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Hello readers!

Im Ariel Basi, 19 years of age and a resident of Maningcao, Sibulan Negros

Oriental. I started college pilgrim at Colegio de Santa Catalina de Alejandria (COSCA)
with the course of Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED) major in English at the same
time I was once a Seminarian from Marian Missionaries of the Holy Cross (MMHC) where
I had taken my Aspirancy. I spent my one year of living and came to find myself from
its broken pieces. I have been with the priest evangelizing, worshipping and do on things
people used to. When I got evaluated, and was on about to be sent to Silay, Bacolod for
the next stage, I hardly discerned like thinking the life I should take and finally I got to
stand for my biggest decision which was to live outside the world of temptations and
chaos, dealing with those random personalities of diverse people. Until such time, I have
gone to the Alma matter Negros Oriental State University, where I continue my studies
having the course of BSED and unfortunately when failed to pass the English Spec 1, I
shifted General Education and striving not to fail no more.

I am the second of the eldest amongst eight children of Vicente and Gina. I
came from the family of humility ,affection and discipline. I am a man of focus, strength
and dedication where I am an individual inculcated with much perseverance and hope. I
define the world I leave like a river opposing from its currents. There were heaps of
instances when I have nothing else around me; financial matters, moral support and the
environment of havocs. When I was aging around 6 up, I already had my lifes trials which
shaped me from being what I am today. I experienced going to school penniless in my poor
pockets, got bullied, even encountered working which I suppose a child couldnt.

In an early age, we look for something we could gain an income like farming. Couple years
had passed when I still reminisce those happenings of the past not even smearing its
beautiful, risky and quite messing approach.

Im still totally blessed though that I have gone to this essential part as a human.
Socializing and building legacy towards people I meet.
There is much ties amongst friends and families where I grew morally/
ethically and spiritually. I was like in a unfathomed ocean where I had a great time having
those surge of waves. Those things that cherished the most remains a good memory and
those horrible things from the past have vanished and forgotten. I have learned from
mistakes and those imperfections led me through excellence and an well-adjusted
individual. Those who have given everything becomes insensitive to the real values of life
that I so constantly think or shall I say they became imprudent and wasteful to the
things that they had. Happy those who had a little for they come to chase their dreams
and learned from lifes struggles.

I, with a great dedication and strength, do make myself more productive

and a goal-oriented. I started having that potential of being one of those worth emulating
traits when I entered seminary and this has placed a lot on my part. Way back my
childhood years, we depend food on farming and for us to have sea foods, we exchanged
of those crops. Sending us to schools also depends on the profit of farming. My hobby lies
on writing. It lessens the silhouettes in me, the pains and hatred that dwells vanishes
when I start grabbing my pen. Writing makes me what I am today. The Ariel that you see
today is a product of writing. You may see me today like a weirdo but deeply Im just a
man with concerns and substance.

Throughout my existence, I only believed in one saying which is; Leave this
day as if this is your last. It only implies that we, as an individual has its limitation in this
world. Clocks ticks and runs and every second is very important. Sometimes, I also have
that manniana habit when I suppose to do the task today and here comes I just thought
of it the next day. The saying depicts how we should value people that surrounds us, our
family, friends and enemies. This quote of Mah Ghandi renews me to be reminded how life
works and turns.

Chapter One
Teachers and students in the digital Age
Teachers of the yesteryears were coined to be the gate keeper of knowledge as
well as the communicators of knowledge where students became passive and obediently
believe and receive. This tool was observed when teacher-centered approach was
observed in the education system. Teachers were always in authority over students. The
approach used seems to weaken the aim of gaining the quality knowledge and experience.
They usually disseminate information through lectures, require students to memorize
contents from textbooks, make use of textbooks and workbooks as their reference, give
assessment through written examination, focus on their responsibility and relationship
with their students as recipients of knowledge, followers of policies prescribed by the
school, use lecture as their teaching method, deliver the same lessons every year, too
focused o their self-achievement, target to finish the lesson within the period, autocratic
in which the teachers are in control of everything in all events of the classroom, holder of
knowledge and digital illiterate. Whereas in the 21st century, teachers are said to be the
channel, communicator, learner, futurist, leader, exemplar, collaborator and a venture
player at the same time they allow students to construct their own ideas to solve real
world problems, allow students to construct their own understanding of the subject
matter, make use of manipulative materials; make use of multitude and of prints and
electronic sources, give performance-based assessments, they also widen their
responsibility of their relationship with colleagues, community and other stakeholders in
acquiring clear and obtainable standards for the knowledge, skills, and values that
students are expected to acquire, use variety of teaching methods appropriate in the
students learning, and foster learner autonomy where students also learn to take
responsibility in their learning.


