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US005564282A
United States Patent [19] [11] Patent Number: 5,564,282
Kaye [45] Date of Patent: Oct. 15, 1996
[54] VARIABLE CAPACITY STAGED COOLING 4,753,285 6/1988 Rawlings .................................. 165/45
DIRECT EXPANSION GEOTHERMAL HEAT 4,903,495 2/1990 Howland et al. .... 62/81
PUMP 4,920,757 5/1990 Gazes et al. .... ... 62/181
5,025,634 6/1991 Dressler ...... ... 62/260 X
[75] Inventor: Glenn A. Kaye, Petitcodiac, Canada 5,038,580 8/1991 Hart ....... .... 62/324.6
5,136,855 8/1992 Lenarduzzi ..... ... 62/260 X
[73] Assignee: Maritime Geothermal Ltd., 5,224,357 7/1993 Galiyano et al. ......................... 62/260
5,244,037 9/1993 Warnke .......... ... 62/238.7 X
Petitcodiac, Canada 5,372,016 12/1994 Rawlings ........................... 62/238.7 X
[21] Appl. No.: 240,000 FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
[22] Filed: May 9, 1994 499.101 1/1954 Canada .
809880 4/1969 Canada .
821792 9/1969 Canada .
Related U.S. Application Data 1003234 1/1977 Canada .
1014760 8/1977 Canada .
[63) Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 53,050, Apr. 23, 1993, Pat. 1043583 12/1978 Canada .
No. 5,313,804, and Ser. No. 139,200, Oct. 20, 1993, Pat. No. 1044476 12/1978 Canada .
5,388,419. 1284892 6/1991 Canada .
[51] Int. Cl* F2SB 13/00 Primary ExaminerHarry B. Tanner
[52] U.S. Cl. ............................. 62/160; 62/199; 62/238.7;
62/324.4; 62/260; 62/1964 [57] ABSTRACT
[58] Field of Search .................................... 62/160, 196.1, A DX heat pump is provided herein which is based on the
62/196.3, 196.4, 197, 199, 200, 210, 212, principle of providing optimal heat exchange in the heating
222, 224, 225, 238.1, 238.6, 238.7, 260, mode through at least two, but up to five or more parallel
324.1, 324.4, 324.6; 165/29, 45; 237/2 B ground loops, all but one of which respectively can be cut off
[56] References Cited from the system and evacuated of refrigerant in the cooling
mode, and selectively reintroduced as required in the cool
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS ing mode. The loops are designed in terms of volume so that
4,017,286 4/1977 English et al. ............................ 62/160
the refrigerant charge is correct in the heating mode when
4,149,389 4/1979 Hayes et al. ................................ 62/79 split in the selected number of loops and also correct in the
4,327,560 5/1982 Leon et al. ................................ 62/260 cooling mode when one or more loops are used, whereby
4,375,831 3/1983 Downing, Jr. .. ... 165/48 R it/they contain the full system refrigerant charge. The head
4,445,343 5/1984 McCarty ..... ... 62/324.1 ers are provided with solenoid valves which can be indi
4,489,568 12/1984 Shapess ... ... 62/324.1 vidually operated to provide a staged cooling system.
4,570,452 2/1986 Bingham ................................... 62/260
4,646,538 3/1987 Blackshaw et al. .... ... 62/238.7 26 Claims, 15 Drawing Sheets

1505-7 15058 1505-9


U.S. Patent 5,564,282
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FIG. 3
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35 35a 35 36 35b

F|G. 4
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F|G. 5
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FIG. 6
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U.S. Patent Oct. 15, 1996 Sheet 9 of 15 5,564,282
U.S. Patent Oct. 15, 1996 Sheet 10 of 15 5,564,282
U.S. Patent Oct. 15, 1996 Sheet 11 of 15 5,564,282

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U.S. Patent Oct. 15, 1996 Sheet 12 of 15 5,564,282
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U.S. Patent Oct. 15, 1996 Sheet 15 of 15 5,564,282
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VARIABLE CAPACITY STAGED COOLING the proper heat exchange, as well as the excavation of
DIRECT EXPANSION GEOTHERMAL HEAT sufficient land to place enough ground coils to achieve
PUMP sufficient heat exchange. In colder climates, this excavation
must also be to a sufficient depth to place the coils for proper
RELATED INVENTIONS heat exchange. In short, placing the geothermal coils in a
horizontal fashion was more difficult, expensive, and
This application is a continuation-in-part of application required much more available ground than does placing of
Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993, U.S. Pat. No. the coils into vertical holes.
5,313,804, and of application Ser. No. 08/139,200 filed Oct. It has also been common practice to provide heat pump
20, 1993, U.S. Pat. No. 5,388,419, the entire contents of both 10systems which included means for reversing the direction of
of which are incorporated by herein reference. flow of refrigerant from the compressor through two heat
exchangers so that the functions of the heat exchangers were
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION reversed. Thus, one of the heat exchangers was adapted to
heat or cool the air of a room, for example, according to the
(a) Field of the Invention 15 direction of flow of refrigerant. When the direction of flow
This invention relates to a geothermal heat pump for of refrigerant was reversed, it was necessary to alter the
residential or commercial use falling under the general degree of restriction between the two heat exchangers to
category of what is known in the industry as a direct provide for proper operation of the system in the alternative
expansion heat pump, (hereinafter referred to as a DX function. Altering the degree of restriction relative to the
heat pump). 20 direction of flow of refrigerant was necessary since a system
(b) Description of the Prior Art optimized for cooling generally had insufficient restriction to
Conventional technology concerned with heat pumps provide optimum performance when operated to supply
relies upon the transfer of heat from the ground by means of heat. That is, in a system optimized for cooling, the com
pressor normally circulated refrigerant through the evapo
a secondary working fluid, e.g., water, which is pumped to
the geothermal unit located in the heated structure. The 25 rator when
faster than the surface could evaporate the refrigerant
the system was operated in the heating cycle. The
conventional heat pump has its own internal heat exchanger compressor, in the heating cycle, then pumped unevaporated
which extracts the heat (heating mode) from this water, refrigerant and the system efficiency was low. To overcome
which is then pumped back to the to be reheated. this problem, variable restriction systems, using a TX or
Such geothermal heat exchange is an efficient and effec thermostatic expansion valve, have been employed in such
tive way of achieving heat exchange in heating and air 30
heat pump systems. In many instances, two restrictors have
conditioning systems, and especially heat pump type sys
tems. Since the ground temperature is relative constant at whichprovided
been
was
together with parallel valve systems, each of
adapted to function in accordance with the
about 48 F at a depth below the frost line, the available heat direction of refrigerant flow.
is constant.
DX systems similarly use a ground coil system. How 35 erant A direct coupled heat pump was one that had its refrig
ever the working fluid is a refrigerant and the copper ground from evaporator/condenser in direct thermal contact with the
which heat was either extracted from in the heating
loop is the primary heat exchanger. A problem which has mode or is introduced to in the cooling mode of operation.
been associated with such systems is the means and manner Many attempts have been made in the past to develop
in which the heat exchange coils, or outdoor coils, are placed successful direct coupled heat pumps for residential and
into the ground to achieve geothermal heat exchange. commercial uses. These attempts have failed adequately to
If the geothermal outdoor coils are placed into the ground meet a number of requirements associated with an economi
in a vertical fashion, installation may be easily accomplished cally and functionally viable system. Some of the shortcom
by drilling or boring holes into the ground, into which the ings included: inadequate oil return to the compressor pri
vertical geothermal outdoor coils may be placed. The coils marily in the heating mode; inadequate evaporator length
may quickly and easily be placed into the ground to a depth 45 and spacing for properly extracting heat from the resulting
which is sufficient to overcome ground freezing problems in low capacity and low efficiency of the systems; lack of a
associated with colder climates. proper means to store additional refrigerant required during
Heretofore, one reason why placing coils into the ground the cooling operation, but not needed during the heating
in a vertical fashion has not been workable was due to the 50 mode; and lack of volume control of the compressor for
fact that, when sufficient refrigerant was placed into the providing the necessary increase in displacement during the
system to achieve maximum efficiency in both the heating heating operation over that displacement needed for the
and cooling cycles, the refrigerant, as it condensed in the cooling operation. This lack of displacement control resulted
ground coils, caused a liquid refrigerant build-up. The in insufficient heating capacity during the coldest weather.
compressor was unable properly to move the refrigerant 55 The patent literature is replete with proposed solutions.
through the system when the liquid refrigerant settled within Thus U.S. Pat. No. 4,327,560 patented May 4, 1982 by H.
