
no sexual dimorphism. They form the most variably sized bird order in terms of length.

The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds and other plant material. A few
species sometimes eat animals and carrion, while the lories and lorikeets are specialised for feeding
on floral nectar and soft fruits. Almost all parrots nest in tree hollows (or nest boxes in captivity), and lay
white eggs from which hatch altricial (helpless) young.

Parrots, along with ravens, crows, jays and magpies, are among the most intelligent birds, and the ability of some
species to imitate human voices enhances their popularity as pets. Trapping wild parrots for the pet trade, as well
as hunting, habitat loss and competition frominvasive species, has diminished wild populations, with parrots being
subjected to more exploitation than any other group of birds.[6]Measures taken to conserve the habitats of some high-
profile charismatic species have also protected many of the less charismatic species living in the same ecosystems.[7]

Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds, Passeridae. They are also known as true sparrows, or Old
World sparrows, names also used for a particular genus of the family, Passer.[1] They are distinct from both
the American sparrows, in the family Emberizidae, and from a few other birds sharing their name, such as the Java
sparrow of the family Estrildidae. Many species nest on buildings, and thehouse and Eurasian tree sparrows in
particular inhabit cities in large numbers, so sparrows may be the most familiar of all wild birds. They are
primarily seed-eaters, though they also consume small insects. Some species scavenge for food around cities and,
like gulls or rock doves, will happily eat virtually anything in small quantities. Generally, sparrows are small, plump,
brown-grey birds with short tails and stubby, powerful beaks. The differences between sparrow species can be subtle.
Members of this family range in size from the chestnut sparrow (Passer eminibey), at 11.4 centimetres (4.5 in) and
13.4 grams (0.47 oz), to the parrot-billed sparrow (Passer gongonensis), at 18 centimetres (7.1 in) and 42 grams
(1.5 oz). Sparrows are physically similar to other seed-eating birds, such as finches, but have a vestigial dorsal
outer primary feather and an extra bone in the tongue.[2][3] This bone, the preglossale, helps stiffen the tongue when
holding seeds. Other adaptations towards eating seeds are specialised bills and elongated and
specialised alimentary canals.[4]

The sparrows are indigenous to Europe, Africa and Asia. In the Americas, Australia, and other parts
of the world, settlers imported some species which quickly naturalised, particularly in urban and
degraded areas. House sparrows, for example, are now found throughoutNorth America, in every
state of Australia except Western Australia, parts of southern and eastern Africa, and over much of
the heavily populated parts of South America.[4]
The sparrows are generally birds of open habitats, including grasslands, deserts, and scrubland. The
snowfinches and ground-sparrows are all species of high latitudes. A few species, like the Eurasian
tree sparrow, inhabit open woodland.[4] The aberrant cinnamon ibon has the most unusual habitat of
the family, inhabiting the canopy of cloud forest in the Philippines.[5]

Corvus (genus)
Corvus is a widely distributed genus of birds in the family Corvidae. Ranging in size from the relatively small pigeon-
size jackdaws(Eurasian and Daurian) to the common raven of the Holarctic region and thick-billed raven of the
highlands of Ethiopia, the 40 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents except South America,
and several islands. In Europe, the word "crow" is used to refer to the carrion crow or the hooded crow, while in
North America it is used for the American crow or the northwestern crow.

The crow genus makes up a third of the species in the Corvidae family. The members appear to have evolved in Asia
from the corvid stock, which had evolved in Australia. The collective name for a group of crows is a flock or a murder.

Recent research has found some crow species capable of not only tool use but also tool construction.[2] Crows are
now considered to be among the world's most intelligent animals[3] with an encephalization quotient approaching that
of some apes.[4]

In medieval times, the crow was thought to live an abnormally long life. They were also thought to be monogamous
throughout their long lives. It was thought that the crow could predict the future, in that it was thought to predict rain
and reveal ambushes. Crows were also thought to lead flocks of storks while they crossed the sea to Asia. [5]

Eagle is a common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae; it belongs to several groups
of genera that are not necessarily closely related to each other.

Most of the sixty species of eagles are from Eurasia and Africa.[1] Outside this area, just fourteen species can be
found two in the North America, nine in Central and South America, and three in Australia.