Teachers in both eras placed a much more differences on its way of

approach, tools and techniques. Each times shows their teaching strategies to cater
students clamours. Starting in the yesteryears way of teaching, they had their own
teaching style which was not that conducive to learning though they were coined to be
some kind of too focus of their self-achievement than the students, themselves. Way
back during my elementary years, our teacher used to let us copy what was written on the
board and it took and consumes an hour of copying what was written on the blackboard
which is seemingly not advisable if it is to be asked on various teachers in the millennia.
But somehow, with those studies done with experts, they were able to observed and
identify what has to be amended or changed. Those couple of days, teachers learn to be
innovative, creative and resourceful in their own way because of lack of supply of papers,
books, boards and of different reading materials. Like, those days when students have
nothing to write on, they use the banana leaves as sort of paper and charcoal serves as
their pen. That is why also that those students of yesteryears were passive learners,
they believed on what the teacher teaches and make fight out of it when parents insist
its wrong. Moreover, they werent getting used to operate computers/digitals at the
same time they tend to deliver the same lessons every year without no updates. So
basically, its likely to be boring and may hinder from acquiring new knowledge.

Whereas in the 21st centurys way of approach seemed to deepen the critical
thinking, understanding and skills of students. It builds a wholesome environment towards
the learners making it more conducive to learning while enjoying the lessons presented by
the teachers. When I took the field of teaching, I just knew how is it likely to be in the
new set of strategies and styles. I have also getting to know its approaches and simply
the way it is. In the new style of teaching introduces on how a teacher should embody the
class like they were said to be the new mentor, allows student to construct their own
understanding or shall I say they were made to be facilitator than being just an
instructor. With these, it only shows that 21st centurys style in teaching nailed as the
best approaches in the record.

Chapter Two
Technology in teaching and learning

The use of technology in Education is likewise guided by standards to
develop among the learners the skills that they need to possess for the 21 st century for
them to be able to serve not only themselves but the world. The administrators are the
lead supporters of digital and technology-rich teaching and learning environment. They
lead in the transformation of educational system with the affirmations that these
technologies make teaching and learning, more engaging, interesting, inspiring, reflecting
and empowering. In Visionary leadership, they inspire and engage stakeholders in the
development, communication, and implementation of educational transformation with the
use of digital and technological resources which are aligned with the shared vision. Digital
Age Learning Culture, educational administrators lead in creating, promoting, and
upholding digital age educational environment culture. They ensure the effective use of
digital tools and technological resources in meeting the diverse needs of learners and help
them to ne more innovative, creative, and efficient in learning. In excellence in
professional practice, the educational administrators ensure health and professional
growth in technology fluency and the integration among educators to help enhance
students learning. Systematic improvement, the administrators also extend leadership in
the improvement of department, organization, and school through the promotion and
effective use of information and technology resources which make the daily operations
easy and efficient. In the digital citizenship, the Educational administrators ensure,
promotes, and model use of information and communication technology following policies
and legacies of technology.

Meanwhile, teaching can be associated with soldiers who to go war.

Soldiers are being trained and they make a lot of preparations. The use of technology is
one of the materials that teacher make use to deliver the lesson successfully to their
learners. However, sometimes the use of technology becomes ineffective because of the
insufficient knowledge on the true purpose and proper use of technology.

Todays generation, technology is very useful in work, school, business
and in everyday living. Students and Teachers use technology in support of collecting and
synthesizing information, developing and developing and demonstrating critical thinking,
solving authentic problems through the creation of projects they propose . Also,
students use technology aside from it brings convenience, to plan, manage, and reflect on
their own learning. By integrating technology in Education, many students became
independent and multi-tasker learners. They became more proficient in making and
handling different situations, tasks and making themselves more productive. The
advantages of having these technologies and softwares is that it helps teachers present
their lesson especially in making their instructional plans, lesson plans and lesson logs.
Through technology, they can easily access information and updates their topics more
often, search new and interesting topics and help to cater the needs of the students
bringing a higher standard education while student grows and learn, developing the skills
needed in their respective fields.

Sad to say that along its advantages of using technology, its limitations are
also evident. One of its disadvantage is that it can cause self-inferiority towards the
cyber bullied child. Even horrible, it may result to disinterest in coming to school
everyday. Once a child or a student is bullied through networking sites namely, Facebook,
Youtube, text messages, mails and twitter will result to suicide and wrecking of what lies
ahead of him/her. As a teacher and Parent, you should keep an eye to your
student/children with regards to the sites they were visiting because nowadays, younger
ones are very curious on such thing that supposedly they arent going to be getting into.

This might affect their thinking and their approach to life.

On second thought, technology may poison individuals mind if not properly used.

