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odos los tipos de oraciones condicionales son recursos gramaticales, que

se utilizan constantemente en el idioma ingls. Los utilizamos para indicar


que una accin depende de otra y tambin para hablar sobre situaciones
reales o irreales.

Debemos entender que existen 5 tipos de oraciones condicionales, las


cuales son desde el tipo -1 al 3. Es posible que la nomenclatura de esta lista
sea difcil de comprender, pero la realidad es que es ms fcil distinguirlos
de esta manera.

Estos tipos de oraciones condicionales en el idioma ingls son:

1. Tipo -1 Ordenes.
2. Tipo 0 Realidades Cientficas.
3. Tipo 1 Situaciones Posibles.
4. Tipo 2 Situaciones Tericas.
5. Tipo 3 Situaciones no Posibles.

1. ORACIN CONDICIONAL TIPO -1 "ORDENES"


Este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la ms bsica del idioma ingls, por
la que muchas veces no es tomada en cuenta por ciertos acadmicos. Este
tipo es utilizado para dar ordenes condicionales, segn el cumplimiento de
una accin.

La estructura del tipo -1 es: If + Presente Simple + Imperativo

Ejemplos de oraciones condicionales tipo -1:

If she cooks at the party, call me!


Si ella cocina en la fiesta, llmame!

If you talk to many people, Speak up!


Si hablas a muchas personas, Hble fuerte!

If it rains, Don't open the window!


Si llueve, no habrs la ventana!

2. ORACIN CONDICIONAL TIPO 0 "REALIDADES CIENTFICAS"


Este tipo de oraciones condicionales es utilizado para expresar realidades
cientficas y empricas, es decir cuando la condicin y el resultado siempre
es verdadero.
La estructura del tipo 0 es: If + Presente Simple + Presente Simple

Ejemplos de oraciones condicionales tipo 0:

If I work my project grows


Si Yo trabajo mi proyecto crece

If you read this blog, You learn more English


Si lees este blog, aprendes ms ingls

If you heat mercury, this explodes


Si calientas el mercurio, ste explota

3. ORACIN CONDICIONAL TIPO 1 "SITUACIONES POSIBLES"


Este tipo de oraciones condicionales expresan sucesos o amenazas que son
posibles de ocurrir.

La estructura del tipo 1 es: If + Presente Simple + Futuro Simple

Ejemplos de oraciones condicionales tipo 1:

If you learn English, You'll travel to the U.S. without problems


Si aprendes ingles, Viajars a Estados Unidos sin problemas

If you travel to Buenos Aires, I wont see you again


Si viajas a Buenos Aires, No te volver a ver

If you tell me that you love me I will stay by your side


Si me dices que me amas me quedar a tu lado

4. ORACIN CONDICIONAL TIPO 2 "SITUACIONES TERICAS"


Este tipo de oraciones condicionales se utiliza para expresar una posibilidad
irreal en el presente, como deseos, sueos o para acciones del futuro que
no son tan probables.

La estructura del tipo 2 es:

If + Tiempo Pasado + (Would o Could) e Infinitivo


Ejemplos de oraciones condicionales tipo 2:

If They were here, They would give you the money


Si ellos estuvieran aqu, Te darian el dinero

If I had a car, I would sell it


Si tuviera un coche, lo vendera

If You had an Iphone, You could play video games


Si tuvieras un Iphone, podras jugar con videojuegos

If She learned English, She could travel to England


Si ella aprendera ingles, podra viajar a Inglaterra

5. ORACIN CONDICIONAL TIPO 3 "SITUACIONES NO POSIBLES"


Este tipo de oraciones condicionales son utilizados para expresar situaciones
del pasado que no han sucedido y que no son posibles en el presente.