the ground coils, making the system unworkable. Damage to I. Leon et al, provided an earth-embedded heat pump system
the compressor could occur when the compressor forced for transferring heat from the earth to an earth conditioned
liquid refrigerant into the intake of the compressor, since space wherein the heat transfer fluid was circulated in a
compressors for such systems are designed for receiving and substantially closed loop through an coil. Sections of the coil
compressing gases. were jacketed with one or more hermetically-sealed enclo
Such problem associated with vertical outdoor geother sures which were adapted to be charged with a composition
mal coils was attempted to be solved by placing the coils which, upon crystallization, released latent heat. The tran
into the ground in a horizontal fashion. Placing the coils into sition temperature at which the latent heat was released and
the ground in a horizontal fashion partially alleviated the 65 the rate at which the latent heat was released to the heat
problem of liquid refrigerant build-up. However, this tech transfer fluid was said to stabilize its temperature within a
nique required a vast amount of available ground to achieve range which provided for an inlet condition to a water-to-air
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heat pump which was favourable to a high heat output from temperature of the refrigerant. The condenser/receiver had
the heat pump system per unit energy input. sufficient volume capacity to accumulate liquid refrigerant
In U.S. Pat. No. 4,437,583 patented Mar. 8, 1983 by J. E. to prevent liquid refrigerant from entering the compressor. A
Downy, Jr., a complete system was disclosed for providing portion of the refrigerant travelling between the indoor coils
space heating and cooling, for an indoor living space which and the outdoor coils was diverted to an inlet side of the
brought the heat from the geothermal storage capacity, (the compressor. A valve controlled a flow of refrigerant in
earth), to the indoor living space during the heating season response to refrigerant pressure on the inlet side of the
and extracted heat from the indoor living space and absorbed compressor.
the heat into storage during the cooling season. In the U.S. Pat. No. 5,038,580 patented Aug. 13, 1991 by D. P.
patented system, a relatively massive thermal storage unit 10 Hart provided a heat pump system having a sub-surface heat
was interposed between the geothermal storage capacity, exchanger which used a heat exchanging fluid existing in
(the earth), and the indoor living space environment which gaseous and liquid form. The heat pump system included a
was to be heated or cooled. A working fluid, e.g., water, was compressor for compressing the heat exchanging fluid. A
circulated between the massive thermal storage unit, and the
geothermal storage capacity, (the earth). A heat pump was four-way reversing valve for directing the flow of the heat
operatively connected between the massive thermal storage 15 exchanging fluid was functionally connected to the com
unit and the indoor living space environment. In addition, pressor. An indoor heat exchange coil, functionally con
the working fluid, was circulated between heat exchangers, nected to the four-way reversing valve, was provided for
one of which was located in the massive thermal storage unit transferring heat to or from the interior of a building. An
in contact with the working fluid therein and the second of 20 accumulator, also functionally connected to the four-way
which was located in the indoor living space environment. reversing valve, was provided for trapping and storing
U.S. Pat. No. 4,445,343 patented May 1, 1984 by W. J. liquids within the apparatus. A plurality of sub-surface
McCarty provided a heat pump system comprising a com tapered heat exchanger tubes were functionally connected to
pressor and two heat exchangers connected in a refrigerating the four-way reversing valve. A bi-directional balanced
circuit. Such refrigerating circuit was provided with refrig 25 expansion valve was functionally connected to the sub
erant flow restrictor between the heat exchangers. Such surface heat exchanger. A receiver for storing excess fluid
restrictor imparted relatively high restriction to the flow of was functionally connected to the expansion valve and to the
refrigerant between the heat exchangers in one direction and indoor heat exchange coil.
a relatively lower restriction to the flow of refrigerant SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
between the heat exchangers in the opposite direction. 30
U.S. Pat. No. 4,646,538 patented Mar. 3, 1987 by A. J. Aims of the Invention
Blackshaw et al provided a heat pump system which
included a refrigerant pressurizer whose high pressure outlet As is evident from the above discussion, the general
was connected to the input of a three-way valve. One output refrigeration cycle of a DX heat pump is similar to a
of the three-way valve was connected to the common input 35 conventional water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump in
of a four-way valve. The common output of the four-way that it includes a compressor, an expansion device, a revers
valve was connected to the suction side of the refrigerant ing valve, and a refrigerant-to-air heat exchanger. The unit
pressurizer. One of the reversible outlet ports on the four functions as both a heating and cooling device and also
way valve was connected to a space heat exchanger while generates domestic hot water. The DX heat pumps differ
the other reversible outlet port on the four-way valve was 40 from conventional geothermal liquid source heat pumps in
connected to a source heat exchanger. The opposite sides of that the heat exchanger which transfers heat to and from the
the space and source heat exchangers were connected to is an external part of the unit and is embedded directly in the
each other through a reversible expansion valve. The other in either a horizontal or vertical configuration. A DX
output of the three-way valve was connected to an alternate machine takes the heat exchanger directly to the source of
heat exchanger. The other side of the alternate heat 45 heat (the earth) while a conventional unit with a self
exchanger was connected to an alternate expansion valve. contained heat exchanger relies on having a fluid containing
The other side of the alternate expansion valve was con heat pumped to it for extraction. The heat pump and
nected to the common point between the reversible expan exchanger comprise one integral unit.
sion valve and the space heat exchanger through a check In spite of these purported solutions to such problems, the
valve allowing refrigerant to flow from the alternate heat 50 art has not yet solved the problem of providing a DX
exchanger to the space heat exchanger through a check geothermal heat pump which solves the engineering
valve. The other side of the alternate expansion valve was obstacles, and in particular, the refrigerant imbalance and oil
also connected to the common point between the reversible return problems that have prevented the widespread general
expansion valve and the source heat exchanger so that acceptance of this type of product in the industry. Wide
refrigerant could flow from the alternate heat exchanger to 55 spread use of DX heat pumps has been hindered by several
the source heat exchanger through a check valve. factors: vastly different demands put on the heat exchanger
U.S. Pat. No. 4,920,757 patented May 1, 1990 by J. Gazes during heating and cooling modes; difficulty in maintaining
et al provided a geothermal heating and air conditioning oil return in the refrigeration system; difficulty in providing
system which included a compressor for compressing a an easy-to-install system of heat exchanger loops; and
refrigerant, and one or more indoor coils for heat exchange refrigerant charges in the range of 10 times greater than a
between the refrigerant and inside air. One or more outdoor similar capacity conventional geothermal heat pump.
coils was placed vertically below ground for heat exchange For heat to be absorbed from the ground, it is necessary
between the refrigerant and earth surrounding the outdoor to create a temperature differential (hereinafter referred to as
coils. A condenser/receiver allowed the refrigerant to pass TD) between the ground and the refrigerant inside the heat
through the condenser/receiver in either direction, and was 65 exchanger. Heat is absorbed from the ground when the
positioned between the indoor coil and the ground coils, refrigerant undergoes a change of state from a liquid to a gas
allowing for heat exchange so as to control the state and as result of exposure to the warm earth. It is important that
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the heat exchanger be as large as possible to maintain the ship with the earth; a refrigerant vapor header provided with
smallest TD between the and the refrigerant. By main a check valve; means connecting the suction?hot gas line of
taining the highest refrigerant temperature, the highest the first loop to the suction header downstream of the check
refrigerant pressure is also maintained in the exchanger or valve; means connecting the suction lines of each of the two
evaporator (as it is called during the heating mode of the heat other loops to the refrigerant vapor header upstream of the
pump). This insures that the compressor receives the most check valve; a refrigerant liquid line header provided with
dense charge at its suction inlet and thus operates at the an electric solenoid valve; means connecting the liquid line
highest volumetric efficiency. of the first loop to the refrigerant liquid line header upstream
The inhibiting engineering factor in arbitrarily sizing the of the electric solenoid valve; and means connecting the
exchanger piping to any diameter and length is that a 10 liquid lines of each of the other two loops to the refrigerant
minimum velocity of the refrigerant gas must be maintained liquid line header downstream of the electric solenoid valve.
