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Submitted by

Rachit Saxena

Partial fulfilment for the award of the degree






ANA Group of Institution

Mechanical workshop of north eastern railway, Bareilly is a well-known public sector
industry. I am deeply grateful to Senior Section Engineer (B.T.C), who gave me a chance to
have an insight of the vocational training of thirty days.
By seeing the good management of the plant, I learnt a lesson three Ds Discipline,
Determination and Devotion. I also grasp an idea of state-of-the-art technology and plant.
I am also grateful to each of my chief-instructors who provided me every help and removed
my doubts about the particular shop.

Rachit Saxena
M.E. 4th Year
The North Eastern Railway is one of the seventeen railway zones in India. It is
headquartered at Gorakhpur and comprises Lucknow and Varanasi divisions as well as
reorganized Izatnagar division.
This Railway passes through/connects too many important tourist and cultural centres like
Varanasi, Sarnath, Lucknow, Allahabad, Kushinagar, Lumbani, Ayodhaya, Nainital, Ranikhet,
Kausani and Dudhwa. Main Stations are Lucknow, Gorakhpur, Varansi, Chhapra etc. It also
have some stations like Siwan, Gonda, Basti, Khalilabad, Barabanki etc.

Mechanical Workshop, North Eastern Railway, Gorakhpur completed his glorious centenary
years on 04-06-2003. It was established in year 1903. Earlier it was the main loco workshop
of this railway. Steam engine were maintained here for a long time. But now coaches and
wagons are repaired and maintained here.

1.1 Indian Railway ..... 1
1.2 North Eastern Railway Gorakhpur ... 2
2.1 Machine Shop . 3
2.2 Heat Treatment Shop 7
2.3 Welding Shop 10
2.4 Wheel Shop 13
2.5 Paint Shop 14
2.6 Spring Shop 16
Fig. no. Detail of figure Page no.
2.1 Manually operated machine 4

2.2 Drilling machine 4

2.3 Lathe machine 5
2.4 Shaper 6

2.5 Slotter 6
2.6 Planer 7
2.7 Heat treatment 8

2.8 Iron Carbon Diagram 8

2.9 Welding by torch 11

2.10 Gas welding and flames 12

2.11 Wheel 13

2.12 Paint box 15

2.13 Thinner 15

2.14 Spring 16

3.1 Overhead crane 18

4.1 Block diagram of basic air brake equipment 19



The history of rail transport in India began in the mid-nineteenth century.Prior to 1850, there
were no railway lines in the country. This changed with the first railway in 1853. Railways
were gradually developed, for a short while by the British East India Company and
subsequently by the Colonial British Government, primarily to transport troops for their
numerous wars, and secondly to transport cotton for export to mills in UK. Transport of
Indian passengers received little interest till 1947 when India got freedom and started to
develop railways in a more judicious manner

Indian Railways is an Indian state-owned enterprise, owned and operated by the Government
of India through the Ministry of Railways.

The first train in the country had run between Roorkee and Piran Kaliyar on December 22,
1851 to temporarily solve the then irrigation problems of farmers, large quantity of clay was
required which was available in Piran Kaliyar area, 10 km away from Roorkee. The necessity
to bring clay compelled the engineers to think of the possibility of running a train between the
two points.[4] In 1845, along with Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, Hon. Jaganath
Shunkerseth (known as Nana Shankarsheth) formed the Indian Railway Association.
Eventually, the association was incorporated into the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, and
Jeejeebhoy and Shankarsheth became the only two Indians among the ten directors of the GIP
railways. As a director, Shankarsheth participated in the very first commercial train journey in
India between Bombay and Thane on 16 April 1853 in a 14 carriage long train drawn by 3
locomotives named Sultan, Sindh and Sahib. It was around 21 miles in length and took
approximately 45 minutes.