La estructura del tipo 3 es:

If + Pasado Perfecto + (Would have) y Participio Pasado

Ejemplos de oraciones condicionales tipo 3:

If I had been president, I would have bought a helicopter


Si yo hubiera sido presidente, me habra comprado un helicptero

If Laura had been careful, she wouldn't have had the heart attack.
Si Laura hubiera tenido cuidado, ella no hubiera tenido un ataque cardiaco

If I had been lucky, I would have traveled to Brazil


Si yo hubiera tenido suerte, habra viajado a Brasi

Regla gramatical:

nformacin sobre gramtica


relevante para hablar ingls
Los estudiantes de ingls como segundo idioma (ESL) que desean
adquirir fluidez, deben saber que estudiar gramtica puede retrasar su
avance significativamente. La gramtica bsica es una necesidad, pero
enfocarse en la gramtica puede impedir que hable ingls fluidamente
en un periodo de tiempo razonable. La gramtica es ms efectiva para
mejorar sus habilidades de comunicacin y escritura, pero esto
nicamente es relevante para aquellos con una slida base de fluidez en
ingls.

Si usted est estudiando para un examen o desea aprender ms sobre


las reglas gramaticales, entonces visite Gramtica bsica del ingls.

Algo muy comn entre la gente de todo el mundo es que han aprendido
a hablar antes de aprender gramtica. Hablar es el primer paso para
cualquier estudiante de ingls. As que si usted es principiante en
ingls, por favor enfquese en sus habilidades para hablar y escuchar
antes de estudiar gramtica. Despus de poder hablar ingls
fluidamente, usted se dar cuenta que de esta manera la gramtica
ser ms fcil. Pero eso no funciona en sentido contrario. Hablar
fluidamente le ayudar en sus estudios de gramtica, pero estudiar
gramtica NO le ayudar en su habilidad para hablar.

Desde este punto de vista, no contamos con una seccin principal de


gramtica. Hemos proporcionado nicamente las lecciones de gramtica
clave que un estudiante debe saber antes de estudiar ingls. Por favor
repase y estudie estas lecciones de gramtica, y luego trabaje en sus
habilidades para hablar y escuchar.

Qu es un sujeto?

El sujeto en una oracin es "who" o "what" est usted hablando. Cada


oracin necesita un sujeto. Si no tiene un sujeto, entonces la oracin no
es correcta y nadie entender lo que est usted diciendo.

En otros idiomas, no siempre se requiere del sujeto. Verbalmente, la


persona que lo est escuchando entender lo que usted est diciendo,
por lo tanto, no se requiere del sujeto. En ingls, siempre se requiere
de un sujeto.

He aqu ejemplos de oraciones cortas con sujetos subrayados.

"I am hungry"
"My brother is very smart"
"That computer is very expensive"
"We are going to the store now"
"My sister and I will be waiting here"
"The building is very big"

"When are you going to eat lunch?"


"Why are they waiting in line?"
"Who is going to take you to the store?"
Qu es un predicado?

El predicado en una oracin es la seccin que informa a la persona lo


que el sujeto es o lo que est haciendo. Es una frase que contiene un
verbo. El verbo siempre est en el predicado.

Ahora veamos las oraciones usadas en la leccin de sujeto para


identificar los predicados. Estos estarn subrayados.

"I am hungry"
"My brother is very smart"
"That computer is very expensive"
"We are going to the store now"
"The building is very big"

En las oraciones cortas anteriores, hemos identificado el sujeto y el


predicado. En la mayora de las oraciones bsicas, usted necesita un
sujeto y una accin asociada al sujeto. Ahora vamos a ver los verbos
para entender esto ms detalladamente.

Qu es un verbo?

Un verbo es una accin, existencia o un acontecimiento. En las


oraciones simples que hemos usado hasta ahora, el verbo est casi
siempre en la forma de existencia. Estos son "am", "is" y "are".

Otros tipos de verbos son verbos de accin, tales como:

Wash
Run
Walk
Throw
Jump
Dance
Laugh
Learn
Teach

Existen muchos verbos de accin, pero nicamente he listado algunos


para mostrarle a lo que me refiero. He aqu algunas oraciones para
ayudarle a entender mejor.

"I need to wash my face"


"Jane taught Jill"
"Mike is laughing"

Un verbo tambin puede estar al principio de la oracin.