Chapter 3
Digital Technology and Media Literacy

In terms of digital media are being used interchangeably. When we say
media, by definition is the plural form of medium. It has developed to mean facilitating
or linking communication be it via radio, phone, web, TV, and some instruments. The
purpose of medium is to help in conveying a message. When we transmit message using
more than one medium, we refer to it as multimedia, whether it is computer-based or not.
While Multimedia is a combination of two or more media. In computer, the media in
multimedia refer to graphics, audio, text, video and animation. Multimedia then is
powerful avenue in communicating information and messages to other people. Thus, digital
media is defined as those technologies that enable users to make new forms of
communication, interaction, and entertainment in digital format. Interactivity is an
essential feature of digital media application in teaching and learning for it enriches
emotional experience. It is the fact that the learning dynamics in the classroom have
changed due to presence and integration of digital media applications. In reference with
the cone of experience of Edgar Dale, it indicates that students generally remember 20
percent of what they hear, 30 percent of what they see , and 50 percent of what they
hear and see, 70 percent of what they see and write and 90 percent of what they do.
When student are given a chance to hear, see and interact with a learning environment,
they can remember as much as 80 percent of the information.

Mindtools are technology application that allows learner to stimulate,

organize, manipulate, visualize or reflect on data, information and objects. Also, mindtools
are knowledge building tools that allow learners to think critically about the matter they
are studying. The semantic-organization tools like databases and concept-mapping tools
and knowledge-building tools like simulations, visualization tools, hypertext and
hypermedia are some of the examples of mindtools that promote student learning using
technology applications. Media-authoring software, expert systems, and modelling tools
are other examples of technology mindtools.

It is essential to have prior knowledge or shall I say to be
technology literate for us to easily access on answers in our assignments and researches.
Capability in operating could be an asset or a point to be an efficient and effective
professor because with these, we can have make out of something from the different
softwares like virtual fieldtrip, and the like. Teachers can use digital media software as a
productivity tool and as an integration tool. Power point and Keynote being considered as
examples of digital media softwares and can be used by the teachers in presenting their
lectures to introduce concepts and theories. When used as productivity tool, teachers are
actually demonstrating to the students how to use these digital media software properly.
That is why, teachers must be careful in their presentations or doing their lessons.
Another example of medium is the electronic interactive white boards wherein there
builds an interactive approach of classroom environment.
With the use of software supplied with the whiteboard, teachers can keep notes and
annotations in a form of electronic file which can also be distributed to when they ask to
request. Another medium is the Multimedia center where it is a place for those audio
learner, visual learner, and audiovisual learner. It seemed to be a closed room and has a
complete set of digital or technologies.

Literacy in operating computer gives much advantage in handling a dynamic

class as well as it gives a smoother presentation when presenting the topic to class so as
not the students to get bored and sleepy. You should do something to make your their
learning environment very conducive to learning. A computer literate teacher gives much
more than the traditional one. Media in a form of networking sites is very useful today to
the extent that as we observed most of the students access and get to notify themselves
and gather information to the blogs and sites they have gone through.

Chapter Four
The ICT and the computers: its roles and history


computers are part ICT and play a significant role in our life

ICTs are basically information-handling tools- a varied set of goods, application and
services that are used to have produce, produce, distribute and exchange information.
Computers were considered as part of ICT. It can be used as drill and practiced, to help
solve problems, to access information in different fields, it can be used in different
teaching and learning modes. These mode include classroom interactive learning,
independent learning, networked learning, organizational learning and managed learning.
Information can delivered in an instant. Because of internet, we can deliver information in
a wide coverage at low cost. ICT brought an enormous and amazing growth the past years
in the field of education. It has changed many aspects in the teaching and learning
process as it affects the educational system, educational learning environment, teaching
methods and strategies and the way the student learn.

There are further developments of ICT that had made a great impact in
education. First is the horn book, created on the year 1650, this is a wooden paddle with
printed lessons that was used during the colonial era. Difference Engine, created on year
1820 by Charles Babbage who designed this computing machine which was used in
calculating and printing of simple math tables. Analytical Engine designed this second
computing machine which was used in calculating complicated problems by following a set
of constructions. Magic Lantern, created on year 1870, this is a primitive version of a
slide projector that projected images printed on glass plates. Stereoscope, created on
year 1905, this is a three dimensional viewing tool used as a source of entertainment at
home and in school that were meant to be used to illustrate points made during lecture,


Nowadays Technology in Education plays a crucial role in the field of

teaching and learning processes. With the aid of the new inventions of the scientist like
those of horn book, difference engine, analytical engine, magic lantern, chalkboard, pencil,
stereoscope, film projector, overhead projector, the first computer, ballpoint pen,
mimeograph, transistor, headphones, slide rule, video tapes, IBM, reading accelerator,
skinner teaching machine, educational television, photocopier, Computer Assisted
Instruction, mouse, filmstrip viewer, internet, handheld calculator, the scantron system
of testing, birth of Microsoft, the Apple 11 computer, plato computer, CD ROM drive, Era
of Educational Computer Games, world wide web, laptop, personal digital assistants, mini
computers, e-book reader, interactive whiteboard, apple Ipad, and interactive mobile
apps. These inventions have made much more changes in the history of teaching and
learning. Truly, Education is the centre of development. It contributes to the aid in
delivering the topic and have been brought a quality and a higher standard education.

