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LA VOZ PASIVA

La voz pasiva se forma con el verbo TO BE en el mismo tiempo verbal que el verbo
activo + el participio pasado del verbo activo.

Adems el sujeto de la oracin activa pasa a ser agente introducido por by y el objeto directo
pasa a ser el sujeto de la oracin pasiva.

SUJETO + VERBO + OBJETO + COMPLEMENTOS

OBJETO + TO BE + PP VERBO activo + BY - SUJETO + COMPLEMENTOS


(Sujeto) (verbo en pasiva) (agente)

Ejemplo:
(ACTIVA) King Alexander fought a battle in Rome
(PASIVA) A battle was fought by King Alexander in Rome

El verbo fought esta en pasado simple, luego el verbo to be lo ponemos en pasado simple.
Despus ponemos el pp de fought que en este caso es tambin fought.

El agente se omite cuando no est claro quien es o no es importante.

Ej. (ACTIVA) People always admire this car.


(PASIVA) This car is always admired.

Los cambios en la pasiva son siguientes:

PRESENT SIMPLE Am/are/is + past participle


PRESENT CONTINUOUS Am/are/is + being + past participle
PAST SIMPLE Was/were + past participle
PAST CONTINUOUS Was/were + being + past participle
PRESENT PERFECT Have/has + been + past participle
PAST PERFECT Had + been + past participle

Cuando tenemos un infinitivo o una forma ing la pasiva se realiza de la siguiente forma:

Infinitivo: be + past participle (presente)


have + been + past participle (pasado)

Se suele utilizar despues de los verbos modales (must, can, will) y despues de formas como (
going to, have to, would like to).

Ej. You must close the door > The door must be closed.

Gerundio: being + past participle


Esta forma se suele utilizar detrs de todos aquellos verbos que rigen gerundio.
Ej. He remembers being given the book.
Verbos con doble objeto
Cuando el verbo activo tiene dos objetos (directo e indirecto) el objeto indirecto pasa
generalmente a ser el sujeto de la frase pasiva. Pero tambin puede el objeto directo. Sin
embargo, con los verbos ask y tell no suele usarse esta ltima estructura.

Ej. (ACTIVA) My parents gave me a present for Christmas


OI OD
(PASIVA) I was given a present for Christmas by my parents.
A present was given to me by my parents for Christmas.

Ej. They asked me a few questions. > I was asked a few questions > A few questions were asked to me.
OI OD

La pasiva impersonal
La pasiva impersonal se utiliza para hablar de lo que otras personas han dicho. Se puede emplear
con los siguientes verbos: believe, know, think, report, say, ect.
Existen dos estructuras que se traducen por se dice que.

1 Estructura
It is said that + clause

PRESENTE / FUTURO PASADO

Ej. They say the house is mysterious. Ej. They say that the mother killed her baby.
It is said that the house is mysterious. It is said that the mother killed her baby.

2Estructura

PRESENTE/FUTURO PASADO

suj + is said + to +infinitivo suj + is said + to have +pp

Ej. They say the house is mysterious. Ej. They say that the mother killed her baby.
The house is said to be mysterious. The mother is said to have killed her baby.

Ej They believe that she is living in Brazil Ej. They say that the man had died.
She is believed to be living in Brazil. The man is said to have died.

Ej. They say that he will win.


He is said to win.

Have / get something done

Empleamos la estructura Sujeto+ have/get + objeto + participio con un sentido pasivo para
expresar que alguien hace algo para nosotros.

Ej. She had their house painted last year.