"Throw the ball at the catcher"
"Run towards the finish line"

Es importante entender el verbo, pero tener un sujeto y un verbo nada


ms no es suficiente. Por ejemplo, "Jill run" no es una oracin
completa. Aunque "Jill" puede ser el sujeto y "run" es el verbo, esta no
es una oracin completa. Esa es la razn por la que la leccin anterior
sobre el predicado es importante. Con el predicado, podemos convertir
la oracin en una oracin correcta. "Jill is running"

Qu es un artculo?

Los artculos parecen ser fciles, pero son muy difciles de ensear.

"A", "An" y "The" son artculos. Es fcil explicar la diferencia entre ellos,
pero es difcil explicar cuando deben ser usados.

"A" y "An" tienen el mismo significado. Ambos son artculos indefinidos.


Son diferentes nicamente cuando dependen de la palabra o fonema
que les sigue. Esta es una breve explicacin.

Debe usar "A" cuando la palabra que le sigue comienza con una
consonante.

"A dog..."
"A boy..."
"A building..."
"A hamburger..."

Debe usar "An" cuando la palabra que le sigue comienza con el fonema
de una vocal.

"An eagle..."
"An umbrella..."
"An elephant..."
"An awesome book..."

"The" es un artculo definido. La diferencia est en si el sustantivo o


sujeto del que usted est hablando es especfico o no. Los ejemplos son
la mejor forma de entender la diferencia, ahora veamos.

Si usted dice, "I am going to a library to study", entonces la persona a


la que usted est hablando no sabe a cul biblioteca va. Si usted dice,
"I am going to the library to study", entonces la persona a la que usted
est hablando conoce la biblioteca especfica a la que usted va.

"I am going to a coffee shop" (Cafetera no especfica.)


"I am going to the coffee shop" (Una cafetera especfica conocida tanto
para el que habla como para el que escucha )

He aqu un ejemplo ligeramente diferente, pero sigue utilizando el


mismo concepto de especfico o general.

"I am going to sit in front of one of the computers in the lab"


"I am going to buy a computer"

Aunque la computadora en el laboratorio puede ser una de muchas


computadoras, el artculo correcto es "the" porque sigue siendo una
computadora especfica que existe en el laboratorio. Sin embargo, si
usted dice que va a comprar una computadora, no puede usar "the"
excepto cuando ya haya especificado la computadora. Comprar una
computadora puede ser de cualquier marca, tipo o tamao, por eso
esto es muy general. Por lo tanto, debe usar "A" en este tipo de
oraciones.

He aqu otro tipo de ejemplo:

"The heat wave is unbearable"


"I heard a heat wave is coming"

La diferencia entre estas dos oraciones es que la "heat wave" se


especifica en la primera oracin, y no se especifica en la segunda
oracin. En la primera oracin, la onda de calor ya est presente y
tanto el que habla como el que escucha saben que la onda de calor de
la que estn hablando es la que estn experimentando actualmente. La
segunda oracin se refiere a una onda de calor futura que no es
especfica.

Cundo y cundo NO usar un artculo.

Una regla comn que debemos tener en cuenta es que los artculos no
se usan cuando se refiere a un nombre.

"Turn right at the burger store"


"Turn right at McDonalds"

"The boy was running very fast"


"Mike was running very fast"

Otro ejemplo de cundo no usar un artculo es cuando se refiere a


cosas generales en una conversacin.

"Too much alcohol is bad for you"


"Cigarettes can cause lung cancer"

Cuando nos referimos a los deportes, no necesitamos un artculo.


"I love playing badminton"
"Football is a dangerous sport"

En muchos casos, no necesitamos un artculo cuando nos referimos a


un pas, excepto cuando el nombre se refiere a varios pases o
regiones. Por ejemplo, si usted dice "England" o "Scotland", no necesita
un artculo, pero si se refiere a "The United Kingdom" o "The United
States", entonces s necesita un artculo.

Grammar Rules Review

This is a quick, basic grammar review for nouns, verbs, and the sometimes
confusing usage of lay versus lie, and rise versus raise. This reference can be
used for term papers, grammar class reviews, or simply for anyone confused
or curious about the basics of English grammar.

