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Chapter 1



Environment is the range of physical, chemical, and biotic conditions which comprise the

immediate surroundings of the whole or part of a living organism. In the context of human

ecology, it also includes social and cultural surroundings in which a person, animal, or plant lives

and operates.

Environment is very essential in every aspect of life. All the living beings depend on it. It

embodies all the components required for survival of living organisms. It provides air, water,

soil, food and other raw materials required for survival. All the development of living creatures is

done in the surroundings. Human being utilizes the natural resources for the improvement of

civilization. For standardization, man uses the environment in different sectors of evolving

activities. Therefore, survival, reproduction, growth and development of living organisms are

done under the environment.

Regarding the importance above, there are problems that occur in the environment known

as environmental pollution. It is the contamination of the surroundings which degrades the

condition of human beings as well as threatens the life of living organisms. Pollution is the

introduction of contaminants into the environment that causes adverse change. It is the

undesirable state of the natural environment being stain with harmful substances as a

consequence of human activities. Pollution has great effect on air, water and land. Harmful off-

gazing from things such as paint, plastic production, litter found on the side of the road, and
illegal dumping of garbage in natural habitats which composed mainly of plastic materials are

the causes of pollution.

Plastic material is a group of non-metallic synthetic, carbon-based materials that can be

molded, shaped, or extruded into flexible sheets, films, or fibers. It is a synthetic polymer, long-

chain molecules synthesized by joining together large numbers of identical small molecules

(monomers). It represents one of the fastest growing categories of materials used and disposed of

in society. They are highly visible, since they are composed of about 21% of the volume of

municipal garbage.

Plastic is one of the most convenient, strong, good and cheap to produce material. It can

be reused and restored repeatedly. It has a very good water resistant, possesses good

adhesiveness, can be easily molded and have excellent finishing. It contributes an important part

in human life. It can provide the things that consumers want and need. It has the unique

capability to be manufactured to meet very specific functional needs for consumers. Even in the

field of industry, it is used for building, construction, electronics, packaging and transportation


In spite of the above mentioned advantages of using plastic, the researchers observed and

encountered certain liabilities, considering that plastic is non-biodegradable material. It causes

water and land pollution. Burning plastic produces toxic fumes that causes air pollution and

different kind of diseases, specifically cancer. Plastic is a non-renewable resources. It can be

recycled, but it is very costly.

Manufacturing of plastic involves chemicals, many of which have not been sufficiently

tested for their toxicological impact on humans, plants or animals. Plastic are durable materials.
Thus, it is hard to eliminate once used and create tremendous waste. Even some common plastics

can be recycled like soda and milk bottles, the vast majority cannot. It takes up a lot of space in

landfill and creates pollution when forlorn. This incommodity of using plastic caught the

attention of the researchers to create a study and research on how to minimize the garbage

problem regarding plastic materials that leads through the idea of converting plastic into oil by

using Plastic to Oil Converter.

Statement of the Problem

The general problem of the study is how to lessen the existing problem regarding plastic


Specifically, the study will try to answer the following questions:

1. What are the beneficial effects of introducing the Plastic to Oil Converter?
2. What are the materials and devices present in the converter?
3. What are the processes to be used in producing oil?
4. Will this mechanism be acceptable to the end user in terms of :
4.1 Functionality;
4.2 Efficiency and effectiveness;
4.3 Maintainability;
4.4 Reliability; and
4.5 Price

Objectives of the Study

1. To lessen the garbage problem in the country by introducing plastic to oil

2. To find a way on how to produce oil from plastic.

Significance of the Study

The researchers believe that the following end users will gain benefits upon using the

project called Plastic to Oil Converter.

To the Environment

The study will help the environment in solving solid waste problem to lessen the

pollution, and to minimize the tremendous waste create by non-biodegradable garbage

specifically plastic.

To the Companies

Oil companies like ( PNOC ) or Philippine National Oil Company provide and

maintain an adequate and stable supply of oil in the Philippines. They can use the idea,

concept and process of Plastic to Oil Converter to produce oil from plastic since they

explore and develop all the resources in the country which can provide their needs.

To the Consumers

The study will help the consumers appreciate the importance of environment.

Showing the project to the consumers will give them awareness about the solid waste

problem regarding plastic materials, knowing the fact that abusing the ambience may

result danger on living beings.

Scope and Delimitation

This feasibility study deals with the converting of plastic into oil. Since garbage is

composed mainly of plastic; it would be economical and beneficial if these non-biodegradable

plastics be recycled in another way, like turning it into oil.

The research will be focusing in knowledge, concepts and principles governing the

process of producing oil out of thermoplastic.

Notes in Chapter 1

Merriam Webster Dictionary

Oxford Illustrated Encyclopedia Volume 2 (The Natural World)

Oxford Illustrated Encyclopedia Volume 6 (Invention and Technology)

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objective of the Study

1.4 Significance of the Study

1.5 Scope and Delimitation

1.6 Notes in Chapter 1


Submitted By:

Group 1 :

De Leon, Kenneth C.

Adan, Joseph Chrisitan D.

Talampas, Ninoy S.

Pitallano, Beatriz M.

Mangyari, Sofia Camille G.


Submitted To:

Dr. Alfredo G. Mendoza