A British engineer, Robert Maitland Brereton, was responsible for the expansion of the
railways from 1857 onwards. The Calcutta-Allahabad-Delhi line was completed by 1864. The
Allahabad-Jabalpur branch line of the East Indian Railway opened in June 1867. Brereton
was responsible for linking this with the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, resulting in a
combined network of 6,400 km (4,000 mi). Hence it became possible to travel directly
from Bombay to Calcutta via Allahabad. This route was officially opened on 7 March 1870
and it was part of the inspiration for French writer Jules Verne's book Around the World in
Eighty Days. At the opening ceremony, the Viceroy Lord Mayo concluded that "it was
thought desirable that, if possible, at the earliest possible moment, the whole country should
be covered with a network of lines in a uniform system"

Indian Railways is the world's seventh largest commercial or utility employer, by number of
employees, with over 1.307 million employees as of last published figures in 2013. As
for rolling stock, IR holds over 239,281 Freight Wagons, 62,924 Passenger Coaches and
9,013 Locomotives. The trains have a 5 digit numbering system and runs 12,617 passenger
trains and 7421 freight trains daily. As of 31 March 2013, 20,884 km (12,977 mi) (31.9%) of
the total 65,436 km (40,660 mi) route length was electrified.[7] Since 1960, almost all
electrified sections on IR use 25000 Volt AC traction through overhead catenary delivery.


Gorakhpur workshop was established in 1903 for repair and overhauling of MG steam
locomotives, coaches and wagons. Due to gauge conversion from MG to BG, POH activity of
50 BG coaches /month was started in sep1984.The POH of MG coaches was also stopped
from January 2002.At present, this workshop is mainly carrying out POH of BG AC and
NON-AC coaches in number 180 per months. Capacity augmentation and modernization
project phase-1(coasting RS.22.7 crore) and phase -2(coasting Rs.18 cr.) has been sanctioned
and are under progress.


1 No of officers -19.
2 No of supervisors-378.
3 On roll strength- 5282.
4 Total are covered-29.8 Hectare.
5 Covered area-12.6 Hectare.
6 Township area Gorakhpur.
7 Power consumption- 208662 KWH.


The Indian Railways is divided into zones, which are further sub-divided into
divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of sixty-nine

Each of the divisions, is headed by a Divisional Railway Manager (DRM) who reports
to the General Manager (GM) of the zone. A DRM can be appointed from any
services of Indian railway, Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and Indian Revenue
Service (IRS) for the tenure of 3 years but it can be exceeded on the
recommendation of Railway Board.

Divisional officers heading all departments viz. engineering, mechanical, electrical,

signal and telecommunication, accounts, personnel, operating, commercial, safety,
medical, security branches report to the Divisional Railway Manager. The DRM is
assisted by one or two Additional Divisional Railway Managers (ADRM) in the
working of the division.

1. Central railway-CR- Mumbai

2. East central railway-ECR- Hajipur
3. East coach railway-ECoR- Bhubaneswar
4. Eastern railway-ER- Kolkata
5. North central railway-NCR- Allahabad
6. North eastern railway-NER- Gorakhpur
7. North western railway-NWR- Jaipur
8. North east frontier-NFR- Guwahati
9. Northern railway-NR- Delhi
10. South central SCR- Secunderabad.
11. South eastern-SER- Kolkata
12. South western SWR- Hubli
13. Southern railway-SR- Chennai
14. South east central-SECR- Bilaspur
15. West central railway-WCR- Jabalpur
16. Western railway-WR- Mumbai
17. Kolkata Metro- Kolkata
18. Central railway-CR- Mumbai
19. East central railway-ECR- Hajipur
20. East coach railway-ECoR- Bhubaneswar
21. Eastern railway-ER- Kolkata
22. North central railway-NCR- Allahabad
23. North eastern railway-NER- Gorakhpur
24. North western railway-NWR- Jaipur
25. North east frontier-NFR- Guwahati
26. Northern railway-NR- Delhi
27. South central SCR- Secunderabad.
28. South eastern-SER- Kolkata
29. South western SWR- Hubli
30. Southern railway-SR- Chennai
31. South east central-SECR- Bilaspur
32. West central railway-WCR- Jabalpur
33. Western railway-WR- Mumbai
34. Kolkata Metro- Kolkata


In this section all kinds of machining is done to obtain the correct size and shape of the job.
Besides, machining of steel job, Aluminium-plates are also machined here. Machining is
other performed manually or on automatic machines.

Machines are two types



There are three types of automatic machine.