Nouns

1. Noun identification
2. Count, Mass, and Collective Nouns
3. Plural and Possessive Nouns

Noun Identification

What is a noun? A noun is a person, place, thing, quality, animal, idea or activity.

For example:
Person Maria
Place Detroit
Thing Desk
Quality Width
Animal Dog
Idea Independence
Activity Navigation

Spot the nouns in a sentence: Maria went into the city to purchase detergent.

Nouns: Person Maria


Place City
Thing Detergent

The functions of nouns


Nouns sometimes function differently in sentences. For example:
Subject: Maria likes ice cream
Object of Preposition: He gave the ice cream to Maria
Subject complement: The best customer is Maria

Grammar vocabulary: Nominal means any word, or group of words, used as a


noun. The nominal word used in the original noun example is Maria.

Types of Nouns

The names of specific things, places, and people, like Maria or Detroit, are
Proper nouns.

General, colloquial names, like table or house are Common nouns. Common
nouns can either be concrete, or abstract.

When an object is concrete i.e. you can see it and touch it, like a phone or a
chair, it is a Concrete noun.

When it is a quality or idea, like freedom or justice, it is an Abstract noun.

Count Nouns

Count nouns are anything that can be counted. They are singular or plural.
Plurals usually end with s.

Singular Car
Plural Cars

Singular Chair
Plural Chairs

Singular Dog
Plural Dogs

Irregular Examples

Singular Mouse
Plural Mice

Singular Child
Plural Children

Most nouns ending in s, sh, o, or ch need an -es suffix to be plural


Singular Bus
Plural Buses

Singular Dish
Plural Dishes

Singular Potato
Plural Potatoes

Singular Church
Plural Churches

Nouns ending in a consonant followed by y become plural by changing the y to i


and adding -es

Singular Mystery
Plural Mysteries

Mass Nouns are nouns that cannot be counted and they usually do not have a
plural form

Examples: Freedom, sand, money

Collective nouns refer to groups of people and/or things. Unlike mass nouns,
they can usually be counted, so they usually have plural forms.

Examples:

Singular Staff
Plural Staffs

Singular Herd
Plural Herds

Plural Nouns

Plural nouns are the nouns that have been changed into their plural states by
adding -s or -es. Remember your irregular nouns, such as mice and children!
They too are plural nouns.

Possessive Nouns

Nouns can be possessive and express ownership, usually following the use of
of.
Example: The life of Maria

Most singular possessives are formed by adding an apostrophe and s. If the


noun is plural, the possessive form becomes s and apostrophe.

Singular Common: Dog


Singular Possessive: Dogs
Plural Common: Dogs
Singular Possessive: Dogs

Exception: if the plural noun does not end with an s, the possessive is formed
by adding apostrophe and s.

Example:

Singular Common: Woman


Singular Possessive: Womans
Plural Common: Women
Plural Possessive: Womens

Pronouns

A pronoun takes the place of an unknown noun. The unknown noun is called
the antecedent.

Example: Maria wondered if she was late for work.

Maria is the antecedent of she. Instead of saying: Maria wondered if Maria


was late for work, she appears to take the place of Maria.

The Nine forms of Pronouns:

Personal, possessive, indefinite, reflexive, reciprocal, intensive, interrogative,


relative, and demonstrative.

The pronoun must always agree with antecedent, so if the antecedent is male,
the pronoun must be male, if the antecedent is plural, the pronoun must be
plural, etc.

Example:

Correct: When Maria bought the detergent, she used her credit card.
Incorrect: When Maria bought the detergent, they used his credit card.
Pronoun Cases

Nominative Cases: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, who

The nominative, or subjective, case pronoun is the subject of the sentence.

Examples: She went to the store.


Who has the book?
I am he.
This is she.

Objective Cases: Me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whom

These function as direct or indirect objects.

Examples:
We gave HER the bus money.
We gave IT to HER.
I dont know to WHOM I speak.
The bag is with HER.

Possessive Cases: My, mine, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, theirs, your,
yours, whose

The possessive case pronoun shows possession

Example:
That is MY bag.
That bag is MINE.
HER bus was late.
The bags are all HERS.