With these technologies invented by some known scientist, the way the
students and teachers teach goes far beyond already since the introduction of computers
in the early years. Through the use of computers, students and teachers could perform
their task perfectly. For students, they can easily search their paper works and
assignments quickly and for teachers, it would be a less hassle preparing for their lesson
plans, checking attendance, making grades and preparing lessons at the same time it
brings convenience and a lighter works to do. One good thing of using computer is that it
can save and restores files, edits, retrieve and use them repeatedly. Todays learning is
merely not confined in using prescribed textbooks. Many of those information can be
found in the internet, blogs and other sort of searches and can rely a vast information
from different sources.

Chapter Five
Software for Educators and Students

Softwares of teachers and students were categorized into two types,
mainly the system software and application software. In the system software, it
comprises of the programs that control the operation of computer and its devices. It also
has operating system where it contains instructions that coordinate all of the activities
of the computer hardware devices and allows the user to run the application software.
Its job is to tell the computer how to perform functions such as run while the computer
turned on. There are different operating systems. First is stand-alone operating system,
it is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer,
or mobile computing device. Second is Embedded operating systems, this kind of
operating systems resides in an internal chip rather than a hard drive. Todays embedded
operating systems recognized multiple points of contact and allow users to interact with
the device using stylus or finger. Lastly, the emerging operating system like that of
Googles Chrome OS has the potential to revolutionize computing. Chrome OS is based on
Google Android which is designed to work exclusively with web-based applications and to
run on Chrome book computers.
For Electronic Spreadsheet software, it allows the user to organize
numeric rows and columns. This software is normally used to doing budgets, grade
computation and accomplish mathematical problems. Spreadsheets are composed of
thousands of columns and rows which are vertically arranged and are identified with
letters A to FXD. In the presentation software, it is designed to communicate and
display information including texts, images, audio and video elements in a slideshow
format. Presentation programs are typically used during lectures, presentation of reports,
motivational games, and the like. Graphics and Multimedia Software allows professionals
like engineers, architects, publishers, and graphic artist to design what is intended for
their own field of specialization. It includes desktop publishing software, image editing
software, image gallery, multimedia authoring tools, video and audio editing software, web
page authoring software and others.


In our modern days, especially that we are soon teaching, these

softwares will help a lot not just for teachers alone but as well as the students,
themselves. In making grades we have Microsoft Excel which makes easy to input data
and calculate the grades of the students. To make a astonishing presentation, we have
these PowerPoint Presentation that gives convenience and interactive environment. To
keep yourself reminded of the schedules, we that spreadsheet and cloud. And if you want
to look for the answers of those questions that keeps on bothering or hesitating you, you
can access different softwares in the computer like internet, Internet Explorer Browser,
Google and all those networking sites that may give your questions like blogs, wattpad,
facebook, Encarta kids, and the like. All this useful softwares contributed a lot to the
everyday living of humankind.

Those said useful softwares have brought vital role in integrating technology in
education. It has changed the learning styles of an individual and the easiest way to save
time especially to those individuals who have heaps of woks to be done. This are commonly
the programs that the administrators used to establish and strengthen the record
keeping and the exchanges of information amongst various institution and agencies.
Examples are student information records, admissions, accounting, payroll system, tuition
management , class scheduling , purchasing, faculty hiring and faculty evaluation. Those
programs were intentionally designed specifically to deliver instruction or aid with the
delivery of the instructions.

Most of the programs are against violation and were guaranteed that this
would have link to a positive outcome to most of its users. Example is the Drill and
practice software which gives activity or exercises that tests students capability and
gives feedback on what part has to be polished and to retake. With these, it would be a
stepping stone for the learner to know his/her performance and will be able to adjust and
do good if wanted to keep himself/herself productive.

Chapter Six
Instructional Software for Classroom Use

For instructional software, drill-and- practice software is categorized
into three types: first is Control Over the Drill-and- practice where users may be given
signal to the software if she/he is ready to go to the next question by pressing/tapping a
key or clicking on a mouse button. Answering the question given or the problems are given
the allotted time, however, a good drill and practice software still gives users enough
time to think and answer before proceeding to the next question. Second is Answer
Judging, a good drill and practice program must be able to discriminate correct answer
from incorrect ones, especially if the user is required to enter a short answer rather
than simply choosing from the selection. Lastly, Gives appropriate feedback. Two errors
must be avoided when programs give feedback. Its benefit for the Immediate feedback
is that, Paper and Pencil drill and practice gives delayed feedback, thus, the student
would not know immediately how much they perform in their drill and practice. For its
motivation, students are not simply motivated doing paper and pencil drill and practice
for reasons that they do not like writing or they have poor writing skills. Saving teacher
time. Teacher can attend to the students needs while their students spend time in drill
and practice. Some areas that benefited the drill and practice are: typing skills, math,
English and language vocabulary.