to entrain or sweep the compressor lubricating oil back to the The above-identified patent application Ser. No. 08/053,
machine at all times. Another factor which is important in 050 filed Apr. 23, 1993 also provided the following teach
DX heat pump systems is that whatever configuration of ings, the contents of which are herein incorporated by
tubing underground that is used as an evaporator in the 15
reference: a first mode of a first embodiment of a DX heat
heating mode is typically used as a condenser in the cooling pump system in the heating mode; a second mode of a first
mode of the heat pump. embodiment of a DX heat pump system in the cooling
During the cooling cycle of a DX heat pump, the mode; a first mode of a second embodiment of a capillary
problem exists of a much smaller heat exchanger being balanced feed DX heat pump system in the heating mode;
required to reject heat to the earth. Typically the discharge 20
a second embodiment of a capillary-balanced-feed DX
gas temperature is from about 175 F to about 200F. and heat pump system in the cooling mode; a first mode of a third
actual condensing temperature may be about 110F. From embodiment of an individual TX-valve metering DX
an engineering standpoint, a large TD is encountered heat pump system in the heating mode; a second mode of a
between the hot gas temperature and the earth. The tem individual TX-valve metering DX heat pump system in
perature difference would indicate that only about 15 to 20% the cooling mode; a first method of operating a first mode of
of the surface area would be required to handle this heat of
25 a DX heat pump system in the heating mode; a second
rejection under such circumstances. When a typical system method of operating a DX heat pump system in the
has been sized and charged with enough refrigerant to cooling mode; a first method of operating a capillary
operate correctly in the heating mode and then is reversed to
balanced-feed DX heat pump in the heating method; a
second method of operating a capillary-balanced-feed DX
the cooling mode, the compressor will merely pump all the 30 heat pump in the cooling mode; a first method of operating
refrigerant to the coils where it will stay because the an individual TX-valve metering DX heat pump in the
compressor is unable to create enough pressure to overcome heating mode; and a second method of operating an indi
the pressure drop in the liquid line, TX valve and internal vidual TX valve metering DX heat pump in the cooling
evaporator. The refrigeration cycle is effectively stopped mode.
since the compressor will go into a vacuum position on the 35 The above-identified patent application Ser. No. 08/139,
suction side and shut off on internal safety devices. 200 filed Oct. 20, 1993, of which the present application is
To solve this problem, it has been proposed by others to a continuation-in-part, provided an improved DX heat
disable the heat exchange capabilities of the coil now pump for installation in various locations with diverse soil
operating as a condenser coil by filling it with refrigerant types using either vertical or horizontal evaporator/con
until it is approximately 75% full of liquid refrigerant. Under denser coils in the earth, while having the heat pump operate
these circumstances, the compressor is able to build up as efficiently as possible both in the heating mode and in the
enough discharge pressure to force liquid back to the evapo cooling mode, in which a TX valve may be used for
rator and the refrigeration cycle can proceed. In solving the metering for staged cooling, by providing a DX heat pump
refrigerant flow problem in this manner, however, several system which was based on the principle of providing
very negative circumstances are created, namely: approxi optimal heat exchange in the heating mode through three
mately three times as much refrigerant is required in the
45 parallel loops, two of which could be cut off from the system
cooling mode as is required in the heating mode, i.e. and evacuated of refrigerant in the cooling mode. The loops
were designed in terms of volume so that the refrigerant
typically about 50 to about 60 lbs for a well-designed 34 charge was correct in the heating mode when split in three
ton system; a large refrigerant storage tank (called a loops and also was correct in the cooling mode when only
receiver) must be employed to store the refrigerant not used 50 one loop was used, but it contained the full system refrig
during the cooling mode; a similarly-sized accumulator must erant charge. The loops were also provided with TX
be installed to catch the inrush of liquid during the switch metering valves which could be individually operated to
over from cooling to heating so that the compressor will not provide a staged cooling system.
be damaged; and the machine suffers very poor performance The invention in the above-identified patent application
during switch-over from heating to cooling while the refrig 55 Ser. No. 08/139,201 filed Oct. 20, 1993 also provided the
erant is being positioned into or out of the receiver as following teachings, the contents of which are herein incor
required for the mode change. porated by reference: a loop system for use in combination
Many of the above problems have been solved by the with a DX heat pump system for a staged cooling DX
teaching of the above-identified patent application Ser. No. geothermal heat pump; a staged cooling DX heat pump for
08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993, of which the present appli 60 use in such staged cooling DX heat pump system; a
cation is a continuation-in-part, which provided, in a broad method of operating such DX geothermal heat pump in
generic mode, a loop system for use in combination with a the heating mode; and a method of operating such staged
DX heat pump system, the loop system comprising: three cooling DX geothermal heat pump in the cooling mode.
loops, a first loop including a dual purpose suction?hot gas Aims of the Invention
line and aliquid line, and the second and the third loops each 65
including a suction line and a liquid line, each loop being However, the systems of the two above-identified appli
adapted to be buried underground in heat exchange relation cations were applicable to only one size capacity of DX
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heat pumps. Accordingly, it is an object to improve the liquid line of the first loop with the refrigerant liquid line
invention in the two above-identified patent applications, header and the junction of the liquid line of the second loop
namely, Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993 and Ser. No. with the refrigerant liquid line header; a first connecting line
08/139,200 filed Oct. 20, 1993, by providing for the instal and a second connecting line connecting the cooling ther
lation in various locations with diverse soil types using mostatic expansion valve to an associated one of the liquid
either vertical or horizontal evaporator/condenser coils in line of the first loop and the liquid line of the second loop,
the earth, while having the heat pump operate efficiently as respectively; a first heating expansion valve operatively
possible both in the heating mode or in the cooling mode, in associated with the first connecting line and a second heating
which a TX valve would be used for metering for staged expansion valve operatively associated with the second
cooling and in which the capacity can be selected for 2, 3, 10 connecting line; one solenoid valve operatively associated
4, 5 or even more ton capacity direct expansion heat pump with the refrigerant liquid line header and also operatively
may be a staged cooling technique. associated with the second connecting line; and one pressure
sensing device operatively associated with the refrigerant
Statements of Invention vapor header.
15 The present invention also provides a loop system for use
By its broadest embodiment, the present invention pro in combination with a direct expansion heat pump system,
vides a loop system for use in combination with a direct the system comprising: three loops, each of a first loop, a
expansion heat pump system, the loop system comprising: at second loop and a third loop including a suction/hot gas line
least two loops, each of a first loop, and at least a second and a liquid line, each loop being adapted to be buried
loop including a suction/hot gas line and a liquid line, each 20 underground in heat exchange relationship with the earth; a
loop being adapted to be buried underground in heat refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each of the
exchange relationship with the earth; a refrigerant vapor three suction/hot gas lines, the refrigerant vapor header
header connected in series to each of the at least two being provided with a first solenoid valve positioned
suction/hot gas lines, the refrigerant vapor header being between the junction of the suction/hot gas line of the first
provided with a first solenoid valve positioned between the 25 loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the junction of the
junction of the suction?hot gas line of the first loop with the suction?hot gas line of the second the loop with the refrig
refrigerant vapor header and the junction of the suction?hot erant vapor header, a second solenoid valve positioned
gas line of the at least second loop with the refrigerant vapor between the junction of the suction?hot gas line of the second
header and at least a second solenoid valve positioned loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the junction of the
remote from the junction of the suction?hot gas line of the at 30 suction?hot gas line of the third loop with the refrigerant
least second loop with the refrigerant vapor header; a vapor header and a third solenoid valve situated remote from
refrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling ther the junction of the suction/hot gas line of the third loop with
mostatic expansion valve, the refrigerant liquid line header the refrigerant vapor header; a refrigerant liquid line header
further being provided with a first solenoid valve positioned provided with a cooling thermostatic expansion valve, the
between the junction of the liquid line of the first loop with 35 refrigerant liquid line header further being provided with a
the refrigerant liquid line header and the junction of the first solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the
liquid line of the at least second loop with the refrigerant liquid line of the first loop with the refrigerant liquid line
liquid line header; a first connecting line and at least a header and the junction of the liquid line of the second loop
second connecting line connecting the cooling thermostatic with the refrigerant liquid line header, and a second solenoid
expansion valve to an associated one of the liquid line of the 40 valve positioned between the junction of the liquid line of
first loop and the liquid line of the at least second loop; a first the second loop with the refrigerant liquid line header and
heating expansion valve operatively associated with the first the junction of the liquid line of the third loop with the
connecting line and at least a second heating expansion refrigerant liquid line header; a first connecting line, a
valve operatively associated with the at least second con second connecting line and a third connecting line connect
necting line; at least one solenoid valve operatively associ 45 ing the cooling thermostatic expansion valve to an associ
ated with the refrigerant liquid line header and also opera ated one of the liquid line of the first loop, the liquid line of
tively associated with the at least second connecting line; the second loop, and the liquid line of the third loop,
and at least one pressure sensing device operatively associ respectively; a first heating expansion valve operatively
ated with the refrigerant vapor header. associated with the first connecting line, a second heating
The present invention also provides a loop system for use 50 expansion valve operatively associated with the second
in combination with a direct expansion heat pump system, connecting line, and a third heating expansion valve opera
the system comprising: two loops, each of a first loop, and tively associated with the third connecting line; a first
a second loop including a suction?hot gas line and a liquid solenoid valve operatively associated with the refrigerant
line, each loop being adapted to be buried underground in liquid line header and also operatively associated with the
heat exchange relationship with the earth; a refrigerant vapor 55 second connecting line, and a second solenoid valve opera
header connected in series to each of the two suction?hot gas tively associated with the refrigerant liquid line header and
lines, the refrigerant vapor header being provided with a first also operatively associated with the third connecting line;
solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the suc and two pressure sensing devices, each being operatively
tion?hot gas line of the first loop with the refrigerant vapor associated with the refrigerant vapor header.