1 Numerical control.
2 Computer numerical control.
3 Direct numerical control machine.

NUMERICAL CONTROL-The machining parameter are feed from the control panel
by pushing buttons .The job is machined according to the parameter There are N.C. boring
machine in this shop.

COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL- In this machine all the data

corresponding to the initial work piece to the final product is feed into the computer. All the
process required in the order of action is fed with the help of programmer .In this machine
one, has to just fix the job is to the chuck. All the other process is done automatically. This is
the machine use for large scale production. In this shop there is one CNC chucker turret Lathe

DIRECT NUMERICAL CONTROL-This machine is controlled by installing a

control room away from the work place .These machine are D.N.C. machine. These are fully
automated .The machine shop is divided into different divisions to the task accomplished
.Theses sections are-

1 Capstan and turret lathe section.

2 Milling section.
3 Drilling section.
4 Central lathe section.
5 Heavy machine section.
Fig 2.1 manually operated machine

DRILLING SECTION-Drilling operation is carried out here. A large for the

operation .To complete the operation faster a few gauge milling machine are also provides.

Fig 2.2 drilling machine

CENTER LATHE SECTION-Heavier lathes are provided in this section. All the
lathes have four jaws chuck for better holding centering is done either manually or with
the help of universal scriber. All kinds of turning are performed here. Parting off is other
major operation done.

Fig 2.3 lathe machine

SHAPER-The machine is also called horizontal shaping machine. It works on quick-

return mechanism .The arm of shaper reciprocating horizontally.
The cutting take place only in the forward stroke. The bed of the machine is fixed
and the tool reciprocating. Shaping, Planning, Grooving etc are performed by this
Fig 2.4 shaper

SLOTTER-The is vertical shaping machine .The arm reciprocating in the vertical

direction .Most parts are the same as shaper .Slotting is the process that is carried on this
machine .

Fig 2.5 Slotter

N.C.BORING-By this boring machine, various different operations can be done such as
drilling machine etc. The depth of cut and the feed is controlled by pushing the button of
control panel. The displayed while machine, the work table rotates and the tool is fixed.
PLANNER-Planner is used for the very large jobs. The basic difference between shaper
and planner is procedure of giving relative motion between the work piece and tool .In the
shaper, the tool reciprocates while in planner the table reciprocates.

Fig 2.6 planner


Heat treatment is the process of heating and cooling of a material to change its physical and
mechanical properties without changing the original shape and size. Heat treatment of steel is
often associated with increasing its strength, but can also be used to improve machinability,
formability, restoring ductility, etc. Basic heat treatment process for steels are described in the
following subsections.


1 Hardening.
2 Tempering.
3 Austempring.
4 Martempring.
5 Annealing.
6 Spheroidizing.
7 Normalizing.
8 Nitriding.
Fig 2.7 heat treatment

Fig 2.8 Iron Carbon Diagram

Hardening involves heating of steel, keeping it at an appropriate temperature until all pearlite
is transformed into austenite, and then quenching it rapidly in water or oil. The temperature at
which austentizing rapidly takes place depends upon the carbon content in the steel used. The
heating time should be increased ensuring that the core will also be fully transformed into
austenite. The microstructure of a hardened steel part is ferrite, martensite, or cementite.

Tempering involves heating steel that has been quenched and hardened for an adequate period
of time so that the metal can be equilibrated. The hardness and strength obtained depend upon
the temperature at which tempering is carried out. Higher temperatures will result into high
ductility, but low strength and hardness. Low tempering temperatures will produce low
ductility, but high strength and hardness. In practice, appropriate tempering temperatures are
selected that will produce the desired level of hardness and strength. This operation is
performed on all carbon steels that have been hardened, in order to reduce their brittleness, so
that they can be used effectively in desired applications.

Austempering is heat treatment that is applied to ferrous metals, most notably steel and
ductile iron. In steel it produces a bainite microstructure whereas in cast irons it produces a
structure of acicular ferrite and high carbon, stabilized austenite known as ausferrite.

Martempering is a heat treatment for steel involving austenitisation followed by step
quenching, at a rate fast enough to avoid the formation of ferrite, pearlite or bainite to a
temperature slightly above the martensite start (Ms) point.