In the tutorial software, theyll be having Extensive Interactivity wherein

regular and thorough responses to question must be regularly give along tutorial to
continuously guide students learning. Developed Adequate Answer-judging and feedback
capabilities, appropriate graphics, appropriate pedagogy, and adequate record keeping
where the summary of progress report of students must be present and can be easily
accessed by the teacher to enable them to keep track to the students performance.


This various Instructional Software are the doors and windows over
learning. It brings us the world of dimensions and knowledge. It makes us experience the
things we dont encounter and realized how things/ our environment gets done on its very
nature. Let say for instance, when students arent available in fieldtrips, there is no
problem with that because they could have that so called virtual fieldtrip where it will
bring them more closer to reality. At the same time they enjoy while learning.
Instructional softwares contributed a lot since it is not just for educational use but also
for entertainment and exploration. The students will be able to see, feel and hear this
softwares which is more likely prone to learning while enjoying its very nature. It really
helps a lot especially to those who have hectic schedules and for safetys sake this is
more recommendable. But what makes it having its disadvantage is that, it is costly and
most often rich people do experienced this instructional software only aside from having
it free in various conferences or just giving it free. Unfortunately, what about those have
nothing to afford? Mainly, this is intended just for those who have given everything by
the fate and not merely to those poor. I never realized how humans came up unto this but
one thing I assure is that it really helps human experience, getting into involve and feel
how is it being something wonderful.

Through these instructional softwares used in classrooms, students came

to be well rounded and determined to do so. Somehow, this software enable the student
to develop themselves and accept constructive criticisms. With these, they come to
sharpen the critical thinking skills, reading comprehension, analysis, reading and writing,
and constructing their own understanding or opinion about the topic. What makes it good
is that all the learning could be improved if always being practiced.

Chapter Seven
Evaluating Educational Technology


Evaluation is a important part of any process or any entity or item consumed

by an individual, to know how well it works, whether it is effective or not and to
determine whether it benefits or bring complication to the person. Performance of
students in class, work performance of employees, teaching performance of teachers,
performance task done. By students seminars, and workshop are some of the examples
where evaluating occurs.

Evaluating the use of education technology in class is as important as

evaluating the processes done in any project. To evaluate the process or item is to
determine its importance and usefulness. Determining the appropriateness of educational
technology in classroom instruction and to gauge how much it enhances teaching and
learning are some areas that we take a look to arrive at a final decision about its use and
implementation in education.

Evaluating education technologys effectiveness is no easy task for this is linked

with the students learning. Thus, evaluating the effectiveness of educational technology
is connected with the assessment given to students. We are aware that giving of
standardized test is one way to measure how the student has learned. However, this does
not totally measure the total academic performance of the student. The skills and
students learning. It is therefore important that teachers have to develop indicators
that would measure not only the cog native skills of the students but more importantly is
psychomotor and effective domains.
Educational technology plays an important role in the assessment mentioned
above. Thus, completion of assessments is aided with educational technology that helps
students achieve the learning goals. When students succeed, the technology then is
beneficial and suitable in the learning process, if it is otherwise, the educational
technology may not be the appropriate tool for meeting the ends of education that is

Evaluating the technology used in the classroom is an essential factor to make
or have a successful demonstration or presentation of your topics. To evaluate the
computer, you should have check its availability if the technology is still available that
moment you are to present the lesson. For instance, today is your biggest because youll
be presenting your final demonstration and here comes you have checked the computer
you are using the same day when you have your final demonstration, of course, lucky you
are if once the said technology is not used but what if it is being used the day when you
are to present your demonstration? Of course, it will make a big trouble and may result
from a failure grade. That is why in setting up for the technology, it is very essential to
have check its availability. Secondly, know its effectiveness of the computer or the
technology you are using because there are many times when the computer is really
evident on you and is available but the question is, is that effective in line with your

Third factor you are to consider when evaluating the technology or simply
the computer is to know its relevance on the topics you are disseminating because try if
the computer is available since you have reserved it ahead or you have it on your own and
its effectiveness in terms of its function are really evident and crystal clear but the
problem is that although the technology you will be using s available and effective but its
far out from the theme that you have pick. In other hand when you arent to consider its
relevance, it wont works on the same way around. For instance, you had this topic you
picked which is the use of traditional instructional materials but then you have brought
modern technology in the final demonstration, showing them the those technologies but
what matters here is that, does it really important to link one which is too far out from
the lesson and is very uninteresting? Among of these three factors are the things to
consider when evaluating your technology used or the computer. It really counts when the
technology you are to use is available, effective and relevant.