header and the junction of the suction/hot gas line of the 60 The present invention also provides a loop system for use
second the loop with the refrigerant vapor header and a in combination with a direct expansion heat pump system,
second solenoid valve positioned remote from the junction the system comprising: four loops, each of a first loop, a
of the suction?hot gas line of the second loop with the second loop, a third loop and a fourth loop including a
refrigerant vapor header; a refrigerant liquid line header suction?hot gas line and a liquid line, each loop being
provided with a cooling thermostatic expansion valve, the 65 adapted to be buried underground in heat exchange relation
refrigerant liquid line header further being provided with a ship with the earth; a refrigerant vapor header connected in
first solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the series to each of the four suction?hot gas lines, the refrigerant
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vapor header being provided with a first solenoid valve between the junction of the suction?hot gas line of the third
positioned between the junction of the suction?hot gas line of loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the junction of the
the first loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the suction/hot gas line of the fourth loop with the refrigerant
junction of the suction?hot gas line of second loop with the vapor header, a fourth solenoid valve positioned between the
refrigerant vapor header, a second solenoid valve positioned junction of the suction?hot gas line of the fourth loop with
between the junction of the suction?hot gas line of the second the refrigerant vapor header and the junction of the suction/
loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the junction of the hot gas line of the fifth loop with the refrigerant vapor
suction/hot gas line of the third loop with the refrigerant header, and a fifth solenoid valve situated remote from the
vapor header, a third solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the suction/hot gas line of the fifth loop with the
junction of the suction/hot gas line of the third loop with the 10 refrigerant vapor header; a refrigerant liquid line header
refrigerant vapor header and the junction of the suction?hot provided with a cooling thermostatic expansion valve; a first
gas line of the fourth loop with the refrigerant vapor header, connecting line, a second connecting line, a third connecting
and a fourth solenoid valve situated remote from the junc line, a fourth connecting line connecting line and a fifth
tion of the suction/hot gas line of the fourth loop with the connecting line connecting the cooling thermostatic expan
refrigerant vapor header; a refrigerant liquid line header 15 sion valve to an associated one of the liquid line of the first
provided with a cooling thermostatic expansion valve, the loop, the liquid line of the second loop, the liquid line of the
refrigerant liquid line header further being provided with a third loop, the liquid line of the fourth loop and the liquid
first solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the line of the fifth loop, respectively; a first heating expansion
liquid line of the first loop with the refrigerant liquid line valve operatively associated with the first connecting line, a
header and the junction of the liquid line of the second loop 20 second heating expansion valve operatively associated with
with the refrigerant liquid line header, a second solenoid the second connecting line, a third heating expansion valve
valve positioned between the junction of the liquid line of operatively associated with the third connecting line, a
the second loop with the refrigerant liquid line header and fourth heating expansion valve operatively associated with
the junction of the liquid line of the third loop with the the fourth connecting line and a fifth heating expansion
refrigerant liquid line header, and a third solenoid valve 25 valve operatively associated with the fifth connecting line; a
positioned between the junction of the liquid line of the third first solenoid valve operatively associated with the refriger
loop with the refrigerant liquid line header and the junction ant liquid line header and also operatively associated with
of the liquid line of the fourth loop with the refrigerant liquid the second connecting line, a second solenoid valve opera
line header; a first connecting line, a second connecting line, tively associated with the refrigerant liquid line header and
a third connecting line and a fourth connecting line con 30 also operatively associated with the third connecting line, a
necting the cooling thermostatic expansion valve to an third solenoid valve operatively associated with the refrig
associated one of the liquid line of the first loop, the liquid erant liquid line header and also operatively associated with
line of the second loop, the liquid line of the third loop and the fourth connecting line and a fourth solenoid valve
the liquid line of the fourth loop, respectively; a first heating operatively associated with the refrigerant liquid line header
expansion valve operatively associated with the first con 35 and also operatively associated with the fifth connecting
necting line, a second heating expansion valve operatively line; and four pressure sensing devices, each being opera
associated with the second connecting line, a third heating tively associated with the refrigerant vapor header.
expansion valve operatively associated with the third con The present invention also provides a staged cooling,
necting line and a fourth heating expansion valve opera direct expansion heat pump comprising: at least two loops,
tively associated with the fourth connecting line; a first each of a first loop, and at least a second loop including a
solenoid valve operatively associated with the refrigerant suction?hot gas line and a liquid line, each loop being
liquid line header and also operatively associated with the adapted to be buried underground in heat exchange relation
second connecting line, a second solenoid valve operatively ship with the earth; a refrigerant vapor header connected in
associated with the refrigerant liquid line header and also series to each of the at least two suction?hot gas lines, the
operatively associated with the third connecting line, and a 45 refrigerant vapor header being provided with a first solenoid
third solenoid valve operatively associated with the refrig valve positioned between the junction of the suction/hot gas
erant liquid line header and also operatively associated with line of the first loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the
the fourth connecting line; and three pressure sensing junction of the suction/hot gas line of the at least second loop
devices, each being operatively associated with the refrig with the refrigerant vapor header and at least a second
erant vapor header. 50 solenoid valve positioned remote from the junction of the
The present invention also provides a loop system for use suction?hot gas line of the at least second loop with the
in combination with a direct expansion heat pump system, refrigerant vapor header; a refrigerant liquid line header
the system comprising: five loops, each of a first loop, a provided with a cooling thermostatic expansion valve, the
second loop, a third loop, a fourth loop and a fifth loop refrigerant liquid line header further being provided with a
including a suction/hot gas line and a liquid line, each loop 55 first solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the
being adapted to be buried underground in heat exchange liquid line of the first loop with the refrigerant liquid line
relationship with the earth; a refrigerant vapor header con header and the junction of the liquid line of the at least
nected in series to each of the five suction/hot gas lines, the second loop with the refrigerant liquid line header, the
refrigerant vapor header being provided with a first solenoid cooling thermostatic expansion valve being adapted to pro
valve positioned between the junction of the suction/hot gas vide refrigerant metering in the cooling mode, the cooling
line of the first loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the thermostatic expansion valve having one inlet, one outlet, an
junction of the suction?hot gas line of the second loop with equalization port, and a gas-filled controlling bulb; a first
the refrigerant vapor header, a second solenoid valve posi connecting line and at least a second connecting line con
tioned between the junction of the suction?hot gas line of the necting the cooling thermostatic expansion valve to an
second loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the 65 associated one of the liquid line of the first loop and the
junction of the suction/hot gas line of the third loop with the liquid line of the at least second loop; a first heating
refrigerant vapor header, a third solenoid valve positioned expansion valve operatively associated with the first con
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necting line and at least a second heating expansion valve and a second connecting line connecting the cooling ther
operatively associated with the at least second connecting mostatic expansion valve to an associated one of the liquid
line, and each heating expansion valves being adapted to line of the first loop and the liquid line of the second loop,
provide refrigerant metering in the heating mode, each valve respectively; a first heating expansion valve operatively
having one inlet, and one outlet, an equalization port, and a associated with the first connecting line and a second heating
gas-filled controlling bulb; capillary line means for provid expansion valve operatively associated with the second
ing a capillary tube by-pass around the cooling thermostatic connecting line, and each heating expansion valves being
expansion valve; capillary line means for providing a cap adapted to provide refrigerant metering in the heating mode,
illary tube bypass around the inlet and the outlet of each of each valve having one inlet, and one outlet, an equalization
the first and at least the second heating expansion valves; at 10 port, and a gas-filled controlling bulb; capillary line means
least one pressure sensing device operatively associated with for providing a capillary tube by-pass around the cooling
the refrigerant vapor header; an accumulator having an inlet thermostatic expansion valve; capillary line means for pro
and an outlet; a suction line having an inlet connected to the viding a capillary tube bypass around the inlet and the outlet
accumulator and an outlet; a scavenger line interconnecting of each of the first and a the second heating expansion
the refrigerant vapor header and the accumulator; equaliza 15 valves; one pressure sensing device operatively associated
tion tube means interconnecting the cooling thermostatic with the refrigerant vapor header; an accumulator having an
expansion valve, the first heating thermostatic expansion inlet and an outlet; a suction line having an inlet connected
valve, the at least second heating thermostatic expansion to the accumulator and an outlet; a scavenger line intercon
valve and the scavenger line; capillary line means for necting the refrigerant vapor header and the accumulator;
placing a controlling bulb of the first heating expansion 20 equalization tube means interconnecting the cooling ther