Personal Pronouns can refer to the person/people speaking (First person,)


spoken to (second person,) or spoken ABOUT (third person.)

First person subject singular: I


First person subject plural: We
First person object singular: me
First person object plural: us

Second person subject singular: you


Second person subject plural: you
Second person object singular: you
Second person object plural: you
Third person subject singular: he, she, it
Third person subject plural: they
Third person object singular: him, her, it
Third person object plural: them

Example: I wanted to give them to her, but he wouldnt let me.

I first person singular


Them third person plural
Her third person singular
He third person singular
Me first person singular

Possessive Pronouns

Like regular nouns, personal pronouns can also be possessive. Possessive


Determiners are possessive forms of personal pronouns. Possessive
Determiners must have a following noun.

First person determiner singular: MY (book)


First person determiner plural: OUR (book)
First person pronoun singular: Mine
First person pronoun plural Ours

Second person determiner singular: YOUR (book)


Second person determiner plural YOUR (book)
Second person pronoun singular: Yours
Second person pronoun plural: Yours

Third person determiner singular: IS, HER, ITS (book)


Third person determiner plural: THEIR (book)
Third person pronoun singular: His, hers, its
Third person pronoun plural: Theirs

Example: They have MY bags but they know theyre MINE.

My Determiner, dependent on Bags


Mine stands in place of My bags.

Indefinite Pronouns

These have no specific antecedents. These are usually identified with general
words like: all, any, some, or none.

Examples:
Singular: another, both, nobody, everything, nothing, somebody, everyone, no
one, something, etc.

Plural: all, many, most, much, some

Examples: Somebody has her bags.


Plural: Everyone knows about Marias bags.

Indefinite pronouns are only pronouns if they are used ALONE. If they are used
with a noun, they become indefinite adjectives.

Pronoun: Both knew they were Marias bags.


Adjective: Both baggers knew they were Marias bags.

If the subject performs actions TO or FOR itself, the action in the sentence
passes BACK to the subject and becomes a reflexive pronoun.

First person singular: Myself


First person plural: Ourselves
Second person singular: Yourself
Second person plural: Yourselves
Third person singular: Himself/Herself/Itself
Third person plural: Themselves

Example: We asked OURSELVES where her bags were.

We is the doer and receiver of the action ask.

Intensive Pronouns are used to point back to the noun or pronoun for emphasis.

Example: I myself knew they were Marias bags.

The intensive pronoun does not always need to directly follow the noun.

Example: I prefer walking myself.

Reciprocal pronouns express mutual action.

Examples: each other/ each others


One another/one anothers

Maria and Heather greeted each other.

Interrogative Pronouns
These are used to ask questions and can be personal or non-personal

Personal subject: Who/Whoever


Personal object: Whom/Whomever
Personal possessive: Whose
Non-personal subject: Which
Non-personal subject: What

Example:
Who has the bags?
Which bagger has them?
Whose bags are these?

Demonstrative Pronouns

These substitute specific nouns, usually when someone is gesturing toward


something.

Singular: This/That
Plural: These/Those

Example: These are for her.

Verbs

A verb is an action part of speech. It can also express a state of being, or the
relationship between two things. It is most powerful when following a noun.
Example: He HIT her. Verbs are the most complicated part of speech because
they can sometimes become nouns, depending on their use.

The three kinds of verbs: transitive verbs, intransitive verbs, and linking verbs.

Transitive verbs

These take objects. Transitive verbs carry the action of subject and apply it to
the object.

Example: She TOOK the bags.

Intransitive verbs

These do not take an object, but express actions that do not require the agent
doing something to something else.
Example: She LEFT.

Linking verbs

These link the agent with the rest of the sentence and explain the link between
the subject and the rest of the sentence.

Examples: appear, grow, seem, smell, taste

Example: Maria seems tired from shopping.

The Lay/Lie and Raise/Rise Confusion

These two pairs of verbs are constantly misused. In each, there is a transitive
verb (TRV) and an intransitive verb (INV).