Chapter Eight
Legal and Ethical Use of Technology

There are many cases when we want something to be kept private and
would not allow others to use it, such as diaries, messages in our mobile
phones and e-mails, and many others. Same is true when it comes to assessing
of computer units and other hardware devices, software, network, and most
of all computer files. In ,Hardware Theft and Vandalism some of the security
challenges encountered by schools administrators and teachers. Computer
theft is stealing of hardware and its devices, while computer vandalism is the
act of damaging or breaking the hardware-cutting the cables and wires,
smashing the computer and its devices and deleting of software or computer
files. Software Theft, Software piracy is a form of software theft. This
happen when the person copies illegally copyrighted software for person or
business use. When a person purchases software, he/she actually purchases
the right to use the software but does not own the software. Software that
has been purchased has with it a software licence which provides condition
for its use. These condition must first be agreed upon by the user prior to its

To prevent possible events of hacking, schools install firewalls. A

firewall is a security system that blocks unauthorized access to data on a network .
Firewall restricts teachers and students from accessing malicious data that may harm in
schools computer hardware, software and files. All communications in school are being
routed through a proxy server which screens all incoming and outgoing messages and to
hardware theft and vandalism, security system and precautionary measures are employed
in schools such as setting up for security cameras, installing locks in computer units ,
devices, and it wires to keep these in place.


In accessing to computer units it should be authorized and licensed so as

to not to put yourself from shame and trouble. Its like your diary when you kept it for
long time and wont let allow no one to take a glimpse of it and somehow it is also likely in
accessing personal software and hardware of others without any permission. Hacking ones
account or using his/her identity just for you is not good aside from its immorally done in
the law of government, it is not pleasing in the eyes of God. Basically, accessing ones blog
without further authority is called identity theft. Its no good to steal ones account. For
the account owners, they update or change their account password every month or twice a
month will be much better. Think of a password which is not easy to be guess and make
sure that you remember your password so as not to lose your account like blogs and

Links used must be in licensed and valid. Everyone who exceeds through
limits is punishable to the Law itself and therefore, hacking ones private account or
connecting others account without permission is a CRIME! Crime doesnt just takes place
during killings by psychopaths but indeed, every mortal sin that includes a full knowledge
and action can be classified as one. Before, there were apps that were prohibited to
access like Microsoft programs but as time goes by this limited access has now been
available and free to access.
Chapter Nine
Alternative Delivery System

Distance education is a method of education where students can study
in their own choice of place and time, without having to meet their teachers face-
to-face. Instruction in distance education is being delivered with the use of special
materials and technology that may be included in the alternative delivery system.

Radio is an ADS which is considered as powerful tool when delivering a

lesson disseminating information to a large group of students. This ADS may not
sounds so popular , but in actuality there is widely used in both develop and
developing countries. Radio is the most assessable ADS for it can reach people even
in the most deprived areas at a relatively low cost. Instructions delivered via
broadcast radio are also supported with other instructional materials like print

Delivering a lesson via radio save time, energy, and money. Teachers
are trained on the use of the broadcast radio to make them knowledgeable and
skilful with the use of this ADS to make the delivery successful. The different ,
format of delivering in broadcast radio can be: discussion, documentary, drama,
docu-drama, discussion and interview. High frequency is require to meet the desire
clarity of audio to enable the students to comprehend what is being conveyed by
the teacher. Question and answer between teacher and students can be applied
which is similar with audio conferencing. Learning Management Systems is a
software application or web-based technology system that allows anyone to create
e-learning content and coursework, deliver e-learning , courses to participants,
track progress, and manage learning materials.


Through alternative delivery systems, burdens amongst students may

catered and focused. This allows a very comfortable learning environment wherein the
students just have their discussion or submission of assignments via radio, internet or
computers, and the like. However, it is likely to have this tools to cater those hectic
schedules among working students, business men and the like. This is usually intended for
children who wants to have Home Schooling than having such a challenging learning
environment. In alternative delivery systems, we have several types; first is what they
called teleconference or the teleseminar which brought the live exchange and mass
articulation of information among the several persons and machine remote from one
another but linked by a telecommunications systems. Those terms such as audio
conferencing, telephone conferencing and phone conferencing are also sometime used to
refer to teleconferencing. The telecommunications may support the teleconference by
providing two or more of the audios like vdeos and data services by one or more means
such as telephone, phone, computer, telegraph, teletypewriter, radio and television.

Secondly, with distance learning courses, students can complete their course
work from just about anywhere , provide theres a computer and internet connection. This
allows students to work when and where it is more convenient for them without having to
squeeze in schedule classes to an already busy life. Taking a course online can be one way
to cut down on costly gas public transportation. Since students can often work from home
to complete their class assignments, both time and money are saved in cutting out the
trips to and from class. As distance learningcan usually be completed on your work
schedule, it is much easier to complete distance learnng courses while working than more
traditional educational programs. Keeping your job gives you more income, experience and
stability while completing your degree giving you less to worry about and more time to
focus more on studies.