valve in thermal contact with the suction/hot gas line of the mostatic expansion valve, the first heating thermostatic
first loop a short distance from the connection of the expansion valve, the second heating thermostatic expansion
suction/hot gas line to the refrigerant vapor header; capillary valve and the scavenger line; capillary line means for
line means for placing a controlling bulb of the at least placing a controlling bulb of the first heating expansion
second heating expansion valve into thermal contact with valve in thermal contact with the suction/hot gas line of the
the suction?hot gas line of the at least second loop a short first loop a short distance from the connection of the
distance from the connection of the suction/hot gas line to suction/hot gas line to the refrigerant vapor header; capillary
the refrigerant vapor header; an air/refrigerant heat line means for placing a controlling bulb of the second
exchanger coil having two access ports; a reversing valve heating expansion valve into thermal contact with the suc
having two inlets and two outlets; line means connecting a 30 tion/hot gas line of the second loop a short distance from the
port of the air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil to the refrig connection of the suction/hot gas line to the refrigerant
erant liquid line header; line means connecting a port of the vapor header; an air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil having
air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil to the reversing valve; two access ports; a reversing valve having two inlets and two
line means connecting the outlet of the compressor to an outlets; line means connecting a port of the air/refrigerant
inlet of the reversing valve; line means connecting the outlet 35 heat exchanger coil to the refrigerant liquid line header; line
of the accumulator to the inlet of the compressor; line means means connecting a port of the air/refrigerant heat exchanger
connected between the reversing valve and the inlet of the coil to the reversing valve; line means connecting the outlet
accumulator; line means connected between the reversing of the compressor to an inlet of the reversing valve; line
valve and the refrigerant vapor header; and capillary line means connecting the outlet of the accumulator to the inlet
means for placing a controlling bulb of the cooling thermo 40 of the compressor; line means connected between the revers
static expansion valve in thermal contact with the line means ing valve and the inlet of the accumulator; line means
connecting a port of the air/refrigerantheat exchanger to the connected between the reversing valve and the refrigerant
reversing valve. vapor header; and capillary line means for placing a con
The present invention also provides a staged cooling, trolling bulb of the cooling thermostatic expansion valve in
direct expansion heat pump comprising: two loops, each of 45 thermal contact with the line means connecting a port of the
a first loop and a second loop including a suction/hot gas line air/refrigerant heat exchanger to the reversing valve.
and a liquid line, each loop being adapted to be buried The present invention also provides a staged cooling,
underground in heat exchange relationship with the earth; a direct expansion heat pump comprising: three loops, each of
refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each of the a first loop, a second loop and a third loop including a
two suction/hot gas lines, the refrigerant vapor header being 50 suction?hot gas line and a liquid line, each loop being
provided with a first solenoid valve positioned between the adapted to be buried underground in heat exchange relation
junction of the suction?hot gas line of the first loop with the ship with the earth; a refrigerant vapor header connected in
refrigerant vapor header and the junction of the suction?hot series to each of the three suction?hot gas lines, the refrig
gas line of the second loop with the refrigerant vapor header erant vapor header being provided with a first solenoid valve
and a second solenoid valve positioned remote from the 55 positioned between the junction of the suction/hot gas line of
junction of the suction/hot gas line of the second loop with the first loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the
the refrigerant vapor header; a refrigerant liquid line header junction of the suction?hot gas line of the second loop with
provided with a cooling thermostatic expansion valve, the the refrigerant vapor header, a second solenoid valve posi
refrigerant liquid line header further being provided with a tioned between the junction of the suction/hot gas line of the
first solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the 60 second loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the
liquid line of the first loop with the refrigerant liquid line junction of the suction?hot gas line of the third loop with the
header and the junction of the liquid line of the second loop refrigerant vapor header and a third solenoid valve situated
with the refrigerant liquid line header, the cooling thermo remote from the junction of the suction/hot gas line of the
static expansion valve being adapted to provide refrigerant third loop with the refrigerant vapor header; a refrigerant
metering in the cooling mode, the cooling thermostatic 65 liquid line header provided with a cooling thermostatic
expansion valve having one inlet, one outlet, an equalization expansion valve, the refrigerant liquid line header further
port, and a gas-filled controlling bulb; a first connecting line being provided with a first solenoid valve positioned
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between the junction of the liquid line of the first loop with a first loop, a second loop, a third loop and a fourth loop
the refrigerant liquid line header and the junction of the including a suction?hot gas line and a liquid line, each loop
liquid line of the second loop with the refrigerant liquid line being adapted to be buried underground in heat exchange
header, and a second solenoid valve positioned between the relationship with the earth; a refrigerant vapor header con
junction of the liquid line of the second loop with the nected in series to each of the four suction?hot gas lines, the
refrigerant liquid line header and the junction of the liquid refrigerant vapor header being provided with a first solenoid
line of the third loop with the refrigerant liquid line header, valve positioned between the junction of the suction/hot gas
the cooling thermostatic expansion valve being adapted to line of the first loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the
provide refrigerant metering in the cooling mode, the cool junction of the suction?hot gas line of the second loop with
ing thermostatic expansion valve having one inlet, one 10 the refrigerant vapor header, a second solenoid valve posi
outlet, an equalization port, and a gas-filled controlling bulb, tioned between the junction of the suction/hot gas line of the
a first connecting line, a second connecting line and a third second loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the
connecting line connecting the cooling thermostatic expan junction of the suction?hot gas line of the third loop with the
sion valve to an associated one of the liquid line of the first refrigerant vapor header, a third solenoid valve positioned
loop, the liquid line of the second loop, and the liquid line 15 between the junction of the suction/hot gas line of the third
of the third loop, respectively; a first heating expansion loop with the refrigerant vapor header and the junction of the
valve operatively associated with the first connecting line, a suction/hot gas line of the fourth loop with the refrigerant
second heating expansion valve operatively associated with vapor header, and a fourth solenoid valve situated remote
the second connecting line, and a third heating expansion from the junction of the suction?hot gas line of the fourth
valve operatively associated with the third connecting line, 20 loop with the refrigerant vapor header; a refrigerant liquid
and each heating expansion valve being adapted to provide line header provided with a cooling thermostatic expansion
refrigerant metering in the heating mode, each valve having valve, the refrigerant liquid line header further being pro
one inlet, and one outlet, an equalization port, and a gas vided with a first solenoid valve positioned between the
filled controlling bulb; capillary line means for providing a junction of the liquid line of the first loop with the refrigerant
capillary tube by-pass around the cooling thermostatic 25 liquid line header and the junction of the liquid line of the
expansion valve; capillary line means for providing a cap second loop with the refrigerant liquid line header, a second
illary tube bypass around the inlet and the outlet of each of solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the liquid
the first, the second and the third heating expansion valves; line of the second loop with the refrigerant liquid line header
two pressure sensing devices, each being operatively asso and the junction of the liquid line of the third loop with the
ciated with the refrigerant vapor header; an accumulator 30 refrigerant liquid line header, and a third solenoid valve
having an inlet and an outlet; a suction pump having an inlet positioned between the junction of the liquid line of the third
connected to the accumulator and an outlet; a scavenger line loop with the refrigerant liquid line header and the junction
interconnecting the refrigerant vapor header and the accu of the liquid line of the fourth loop with the refrigerant liquid
mulator; equalization tube means interconnecting the cool line header, the cooling thermostatic expansion valve being
ing thermostatic expansion valve, the first heating thermo 35 adapted to provide refrigerant metering in the cooling mode,
static expansion valve, the second heating thermostatic the cooling thermostatic expansion valve having one inlet,
expansion valve, the third thermostatic expansion valve and one outlet, an equalization port, and a gas-filled controlling
the scavenger line; capillary line means for placing a con bulb, a first connecting line, a second connecting line, a third
trolling bulb of the first heating expansion valve in thermal connecting line and a fourth connecting line connecting the
contact with the suction?hot gas line of the first loop a short cooling thermostatic expansion valve to an associated one of
distance from the connection of the suction?hot gas line to the liquid line of the first loop, the liquid line of the second
the refrigerant vapor header; capillary line means for placing loop, the liquid line of the third loop and the liquid line of
a controlling bulb of the second heating expansion valve into the fourth loop, respectively; a first heating expansion valve
thermal contact with the suction/hot gas line of the second operatively associated with the first connecting line, a sec
loop a short distance from the connection of the suction/hot 45 ond heating expansion valve operatively associated with the
gas line to the refrigerant vapor header; capillary line means second connecting line, a third heating expansion valve
for placing a controlling bulb of the third heating expansion operatively associated with the third connecting line and a
valve into thermal contact with the suction/hot gas line of the fourth heating expansion valve operatively associated with
third loop a short distance from the connection of the the fourth connecting line, and each heating expansion valve