Lie Intransitive, means recline or be situated


Lay Transitive, means to place or put something

Rise Intransitive, means to get up.


Raise Transitive, means to lift something up.

Infinitive INV: Lie


TRV: Lay
INV: Rise
TRV: Raise
Past Tense Lie (Lay)
Raise (Raised)

Ordinal Numbers in English


Ordinal numbers are what we use to describe the order of things, such as the results of a
race.
Most ordinal numbers are formed by adding th to the end of the cardinal number.

Cardinal Ordinal

4 - four 4th - fourth

11 - eleven 11th - eleventh

87 - eighty-seven 87th - eighty-seventh


Exceptions:

one - first

two - second

three - third

five - fifth

nine - ninth

twelve - twelfth

for numbers that end in y this changes to ieth e.g. twenty - twentieth, fifty - fiftieth

When written as figures the last two letter of the written form are added to the number.

1st first

2nd second

3rd third

4th fourth

5th fifth

6th sixth

7th seventh

8th eighth

9th ninth

10th tenth

11th eleventh

12th twelfth
13th thirteenth

14th fourteenth

15th fifteenth

16th sixteenth

17th seventeenth

18th eighteenth

19th nineteenth

20th twentieth

21st twenty-first

22nd twenty-second

23rd twenty-third

24th twenty-fourth

25th twenty-fifth

30th thirtieth

31st thirty-first

40th fortieth

50th fiftieth

60th sixtieth

70th seventieth
80th eightieth

90th ninetieth

100th one hundredth

101st one hundred and first

172nd one hundred and seventy-second

200th two hundredth

1,000th one thousandth

1,000,000th one millionth

Examples
May is the fifth month.
John came second in the running race.
Barack Obama is the 44th President of the United States.

Cardinal Numbers Ordinal Numbers

1 one 1st first

2 two 2nd second

3 three 3rd third

4 four 4th fourth

5 five 5th fifth

6 six 6th sixth


7 seven 7th seventh

8 eight 8th eighth

9 nine 9th ninth

10 ten 10th tenth

11 eleven 11th eleventh

12 twelve 12th twelfth

13 thirteen 13th thirteenth

14 fourteen 14th fourteenth

15 fifteen 15th fifteenth

16 sixteen 16th sixteenth

17 seventeen 17th seventeenth

18 eighteen 18th eighteenth

19 nineteen 19th nineteenth

20 twenty 20th twentieth

21 twenty-one 21st twenty-first

22 twenty-two 22nd twenty-second

30 thirty 30th thirtieth

40 forty 40th fortieth

50 fifty 50th fiftieth

60 sixty 60th sixtieth

70 seventy 70th seventieth

80 eighty 80th eightieth


90 ninety 90th ninetieth

100 a/one hundred 100th hundredth

101 a/one hundred and one 101st hundred and first

200 two hundred 200th two hundredth

1.000 a/one thousand 1.000th thousandth

10.000 ten thousand 10.000th ten thousandth

100.000 a/one hundred thousand 100.000th one hundred thousandth

1.000.000 a/one million 1.000.000th one millionth

9 TIPS PARA TENER EN CUENTA:

1. "Mil" se traduce como thousand y tambin como one thousand cuando va seguido de otro
nmero: mil doscientos cuarenta, one thousand two hundred and forty, o en frases enfticas:
Insisto que cost mil, no tres mil. I insist that it cost one thousand, not three.

2. De los nmeros 1.100 al 1.900 es muy frecuente, especialmente en ingls americano,


empleareleven hundred (1.100), twelve hundred (1.200), eighteen hundred (1.800), etc; El
aeropuerto de Buenos Aires tiene una pista de mil novecientos metros, Buenos Aires airport has
a nineteen hundred metre runway.

3. A billion era equivalente a "un billn". Actualmente equivale a "mil millones". A trillionequivale
a "un milln de millones" (= un billn).

4. Como en castellano, la abreviatura de los nmeros ordinales se forma con el nmero en


cifraseguido por las ltimas dos letras de la palabra completa: 1ro. (primero), 1st. (first); 2do.
(segundo), 2nd. (second); 3ro. (tercero), 3rd. (third); 20mo. (vigsimo), 20th. (twentieth), etc.