Eagles are large, powerfully built birds of prey, with a heavy head and beak. Even the smallest eagles, like the booted
eagle (Aquila pennata) (which is comparable in size to a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) or red-tailed hawk (B.
jamaicensis)), have relatively longer and more evenly broad wings, and more direct, faster flight despite the
reduced size of aerodynamic feathers. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from some vultures. The
smallest species of eagle is the South Nicobar serpent eagle (Spilornis klossi), at 450 g (1 lb) and 40 cm (16 in). The
largest species are discussed below. Like all birds of prey, eagles have very large hooked beaks for tearing flesh from
their prey, strong muscular legs, and powerful talons. The beak is typically heavier than that of most other birds of
prey. Eagles' eyes are extremely powerful, having up to 3.6 times human acuity for the martial eagle, which enables
them to spot potential prey from a very long distance.[2] This keen eyesight is primarily attributed to their extremely
large pupils which ensure minimal diffraction (scattering) of the incoming light. The female of all known species of
eagle is larger than the male.[3][4]

Eagles normally build their nests, called eyries, in tall trees or on high cliffs. Many species lay two eggs, but the older,
larger chick frequently kills its younger sibling once it has hatched. The dominant chick tends to be the female, as
they are bigger than the male. The parents take no action to stop the killing.[5][6]

Among the eagles are some of the largest birds of prey: only the condors and some of the Old World vultures are
markedly larger. It is regularly debated which should be considered the largest species of eagle. They could be
measured variously in total length, body mass or wingspan. Different lifestyle needs among various eagles result in
variable measurements from species to species. For example, many forest-dwelling eagles, including the very
large harpy and Philippine eagles, have relatively short wingspans, a feature necessary for being able to maneuver in
quick, short bursts through dense forested habitats.[7] On the other hand, eagles in the genus Aquila are found almost
strictly in open country, are superlative soarers, and have relatively long wings for their size.[7]

Pigeons and doves constitute the bird clade Columbidae, that includes about 310 species. Pigeons are stout-
bodied birds with short necks, and have short, slender bills with fleshy ceres. They feed on seeds, fruits, and plants.
This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones.

In general, the terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used somewhat interchangeably. Pigeon is a French word that derives
from the Latin pipio, for a "peeping" chick,[1] while dove is a Germanic word that refers to the bird's diving flight.[2] In
ornithological practice, "dove" tends to be used for smaller species and "pigeon" for larger ones, but this is in no way
consistently applied, and historically, the common names for these birds involve a great deal of variation between the
terms. The species most commonly referred to as "pigeon" is the feral rock pigeon, common in many cities.

Doves and pigeons build relatively flimsy nests often using sticks and other debris which may be placed in trees,
on ledges, or on the ground, depending on species. They lay one or two eggs at a time, and both parents care for the
young, which leave the nest after seven to twenty-eight days.[3] Unlike most birds, both sexes of doves and pigeons
produce "crop milk" to feed to their young, secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop.
Young doves and pigeons are called "squabs".

Pigeons and doves exhibit considerable variations in size. The largest species is the crowned pigeon of New Guinea,
which is nearlyturkey-sized, at a weight of 24kg (4.48.8 lb) The smallest is the New World ground-dove of the
genus Columbina, which is the same size as a house sparrow and weighs as little as 22g.[12] With a total length of
more than 50cm (19 in) and weight of almost 1kg (2 lb), the largest arboreal species is the Marquesan imperial
pigeon, while the dwarf fruit dove, which may measure as little as 13cm (5.1 in), has a marginally smaller total length
than any other species from this family.[12] Smaller species tend to be known as doves, while larger species as
pigeons, but no taxonomic basis distinguishes between the two.[12]

Shivaji Bhonsle (Marathi [iai bos()le]; c. 1627/1630[2] 3 April 1680), also known as Chatrapati
Shivaji Maharaj, was an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved
out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanateof Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha
Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned as the Chhatrapati ( Monarch) of hisrealm at Raigad. Shivaji
established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of a disciplined military and well-
structured administrative organisations. He innovated military tactics, pioneering the guerrilla
warfare methods (Shiva sutra or ganimi kava), which leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed,
and surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies. From a small
contingent of 2,000 soldiers inherited from his father, Shivaji created a force of 100,000 soldiers; he built
and restored strategically located forts both inland and coastal to safeguard his territory. He revived
ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit,
rather than Persian, in court and administration. Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time but
began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement, as
many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus. Particularly in Maharashtra, debates
over his history and role have engendered great passion and sometimes even violence as disparate
groups have sought to characterise him and his legacy. Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri, near
the city of Junnar in Pune district around the year 1630. The Government of Maharashtra accepts 19
February 1630 as his birthdate; other suggested dates include 6 April 1627 or other dates near this day.[3][4]
Per legend, his mother named him Shivaji in honour of the goddess Shivai, to whom she had prayed for
a healthy child.[6] Shivaji was named after this local deity.[7][8] Shivaji's father Shahaji
Bhonsle was Maratha general who served the Deccan Sultanates.[9] His mother was Jijabai, the daughter
of Lakhujirao Jadhav of Sindkhed (Sindkhed Raja). At the time of Shivaji's birth, the power in Deccan was
shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Shahaji often changed his
loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept
his jagir (fiefdom) at Pune and his small army with him.[9] Shivaji was extremely devoted to his mother
Jijabai, who was deeply religious. This religious environment had a great impact on Shivaji, and he
carefully studied the two great Hindu epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata; these were to influence his
lifelong defence of Hindu values.[10] Throughout his life he was deeply interested in religious teachings,
and regularly sought the company of Hindu and Sufisaints.[4]