suction?hot gas line to the refrigerant vapor header; an 50 being adapted to provide refrigerant metering in the heating
air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil having two access ports; mode, each valve having one inlet, and one outlet, an
a reversing valve having two inlets and two outlets; line equalization port, and a gas-filled controlling bulb; capillary
means connecting a port of the air/refrigerantheat exchanger line means for providing a capillary tube by-pass around the
coil to the refrigerant liquid line header; line means con cooling thermostatic expansion valve; capillary line means
necting a port of the air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil to the 55 for providing a capillary tube bypass around the inlet and the
reversing valve; line means connecting the outlet of the outlet of each of the first, the second, the third and the fourth
compressor to an inlet of the reversing valve; line means heating expansion valves; three pressure sensing devices,
connecting the outlet of the accumulator to the inlet of the each being operatively associated with the refrigerant vapor
compressor; line means connected between the reversing header; an accumulator having an inlet and an outlet; a
valve and the inlet of the accumulator; line means connected suction line having an inlet connected to the accumulator
between the reversing valve and the refrigerant vapor and an outlet; a scavenger line interconnecting the refriger
header; and capillary line means for placing a controlling ant vapor header and the accumulator; equalization tube
bulb of the cooling thermostatic expansion valve in thermal means interconnecting the cooling thermostatic expansion
contact with the line means connecting a port of the air/ valve, the first heating thermostatic expansion valve, the
refrigerant heat exchanger to the reversing valve. 65 second heating thermostatic expansion valve and the scav
The present invention also provides a staged cooling, enger line; capillary line means for placing a controlling
direct expansion heat pump comprising: four loops, each of bulb of the first heating expansion valve in thermal contact
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with the suction?hot gas line of the first loop a short distance tion of the liquid line of the third loop with the refrigerant
from the connection of the suction/hot gas line to the liquid line header and the junction of the liquid line of the
refrigerant vapor header; capillary line means for placing a fourth loop with the refrigerant liquid line header, and a
controlling bulb of the second heating expansion valve into fourth solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the
thermal contact with the suction/hot gas line of the second liquid line of the fourth loop with the refrigerant liquid line
loop a short distance from the connection of the suction/hot header and the junction of the liquid line of the fifth loop
gas line to the refrigerant vapor header; capillary line means with the refrigerant liquid line header, the cooling thermo
for placing a controlling bulb of the third heating expansion static expansion valve being adapted to provide refrigerant
valve into thermal contact with the suction/hot gas line of the metering in the cooling mode, the cooling thermostatic
third loop a short distance from the connection of the 10 expansion valve having one inlet, one outlet, an equalization
suction?hot gas line to the refrigerant vapor header; capillary port, and a gas-filled controlling bulb, a first connecting line,
line means for placing a controlling bulb of the fourth a second connecting line, a third connecting line, a fourth
heating expansion valve into thermal contact with the suc connecting line connecting line and a fifth connecting line
tion?hot gas line of the fourth loop a short distance from the connecting the cooling thermostatic expansion valve to an
connection of the suction/hot gas line to the refrigerant 15 associated one of the liquid line of the first loop, the liquid
vapor header; an air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil having line of the second loop, the liquid line of the third loop, the
two access ports; a reversing valve having two inlets and two liquid line of the fourth loop, and the liquid line of the fifth
outlets; line means connecting a port of the air/refrigerant loop, respectively; a first heating expansion valve opera
heat exchanger coil to the refrigerant liquid line header; line tively associated with the first connecting line, a second
means connecting a port of the air/refrigerantheat exchanger 20 heating expansion valve operatively associated with the
coil to the reversing valve; line means connecting the outlet second connecting line, a third heating expansion valve
of the compressor to an inlet of the reversing valve; line operatively associated with the third connecting line, a
means connecting the outlet of the accumulator to the inlet fourth heating expansion valve operatively associated with
of the compressor; line means connected between the revers the fourth connecting line and a fifth heating expansion
ing valve and the inlet of the accumulator; line means 25 valve operatively associated with the fifth connecting line,
connected between the reversing valve and the refrigerant and each heating expansion valve being adapted to provide
vapor header; and capillary line means for placing a con refrigerant metering in the heating mode, each valve having
trolling bulb of the cooling thermostatic expansion valve in one inlet, and one outlet, an equalization port, and a gas
thermal contact with the line means connecting a port of the filled controlling bulb; capillary line means for providing a
air/refrigerant heat exchanger to the reversing valve. 30 capillary tube by-pass around the cooling thermostatic
The present invention also provides a staged cooling, expansion valve; capillary line means for providing a cap
direct expansion heat pump comprising: five loops, each of illary tube bypass around the inlet and the outlet of each of
a first loop, a second loop, a third loop, a fourth loop and a the first, the second, the third, the fourth and the fifth heating
fifth loop including a suction?hot gas line and a liquid line, expansion valves; four pressure sensing devices, each being
each loop being adapted to be buried underground in heat 35 operatively associated with the refrigerant vapor header; an
exchange relationship with the earth; a refrigerant vapor accumulator having an inlet and an outlet; a suction pump
header connected in series to each of the five suction/hot gas having an inlet connected to the accumulator and an outlet;
lines, the refrigerant vapor header being provided with a first a scavenger line interconnecting the refrigerant vapor header
solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the suc and the accumulator; equalization tube means interconnect
tion?hot gas line of the first loop with the refrigerant vapor 40 ing the cooling thermostatic expansion valve, the first heat
header and the junction of the suction?hot gas line of the ing thermostatic expansion valve, the second heating ther
second loop with the refrigerant vapor header, a second mostatic expansion valve and the scavenger line; capillary
solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the suc line means for placing a controlling bulb of the first heating
tion?hot gas line of the second loop with the refrigerant expansion valve in thermal contact with the suction/hot gas
vapor header, and the junction of the suction/hot gas line of 45 line of the first loop a short distance from the connection of
the third loop with the refrigerant vapor header, a third the suction/hot gas line to the refrigerant vapor header;
solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the suc capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of the
tion?hot gas line of the third loop with the refrigerant vapor second heating expansion valve into thermal contact with
header and the junction of the suction/hot gas line of the the suction?hot gas line of the second loop a short distance
fourth loop with the refrigerant vapor header, a fourth 50 from the connection of the suction/hot gas line to the
solenoid valve positioned between the junction of the suc refrigerant vapor header; capillary line means for placing a
tion?hot gas line of the fourth loop with the refrigerant vapor controlling bulb of the third heating expansion valve into
header and the junction of the suction?hot gas line of the fifth thermal contact with the suction?hot gas line of the third loop
loop with the refrigerant vapor header, and a fifth solenoid a short distance from the connection of the suction/hot gas
valve situated remote from the junction of the suction?hot 55 line to the refrigerant vapor header; capillary line means for
gas line of the fifth loop with the refrigerant vapor header; placing a controlling bulb of the fourth heating expansion
a refrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling valve into thermal contact with the suction?hot gas line of the
thermostatic expansion valve, the refrigerant liquid line fourth loop a short distance from the connection of the
header further being provided with a first solenoid valve suction?hot gas line to the refrigerant vapor header; capillary
positioned between the junction of the liquid line of the first 60 line means for placing a controlling bulb of the fifth heating
loop with the refrigerant liquid line header and the junction expansion valve into thermal contact with the suction?hot
of the liquid line of the second loop with the refrigerant gas line of the fifth loop a short distance from the connection
liquid line header, a second solenoid valve positioned of the suction?hot gas line to the refrigerant vapor header; an
between the junction of the liquid line of the second loop air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil having two access ports;
with the refrigerant liquid line header and the junction of the 65 a reversing valve having two inlets and two outlets; line
liquid line of the third loop with the refrigerant liquid line means connecting a port of the air/refrigerantheat exchanger
header, a third solenoid valve positioned between the junc coil to the refrigerant liquid line header; line means con
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necting a port of the air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil to the Other Features of the Invention
reversing valve; line means connecting the outlet of the
compressor to an inlet of the reversing valve; line means By one feature of such loop systems, the system includes
connecting the outlet of the accumulator to the inlet of the an accumulator, and a scavenging line connected between
compressor; line means connected between the reversing the refrigerant vapor header and the accumulator.
valve and the inlet of the accumulator; line means connected By one feature of such loop system, the system includes
between the reversing valve and the refrigerant vapor a compressor connected to the accumulator, the compressor
header; and capillary line means for placing a controlling being selectively connected to the refrigerant liquid line
bulb of the cooling thermostatic expansion valve in thermal header or to the refrigerant vapor header.
contact with the line means connecting a port of the air/ 10 By one feature of such loop systems, the system includes
refrigerant heat exchanger to the reversing valve.