5. En ingls se usa una coma o un espacio (y NO un punto) para marcar el millar. Ejemplo: 25
000 o 25,000.

6. En cuanto a nmeros como 100, 1.000, 1.000.000, etc. se pueden decir de dos maneras: one
hundred o a hundred, one thousand o a thousand.
7. No se pluralizan las palabras hundred, thousand o million cuando se trata de montos, por
ejemplo: no decimos US$ 4 millions sino US$ 4 million. En cambio podemos hablar de "millions"
of birds, "millions" of children, etc.

8. 0 (cero) se pronuncia nought, zero, nothing, oh (u) dependiendo de las expresiones.

9. Contar de dos en dos se dice count by twos; contar de tres en tres, count by threes; y as
sucesivamente, siempre pluralizando el nmero de veces.

En ingls no se usa el imperativo tanto como en el espaol. En general, se usa para dar rdenes,
instrucciones o advertencias. Las frases imperativas se construyen de manera diferente a las
afirmativas: no se utiliza un sujeto porque se supone que el sujeto es siempre you y el verbo
principal va en la forma infinitiva.

1. El imperativo afirmativo
Verbo + nombre, adjetivo

Ejemplos:

Do your homework! (Haz los deberes!)


Wash your hands! (Lavaros las manos!)
Tell me the truth! (Dime la verdad!)

2. El imperativo negativo
Verbo auxiliar (to do) + auxiliar negativo (not) + verbo + nombre, adjetivo

Ejemplos:

Do not lie to me! (No me mientas!)


Do not wash in the washing machine. (No lo lave en la lavadora.)
Dont hit your sister! (No le pegues a tu hermana!)

Nota: Si queremos incluirnos a nosotros mismos, usamos lets.

Ejemplos:

Lets go! (Nos vamos!)


Lets not fight. (No nos peleemos.)

Using the Imperative Form in English


You can use the imperative form to give an order, to give a warning or advice, and (if you use
"please") to make a request.

To make the imperative, use the infinitive of the verb without 'to':

"Come here!"
"Sit down!"

To make a negative imperative, put "do not" or "don't" before the verb:

"Don't go!"
"Do not walk on the grass."

The imperative can be used for all subjects (you, he, they and we), but you can also use "let's"
before the verb if you are including yourself in the imperative:

"Let's stop now."


"Let's have some lunch."

The negative of "let's" is "let's not":

"Let's not argue!


"Let's not tell her about it."

Orders

Adults do not usually give each other orders, unless they are in a position of authority. The
intonation of an order is important: each word is stressed, and the tone falls at the end of the
sentence:

"Sit down now!" ('Sit', 'down' and 'now' are all stressed, and the tone falls on 'now'.)

However, adults can give orders to children and to animals:

Here are some orders you could give your pet dog:

"Come here!"
"Sit!"
"Heel!"
"Fetch!"

Warnings

You can use the imperative to warn someone of danger. All the words in the warning are stressed,
but the last word has a higher tone than the first word:

"Watch out!"
"Look out!"
"Don't cross!"

Advice

When you give advice using the imperative, the words are stressed normally:

"Eat an apple it's much better for you than a biscuit!"

"Don't tell him you're resigning now! Wait until Monday when he's in a better mood."

You can often read articles in magazines that give advice on a subject. Sometimes, this advice is
presented as "Dos and don'ts".

For example:

Travelling long-distance

Do try to sleep well the night before


Do drink plenty of water
Do try to walk about the plane during the flight
Don't drink alcohol
Don't eat heavy meals
Don't wear restrictive clothing

Requests

You can also use the imperative to make a request, but you should use a polite word before the
verb:

"Please take a seat."


"Please wait here."
"Please hold the line."
"Please don't smoke here."

In written English, you might also see "Kindly" used as a polite word:

"Kindly return the documents as soon as possible."


"Kindly forward this to the Sales and Marketing department."
"Kindly send me 2 copies of your brochure."