Annealing is a heat process whereby a metal is heated to a specific temperature /colour and
then allowed to cool slowly. This softens the metal which means it can be cut and shaped
more easily. Mild steel, is heated to a red heat and allowed to cool slowly.

Spheroidizing is a form of heat treatment for iron-based alloys, commonly carbon steels, in
order to convert them into ductile and machinable alloys.
A spheroidized structure in high-carbon steel is usually obtained by a divorced eutectoid
transformation (DET) reaction, which occurs during slow cooling of aus- tenite with fine
cementite particles.

Normalizing Heat Treatment Definition. Normalizing Heat Treatment process is heating a
steel above the critical temperature, holding for a period of time long enough for
transformation to occur, and air cooling.
Nitriding is a heat treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create
a case-hardened surface. These processes are most commonly used on low-carbon, low-alloy
steels. However, they are also used on medium and high-carbon
steels, titanium, aluminum and molybdenum. Recently, nitriding was used to generate unique
duplexmicrostructure (Martensite-Austenite, Austenite-ferrite), known to be associated with
strongly enhanced mechanical properties.


Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials,

usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature
metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal. In
addition to melting the base metal, a filler material is often added to the joint to form a pool
of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to form a joint that can be as strong as the base
material. Pressure may also be used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce a weld.

Some of the best known welding methods include:

1. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) - also known as "stick welding", uses
an electrode that has flux, the protectant for the puddle, around it. The electrode
holder holds the electrode as it slowly melts away. Slag protects the weld puddle from
atmospheric contamination.

2. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) - also known as TIG (tungsten, inert gas), uses a
non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld area is protected
from atmospheric contamination by an inert shielding gas such as Argon or Helium.

3. Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) - commonly termed MIG (metal, inert gas), uses a
wire feeding gun that feeds wire at an adjustable speed and flows an argon-based
shielding gas or a mix of argon and carbon dioxide (CO2) over the weld puddle to
protect it from atmospheric contamination.

4. Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) - almost identical to MIG welding except it uses a
special tubular wire filled with flux; it can be used with or without shielding gas,
depending on the filler.

5. Submerged arc welding (SAW) - uses an automatically fed consumable electrode

and a blanket of granular fusible flux. The molten weld and the arc zone are protected
from atmospheric contamination by being "submerged" under the flux blanket.
6. Electroslag welding (ESW) - a highly productive, single pass welding process for
thicker materials between 1 inch (25 mm) and 12 inches (300 mm) in a vertical or
close to vertical position.

Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an electric arc,
a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound. While often an industrial process, welding
may be performed in many different environments, including in open air, under water, and
in outer space. Welding is a hazardous undertaking and precautions are required to
avoid burns, electric shock, vision damage, inhalation of poisonous gases and fumes, and
exposure to intense ultraviolet radiation.

Until the end of the 19th century, the only welding process was forge welding,
which blacksmiths had used for centuries to join iron and steel by heating and
hammering. Arc welding and oxyfuel welding were among the first processes to develop late
in the century, and electric resistance welding followed soon after. Welding technology
advanced quickly during the early 20th century as World War I and World War II drove the
demand for reliable and inexpensive joining methods. Following the wars, several modern
welding techniques were developed, including manual methods like SMAW, now one of the
most popular welding methods, as well as semi-automatic and automatic processes such as
GMAW, SAW, FCAW and ESW. Developments continued with the invention of laser beam
welding, electron beam welding, magnetic pulse welding (MPW), and friction stir welding in
the latter half of the century. Today, the science continues to advance. Robot welding is
commonplace in industrial settings, and researchers continue to develop new welding
methods and gain greater understanding of weld quality.

Fig 2.9 welding by torch

Oxy Fuel Welding

Oxy-fuel is one of the oldest welding processes, besides forge welding. Still used in industry,
in recent decades it has been less widely utilized in industrial applications as other
specifically devised technologies have been adopted. It is still widely used for welding pipes
and tubes, as well as repair work. It is also frequently well-suited, and favored, for fabricating
some types of metal-based artwork. As well, oxy-fuel has an advantage over electric welding
and cutting processes in situations where accessing electricity (e.g., via an extension cord or
portable generator) would present difficulties; it is more self-contained, and, hence, often
more portable.