The present invention also provides a method for oper a reversing valve, which is selectively actuatable to effect
ating the direct expansion valve heat pump system described the selected connection of the compressor to the refrigerant
hereinabove in a heating mode, the method comprising the liquid line header and to the refrigerant vapor header.
steps to be described in detail hereinafter with reference to By one feature of such loop systems, the system includes
FIG. 11. 15 an air/refrigerantheat exchanger coil interposed between the
The present invention also provides a method of operating refrigerant liquid line header and the refrigerant vapor
the staged direct expansion heat pump system described header.
hereinabove in a cooling mode, the method comprising the
steps of carrying out the staged compressor steps of the two BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
20
specific stages to be described in detail hereinafter with In the accompanying drawings,
reference to FIG, 12.
FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of a vertical installation
The present invention also provides a method for oper heat exchanger adaptable for the invention in the above
ating the direct expansion valve heat pump system described identified parent application Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr.
hereinabove in a heating mode, the method comprising the 25 23, 1993 for the present invention;
steps to be described in detail hereinafter with reference to FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of a cabinet component
FIG. 11.
The present invention also provides a method of operating layout DX-to-air adaptable for the invention in the above
the direct expansion heat pump system described herein identified parent application Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr.
above in a cooling mode, the method comprising the steps 30
23, 1993 for the present invention;
of carrying out the staged compressor steps of the two FIG. 3 is a schematic representation of one embodiment
specific stages to be described in detail hereinafter with of a DX system of the invention in the above-identified
reference to FIG. 12. parent application Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993 in
the heating mode; -
The present invention also provides a method for oper
ating the direct expansion valve heat pump system described 35 FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of the DX system
hereinabove in a heating mode, the method comprising the multiple loop configuration of FIG. 3, i.e., the invention in
steps to be described in detail hereinafter with reference to the above-identified parent application Ser. No. 08/053,050
FIG. 9. filed Apr. 23, 1993 in the heating mode;
The present invention also provides a method of operating FIG. 5 is a schematic representation of one embodiment
the direct expansion heat pump system described herein of a DX system of the invention in the above-identified
above in a cooling mode, the method comprising the steps parent application Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993 in
of carrying out the staged compressor steps of the three the cooling mode;
stages to be described in detail hereinafter with reference to FIG. 6 is a schematic illustration of the DX system
FIG. 10. multiple loop configuration of FIG. 5, i.e., the invention in
The present invention also provides a method for oper 45 the above-identified parent application Ser. No. 08/053,050
ating the direct expansion valve heat pump system described filed Apr. 23, 1993 in the cooling mode;
hereinabove in a heating mode, the method comprising the FIG. 7 is a schematic representation of another embodi
steps to be described in detail hereinafter with reference to ment of the invention in the above-identified parent appli
FIG. 13.
50
cation Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993, i.e., a
The present invention also provides a method of operating capillary-balanced feed, in the heating mode;
the direct expansion heat pump system described herein FIG. 8 is a schematic representation of another embodi
above in a cooling mode, the method comprising the steps ment of the invention in the above-identified parent appli
of carrying out the staged compressor steps of the four stages cation Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993, i.e., a
to be described in detail hereinafter with reference to FIG. 55
capillary-balanced feed, in the cooling mode;
14. FIG. 9 is a schematic representation of one embodiment
The present invention also provides a method for oper of the present invention, i.e., a 3 ton/3 loop system, using
ating the direct expansion valve heat pump system described individual TX valve metering for staged heating, in the
hereinabove in a heating mode, the method comprising the heating mode with all circuits active;
steps to be described in detail hereinafter with reference to FIG. 10 is a schematic representation of the embodiment
FIG. 15. of the present invention shown in FIG.9, i.e., a 3 ton/3 loop
The present invention also provides a method of operating system, using individual TX valve metering for staged
the direct expansion heat pump system described herein cooling, in the cooling mode;
above in a cooling mode, the method comprising the steps FIG. 11 is a schematic representation of an embodiment
of carrying out the staged compressor steps of the five stages 65 of the present invention, i.e., a 2 ton/2 loop system, using
to be described in detail hereinafter with reference to FIG. individual TX valve metering for staged heating, with all
16. circuits active in the heating mode;
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FIG. 12 is a schematic representation of the embodiment 56 to the downstream end 57 of refrigerant vapor header 28.
of the present invention shown in FIG. 11, i.e., a 2 ton/2 loop The core of the multi-loop system is shown in more detail
system, using individual TX valve metering, for staged in FIG. 4. It is noted that each of the three loops 13, 14 and
cooling, in the cooling mode; 15 includes a suction gas line, i.e. 31-1, 31-2, 31-3 (respec
FIG. 13 is a schematic representation of an embodiment tively), which may be copper tubing of 3%" outside diameter
of the present invention, i.e., a 4 ton/4 loop system, using connected by, e.g., a silver-soldered joint 32 to a respective
individual TX valve metering, for staged heating, with all downflow liquid refrigerant line, i.e. 33-1, 33-2, 33-3, which
circuits active in the heating mode; may be copper tubing of 3%" outside diameter. The under
FIG. 14 is a schematic representation of the embodiment ground piping 31-1, 31-2, 31-3 and 33-1, 33-2, 333 are each
10 of sufficient length to provide for proper heat exchange with
of the present invention shown in FIG. 13, i.e., a 4 ton/4 loop the for a given compressor size and conditions.
system, using individual TX valve metering, for staged The broken line 34 represents the DX heat pump
cooling, in the cooling mode; cabinet shown in FIG.2. Within the DX heat pump cabinet
FIG. 15 is a schematic representation of an embodiment is the refrigerant vapor header 28, which leads to the main
of the present invention, i.e., a 5 ton/5 loop system using 15 line 27 leading to the suction inlet port 28a of the reversing
individual TX valve metering for staged heating, with all valve in the heating mode. Each of the suction gas lines
circuits active in the heating mode; and 31-1, 31-2, 31-3 is connected thereto. It is noted that
FIG. 16 is a schematic representation of the embodiment refrigerant vapor header 28 is fitted with a check valve 29.
of the present invention shown in FIG. 15, i.e., a 5 ton/5 loop It is also to be observed that refrigerant vapor lines 31-2 and
system, using individual TX valve metering, for staged 20 31-3 are connected to suction header 28 upstream of check
cooling, in the cooling mode. valve 29 and that suction gas line 33-1 is connected to
refrigerant vapor header 28 downstream of check valve 29.
DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS OF THE The purpose of this configuration will be explained herein
INVENTION after. A scavenger line 39 leads from refrigerant vapor
25
header 28 upstream of check valve 29 to the inlet 23 of the
accumulator 21.
Description of FIG. 1 A main liquid refrigerant line 35 leads, via a first revers
As seen in FIG. 1, a house 10 to be heated and/or cooled ible filter drier 35a, a thermostatic expansion valve 36, a
includes a heat pump 11 and an access manhole cabinet 12. Second reversible filter drier 35b, and an electric Solenoid
The system includes three loops 13, 14 and 15 disposed in valve 37 to liquid refrigerant vapor header 35-1 and to the
a vertical borehole 16, well below the water table 17.