Chapter Ten
Components of the Internet and the world Wide Web

The Internet started in the late 1960s from the U.S. Department of Defences
Advanced Research Projects Agency. They called it ARPANET. The purpose of building
the network is to allow scientists to communicate and share information on military and
scientific projects on different locations. LAN consist of servers and several computers.
The server is the one that manages the resources in network and provide central storage
for data and programs. WAN or Wide Area Network is a network that covers a large
geographical area like a city. The world wide connections of networks are called the
internet or simply the net. No one can tell how many millions of networks and computers
are connected to the internet. The computer sends data to the different computers and
networks through a packet. A packet is a data that has been broken into small piece of
data. It may be a piece of an email message, a file, or a graphic . the packet contains a
small piece of data together with the recipient or the destination, sender or the origin
and sequence information to reassemble the data at the destination through a device
called a router. A router is a hardware device that allows you to connect several
computers and other devices to a single Internet connection. It serves as a traffic cop
for network signals. When a path to the destination is not accessible or is overloaded, the
router sends the packet along the alternate path.

Many would interchangeably use the words Internet and World

wide web. Though world wide web or simply the web is a collection of web pages found in
this network of computers. It is a system of hyperlinked or hypertext documents
accessed via internet. WWW came to into existence in the early 1990 and since then, it
has been widely used. A web master or a web developer is the person responsible for
developing web pages and maintaining them. Hyperlinks allows users to navigate quickly
from one webpage to another. A web page is consists of text, graphics , sounds , videos
and even animations. A collection of web pages is called a website . Most websites have a
homepage which is the first page of a website.

Because unlike any other technology, the web can be whatever we make it.
We can shape it. We can mold it. But most importantly we can cause it to connect every
single person on earth, giving people the ability, as users and contributors, to improve
their lives and communities. With a browser, how to access the Web is quite obvious for
those people who open their preferred browser multiple times day. There are many
different browsers, running on almost all types of computers running all kinds of
operating systems.

Nowadays, almost all of the browsers are free, but some are more
compliant with web standards than others, which enable them to provide a better user
experience on a far greater number of sites. However, there are other ways than with a
web browsers to access the web content. These generation, we can use our voice to
access the web, and this is called Voice browser usable through any fixed or mobile
phone. The keypad of the phone and your voice allow you to navigate on the web, follow
links, and fill form in the same way as the keyboard and the mouse on your computer. Your
ears scan receive information in the same way as your eyes viewing the screen on your
computer. Almost all phones are now capable to run a mobile browser and access the web.
Mobile phones are critically important to extend the reach of the web, particularly in
developing countries where people are far more likely to have access to a mobile phones
than a computer. Indeed, more couple of people have a mobile subscription and about 80
percent I guess of the world populations is covered by a mobile network.

Chapter Eleven
Roles of the Internet and the world web in
Nowadays, Internet has introduced a lot of developments especially on
how teachers and students communicate and connect with each other. Almost the
students and their teachers as well have at least a smart phone to be able to give
announcements, reminders asks questions or simply send a message. Aside from this,
communication using the Internet is enhanced between students because they can share
information as well as discuss a particular topic or subject. Since there are many tools
that we can use to communicate, we need to take into consideration the proper behaviour
when communicating in the internet. This will help both personally and professionally to
gain respect and courtesy. In the online environment, we use the term netiquette to imply
the generally accepted code of behaviour in using internet.

Communication can either be asynchronous and asynchronous

communication where the person communicates and anywhere and anytime. The person
should not be online to receive the message. Synchronous communication is a type of
communication where the people communicate in real time. E-mail is the oldest and most
common communication tool that is easy to use and very reliable. Through e-mail,
messages are type, sent, stored, and retrieved. Messages can be sent to multiple
addresses and can be forwarded to other recipients. A webinar, short for web-based
seminar, is a presentation, lecture, demonstration, workshop or seminar that is done over
the web. In this kind of virtual meetings, you can show presentation slides, share audio
and other applications, give, receive, and discuss information in real time. You can record
the whole webinar so that it can still be played all over again.

Todays generation internet contributes a bigger help among mankind.
It depicts and showcases its aid and importance in works, business and studies. With this
help it brings to humanity, it sets distance relationships closer to one another. It also
made us experience things that are unreachable, impossible and only exist in our
imaginations. It caters our needs emotionally, spiritually though the doctrines of God
online, it copes our financial problems and gives more jobs to the jobless and lessens the
amount of unemployed workers. The roles of computer to mankind is give light to the

Nowadays, the advancement of technology also helps the country

making it more productive. With the help of these technologies, like for the doctors, they
have that machine to give extension to the life of an individual, they have the gadget to
make your heart function if having an heart attack. All those technologies have brought
important roles in our living. For other countries, they have some robots that were
programmed to do a certain task and do all what you want to ask. All its positive sides
mirrors the negative one. Sometimes with so much entrust to these technologies, we,
human beings come to be lazy and insensitive to the REAL VALUES OF LIFE. We also
come to rely more often on those information that the computer is giving resulting from
Laziness, the COGNITIVE aspect didnt work anymore because of too much rely on these
technologies. The thing here is to use technology in a proper way to the extent of not
depending too much from what it could give to us. We should remember that a brain
without exercise could result into lost of memory and might be prone to amnesia.