In oxy-fuel welding, a welding torch is used to weld metals. Welding metal results when two
pieces are heated to a temperature that produces a shared pool of molten metal. The molten
pool is generally supplied with additional metal called filler. Filler material depends upon the
metals to be welded.

In oxy-fuel cutting, a torch is used to heat metal to its kindling temperature. A stream of
oxygen is then trained on the metal, burning it into a metal oxide that flows out of
the kerf as slag.
Fig 2.10 gas welding and flames

Type of flame Ratio

Acetylene oxygen
1. Carburizing Flame 1.5 1
2. Oxidyzing Flame 1 1.5
3. Neutral Flame 1 1


In this shop, repair work of the wheel and axel is under taken. As it is known that, the
wheel wears throughout its life. When at work the profile and diameter of the wheel
constantly changes. To improve its working and for security reason, it is repaired and
given correct profile with proper diameter.

The diameter of new wheel is-

Type Wheel dia. Distance b/w journal Journal Axel wheel
center (mm) size(mm) seat dia. (mm)
ICF 915 2159 120*113. 172,0.25,0.35
BMEL 915 2210.2 120*179 171,0.45,0.63

Wheel can be used certain minimum diameter after which it is discarded. The diameter of
the wheel when it is condemned are-


1. ICF/BMEL SOLID 915-813
2. ICF TIRED 915-851
3. BMEL TIRED 915-839

Fig 2.11 wheel


In this shop wheel sets are removed from the bogies, the entire wheel is first inspected for
assessing the condition of the component of wheel such as axel trial wheel disc and

The shop consist of-

1 Axel journal testing lathe.

2 Hydraulic wheel press with facility of mounting.
3 Axel turning lathe.
4 Vertical turning lathe.
Axel journal turning lathe.

On this lathe, the diameter of the axel is brought to the correct diameter. The cutting tool is
used of carbon tool.

Hydraulic wheel press with a facility of mounting.

The wheel is pressed on the axel with the help of this machine. A calculated amount of
pressure is applied and the wheel is pressed.

Axel turning machine.

External and internal diameter is corrected by this lathe, wheel is tightened on the rotating
clutch. The stationary is carbide tool cut the wheel to correct diameter.

Wheel Profile Lathe.

The profile of the wheel is repaired on this machine. Correct profile is cut by carbide tool.


The Work of this shop is to paint the coaches and bogie.In this shop there are many sections
and they are following






Fig 2.12 Paint box

Fig 2.13 Thinner

THE MAIN PROCESS INVOLVE IN PAINTING Firstly, Putin is prepared and it gets
filled at the places where holes and cracks has been found.

Secondly, the primer is put on the body and then finally painting is done in order to give the
body desire shape.

The overhauling of the coaches has been in given time interval it improves the quality of
coaches and it also prevents the coaches from break down. The maintenance of coaches is
according to time being is done as following-



1 Aluminum Paint.
2 Anti-corrosive.
3 Asbestos paint.
4 Bituminous paint.
5 Cellule paint.
6 Cement paint.
7 Distemper.
8 Plastic paint.
9 Graphite paint.
10 Oil paint
11 Silicate paint.
12 Luminous paint.
13 Enamel paint.
14 Emulsion paint.


In this section the helical and leaf spring are prepared. For this purpose there certain machine
for testing, grading and repairing it.

Fig 2.14 spring

The test performed on helical spring and laminated spring are-

1 Visual and magnetic crack detection.

2 Spring scraping machine.
3 D buckling
Visual and magnetic crack detection. The visual test with the help of magnifying lens and
glass the spring the is inspected of-

Corroded Fail
Deep seam of mark Fail
Surface crack Fail
No sound defect Fail
In the magnetic testing a mixture of kerosene oil and magnetic red ink is sprayed on the
spring and inspected for the clinging of the oil droplets. If oil clings at same place if present
the presence of crack. There are variation reasons for the failure of the helical spring such as
free height load test, dent mark, corrosion and breakage.


Free of height 8.93%
Load test 82.08%
Dent mark, corrosion & breakage 08.39%

Spring scraging

After the buckling test, the spring should be put on scraping machine and the camber should
be measured. In this test, the spring should be pressed quickly and camber should be
measured 2 times. The spring should be test such as, it should not be more than of the
plate. In helical spring scraping, the spring is kept on the machine and its free height us
measure. Now the spring is compressed, under certain and its compression is noted down.
The compression is matched from the table provided for springs. If the compression matches,
the spring is passed otherwise rejected.


1 Over camber of the spring.

2 Short camber of the spring.
3 Leaf broken.
4 Gap between the leaves of the spring.
D buckling
On this machine, buckling is performed on laminated spring. The leaves of the springs are
assembled and pressed. Now it is put on the buckling machine axial and longitudinal forces
are applied.

Material Handling is the field concerned with solving the pragmatic problems involving
the movement, storage in a manufacturing plant or warehouse, control and protection of
materials, goods and products throughout the processes of cleaning, preparation,
manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal of all related materials, goods and
their packaging .The focus of studies of Material Handling course work is on the
methods, mechanical equipment, systems and related controls used to achieve these
functions. The material handling industry manufactures and distributes the equipment and
services required to implement material handling systems, from obtaining, locally
processing and shipping raw materials to utilization of industrial feed stocks in industrial
manufacturing processes. Material handling systems range from simple pallet rack and
shelving projects, to complex conveyor belt and Automated Storage and Retrieval
Systems (AS/RS); from mining and drilling equipment to custom built barley malt drying
rooms in breweries. Material handling can also consist of sorting and picking, as well
as automatic guided vehicles.


Material-handling equipment is equipment that relate to the movement, storage, control

and protection of materials, goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing,
distribution, consumption and disposal. Material handling equipment is the mechanical
equipment involved in the complete system. Material handling equipment is generally
separated into four main categories: storage and handling equipment, engineered systems,
industrial trucks, and bulk material handling.

Fig 3.1 Over head crane

Mainly two types of braking system is used-

1 Air-Braking system.
2 Vacuum-brake system.


This is new method of braking system, which is more efficient than the vacuum brakes. It is
used at first in Rajdhani and satabdi coaches. Progress conversion of vacuum brakes in air-
brake has being undertaken.

The main parts of air-brake system are following-

1 Brake cylinder.
2 Brake pipe.
3 Feed pipe.
4 Distributer pipe.
5 Angle lock.
6 House pipe.
7 Auxiliary reservoir.
8 Guards van valve & pressure gauge.
9 Isolating cock.
10 Passenger emerging alarm signal devic
11 Dirt collector.

Fig 4.1
Description of some important parts of Air-Braking system:-

BRAKE CYLINDER- There are two 355 mm brake cylinder under frame, which is fed
by common distributor valve. It has the piston-rod arrangement, which works under
pressure. Brake cylinder is connected to distributor valve on one side and by pivot to the
block cylinder.

BRAKE PIPE- This is charged from the locomotive at 5 kg/cm3 and causes
application and release of brakes due to change in its pressure through the locomotive
control system. The pipe linked to distributor system.

FEED PIPE- It having 6kg/cm3 pressure, and keeps the auxiliary reservoir charge at
fuel pressure even when brakes are applied. Feed pipe are also connected to the
distributor valve.

DISTRIBUTOR VALVE- It is connected to the brake pipe auxiliary reservoir and

brake cylinder. It controls the pressure in the brake cylinder. It controls the pressure in the
brake cylinder in proportion to the reduction of pressure in brake-pipe.

ANGLE COCK- It is use for alarming purpose.

HOUSE COUPLING- Both the brake-pipe and feed pipe are fitted to the angle cock
outlet for the passage of compressed air from one coach to another mean of braided
rubber and metal coupling.

GUARD VAN VALVE & PRESSURE GAUGE- These are provided in the guards
compartments. These are provided to control the train movement.

ISOLATING COCK- Use for isolating the air from one point to the other point.

CHOKE- It is device for restricting the flow of air from one point brakes circuit to other
point. The handle of this cock is kept parallel to the pipe to indicate that it is in open

3. V.B. Bhandari.
4. Google images.
5. John Wiley & sons.
6. Nptel lectures.
7. Ghosh & Malik.