Chapter 12
Web tool and resources

The World Wide Web is merely a tool, as in the chalkboard, overhead projector, or
VCR. Tools dont teach. When effectively implemented, they assist in the learning process. If
learning on the part of the student has been helped by the use of the tool, then the tool has
been used successfully (Rosen, 1998). Many teachers nowadays are using web-base instruction
because it is effective, efficient, and enjoyable. Aside from this, it also enhances learning,
reduces repetitive teaching task and provides improved instructional materials. According to Tim
Berners-Lee, the first implementation of the web in 1999 representing the web 1.0, could be
considered as the read-only web. Because the early web allowed users to search for
information and read it. Static websites are examples of this which do not have active
communication with the users. The main goal of the websites was to publish the information for
anyone at any time and establish an online presence. During this age, the information age was
born. Web 2.0 was defined by Dale Dougherty in 2004 as a read-write web. With Web 2.0,
teachers and students have new ways of creating, collaborating, and contributing (3Cs) of
information. Tools are very easy to use and very accessible. Among these tool are the
presentation tool, video tools, and mobile tools. The third generation of the Web or Web 3.0 was
suggested by John Markoff of the New York time. Web 3.0 is considered as semantic web age
according to Tim Berners Lee. Semantic web is a web that can demonstrate things in the
approach which computer can understand. The main important purpose of semantic web is to
make the web readable by machines and not only by humans. Web 4.0 connects all devices in the
real and virtual world in real-time. Since everything is mobile, we needed to adapt to its mobile
surroundings. In this generation, the web is now moving towards using artificial intelligence.

Web 5.0 is about the (emotional) interaction between humans and computers. The web here does
not perceive the users feel and emotions. One example of this is, which maps
emotions of people. The World Wide Web offers excellent resources that can be used for
teaching, researching and a lot more. Every teacher should be familiar with the vast resources
available on the web so they can enrich effectively the learning experience of the students.
Organizing a bookmark list will improve your ability to locate resources. You just need to create
folders, have meaningful names to your folders, and you can have an organized bookmark. The
Edit window will allow the creation of a hierarchical filing system based on folders.


Technology, in one form or another, has always been part of the teaching and learning
environment. It is part of the teachers professional toolbox. In other words, it is among
the resources that teachers use to help facilitate student learning. Technology has
changed dramatically over recent decades. The increasing variety and accessibility of
technology has expanded the toolbox and the opportunities teachers have to use
technology. Computer devices are more powerful and come in different forms, from those
that sit on our desks to those that sit in the palm of our hands. The internet connects
those devices and connects students to each other in the classroom, through the school
and around the world. This chapter considers the technologies that are available to
teachers to support their teaching strategies. The chapter focuses on software,
applications and resources that support teaching and learning. We consider the tools that
teachers use to help their students use, create, manipulate and share information on
computer devices and over computer networks.

Technological devices and networks have changed our schools and classrooms. In
Australia, technological investments in schools have been made at the state/territory
level and at the national level through initiatives such as the Digital Education Revolution.
There now are computers and interactive whiteboards in schools, and schools are
connected to each other and the world at higher speeds than ever before. Technology in
schools has become mobile, with laptop computers, tablet devices and smartphones now
part of the teaching and learning context. This chapter examines what teachers might do
to support student learning through applications and resource tools, regardless of the
device. When we talk about technology in teaching and learning, the word integration is
often used. The idea of integrating technology into the curriculum came about through a
concern that we may have been teaching about and teaching how to use technology but
not addressing how students can apply technology related knowledge and skills. To
address this problem, there was a move to integrate technology into each key learning

With technology now being part of our everyday lives, it is time to rethink the
Concept of integrating technology into the curriculum and instead aim to embed
Technology into pedagogy, to support the learning process. This means that technology
becomes an integral part of the learning experience and an important consideration for
teachers, from the onset of preparing learning experiences through to teaching and
learning with students. It is important not to use technology for its sake, but rather to
embed technology appropriately. Here, teachers draw upon their expertise and
experience in what to teach and how to teach it. A teacher has many considerations and
influences in designing learning experiences for students, and the appropriate use of
technology is but one of those considerations. Just as teachers keep up to date with
curriculum developments, new educational policies and advances in the art and science of
teaching practice, they keep up to date with the technological tools that are available to
them. This means that sometimes experimentation and trialand-error are just as
important as experience in what influences teachers lesson plans.
The role and expertise of teachers are critical because teachers are at the front line of
designing and delivering the learning experience. It has been well argued that just making
technology available in schools does not mean that teachers will make use of the
technology.This chapter provides some ideas for teachers in how they can make
meaningful use of technology in their teaching.

Digital learning resources support information processing by helping students to develop

mental representations through the mix of media elements presented to them. Digital
learning resources include content and, sometimes, learning activities. They combine
multimedia elements including text, image, video and audio to present information.