30 liquid refrigerant lines 33-1, 33-2 and 33-3 of loops 13, 14
FIG. 1 shows a typical vertical 6 borehole with a 3 and 15. It is also to be observed that liquid refrigerant lines
U-tube configuration. Liquid lines are 3%" OD. Suction/hot 33-2 and 33-3 are connected to liquid refrigerant vapor
header 35-1 downstream of electric solenoid valve 37, and
gas lines are 3%" OD. Natural convection is obtained in the that liquid refrigerant line 33-1 is connected to liquid
well by drilling to a depth of about 300 ft. and allowing the 35 refrigerant vapor header 35-1 upstream of electric solenoid
cold water to set up a thermocline during the winter months. valve 35. The purpose of this configuration will be explained
hereinafter in the description of the operation of the system.
Description of FIG. 2 Description of FIGS. 5 and 6
The cabinet seen in FIG. 2 includes a main cabinet 20
within which is mounted an accumulator 21 which supplies 40 FIGS. 5 and 6 show the embodiment of the DX system
a source of the refrigerant a portion of which is received by of the invention provided in the above-identified patent
way of scavenger line 22 to the inlet 23 of the accumulator application Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993, shown
21. The refrigerant is supplied to lines 24, 25 and 26 leading in FIGS. 3 and 4 in the cooling mode.
to three loops 13, 14 and 15, respectively. The main return As seen in FIG. 5, in its physical construction, the DX
line 27 goes to the reversing valve suction inlet port 28a. 45 system multi-loop configuration includes, as a core, the
construction previously described for FIG. 4. However, in its
Description of FIGS. 3 and 4 cooling mode, it is seen that the liquid line 35 is connected
to an air evaporator 80. An outflow line 41 is connected
FIGS. 3 and 4 show one embodiment of the DX system between the upstream end 42 of refrigerant vapor header 28
of the invention provided in the above-identified patent 50 and the line 43 connected to the inlet 23 of the accumulator
application Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993, in its 21. The outlet line 45 of the accumulator 21 is connected to
heating mode. In its physical construction, the DX system the inlet 44 of a compressor 46, where the outlet line 47
multi-loop configuration shown in FIG. 3 includes, as a core, therefrom is connected to the inlet port 49 of a reversing
the construction to be described hereinafter in FIG. 4. As valve 48. Reversing valve 48 has three outlet ports 50, 51
seen in FIG. 3, the liquid line 35 is connected to an air 55 and 52. Inlet/outlet port 50 is connected, by line 53 to the
condenser 40. An outflow line 41 is connected between the inlet 54 of the air condenser 80. Outlet port 51 is connected
downstream end 42 of suction hot gas header 28 and the line to the inlet line 43 connected to accumulator 21. A tempera
43 connected to the inlet 23 of the accumulator 21. The ture indicating bulb 55 is provided, bulb 55 controlling
outlet line 45 of the accumulator 21 is connected to the inlet thermostatic expansion valve 36. Inlet/outlet port 52 is
44 of a compressor 46, where the outlet line 47 therefrom is connected, via line 56 to the downstream end 57 of refrig
connected to the inlet port 49 of a reversing valve 48. erant vapor header 28. The purpose of this configuration will
Reversing valve 48 has three outlet ports 50, 51 and 52. be explained hereinafter in the description of the operation
Inlet/outlet port 50 is connected by line 53 to the inlet 54 of of the system.
the air condenser 40. Outlet port 51 is connected to the inlet Description of FIGS. 7 and 8
line 43 connected to accumulator 21. A temperature indi 65
cating bulb 55 is provided, bulb 55 controlling thermostatic FIGS. 7 and 8 show another embodiment of the invention
expansion valve 36. Inlet/outlet port 52 is connected, vialine provided in the above-identified patent application Ser. No.
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08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993, namely a capillary-balanced suction outlet 723 of the reversing valve 724 is connected to
feed system, FIG. 7 showing the configurations in the the inlet 735 of the accumulator 728, and the Suction inlet
heating mode, and FIG. 8 showing the configurations in the 729-2 of the reversing valve 724 is connected to the refrig
cooling mode. erant vapor header 704 downstream of the check valve 705.
As seen in FIGS. 7 and 8, the system 700 includes three
loops. A first loop 701-1 includes a dual purpose refrigerant Description of FIGS. 9 and 10
vapor line 702-1 and a liquid line 703-1. The second loop FIGS. 9 and 10 show one preferred embodiment of the
701-2 and third loop 701-3 are operationally idle during the present invention, i.e., a 3 ton/3 loop system which uses
cooling mode. These loops include a suction line 702-2, using individual TX valve metering for the heating mode
703-2 respectively, and a liquid line 703-2, 703-3 respec 10
and employs a staged condenser cooling mode, FIG.9 being
tively. Each loop 7011, 701-2 and 701-3 is adapted to be the configuration for the heating mode and FIG. 10 being the
buried underground in heat exchange relationship with the . configuration for the cooling mode.
A refrigerant vapor header 704 is provided with a check As seen in FIGS. 9 and 10, the system 900 includes three
Valve 705.
15 ground loops, namely a first loop 901-1 including a refrig
The refrigerant vapor line 702-1 of the first loop 701-1 is erant vapor suction?hot gas line 902-1 and a liquid line
connected to the refrigerant vapor header 704 downstream 903-1, as well as a second loop 901-2 and a third loop 901-3,
of the check valve 705. The suction lines 702-2, 703-2 of each such second and third loop including a suction/hot gas
each of the other two loops 701-2, 701-3 respectively, are line 902-2, 902-3 and a liquid line 903-2, 903-3, respec
connected to the refrigerant vapor header 704 upstream of 20 tively. Each loop 901-1,901-2,901-3 is adapted to be buried
the check valve 705. A liquid line 706 leads from an air underground in heat exchange relationship with the earth. A
condenser 707 through a first reversible filter-drier 708-1, a refrigerant vapor header 904 is provided with a first pressure
TX valve 709 and a second reversible filter-drier 708-2 to sensing device 930-1 and with a second pressure sensing
a refrigerant liquid line header 710. device 930-2. In addition, the refrigerant vapor header 904
A first capillary tube 711-1 has inlet 712-1 connected to is provided with three solenoid valves 905-1, 905-2,905-3.
refrigerant liquid line header 710 upstream of a normally The refrigerant vapor line 902-1 of the first loop 901-1 is
open electric solenoid valve 713. The outlet 714-1 of first connected to the refrigerant vapor header 904 upstream of
capillary tube 711-1 is connected to the liquid line 703-1 of the first solenoid valve 905-1. The refrigerant vapor line
first loop 701-1. A second capillary tube 711-2 has its inlet 902-2 of the second loop 901-2 is connected to the refrig
712-2 connected to refrigerant liquid line header 710 down 30 erant vapor header 904 upstream of the second solenoid
stream of valve 713 and has its outlet 714-2 connected to valve 905-2. Similarly, the refrigerant vapor line 902-3 of
liquid line 703-2 of second loop 701-2. A third capillary tube the third loop 901-3 is connected to the refrigerant vapor
711-3 has its inlet 712-3 connected to refrigerant liquid line header 904 upstream of the third solenoid valve 905-3.
header 710 downstream of both inlet 712-2 and Valve 713 The refrigerant liquid line header 906 is provided with a
and has its outlet 7143 connected to liquid line 703-3 of 35 coolingTX valve 908-6. Cooling TX valve 908-6 has
third loop 701-3. Abypass line 715 has its outlet 712-4 at the one inlet 909-6 and one outlet 910-6, an equalizer line 911
refrigerant liquid line header 710 and has its inlet connected leading from an equalizer port, and a connection 907 to a
to liquid line 703-1 and first capillary tube 711-1. Bypass gas-filled controlling bulb 912-6. A capillary tube bypass
line 715 is also provided with a check valve 716. Thus, three 913-6 is installed to bypass the inlet 909-6 and the outlet
capillary tubes 711-1,711-2,711-3, are installed as restriction 910-6 of the cooling TX valve 908-6. Three heating TX
devices to provide balanced refrigerant metering in the valves, namely, 908-1, 908-2,908-3 are installed in liquid
heating mode. lines 9061, 9062, 906-3, respectively, and provide refrig
The TX valve 709 is connected to act as the primary erant metering in the heating mode. Each TX valve 908-1,
refrigerant metering device. Valve 709 has one inlet 717, one 908-2,908-3 has one inlet 909-1,909-2,909-3, respectively,
outlet 718, one equalizer tube 719 leading to an equalization 45 and one outlet 910-1,9102, 910-3, a heating equalizer line
port 719-1 and one gas-filled line 720 leading to a gas-filled 911-1, 911-2, 911-3, leading to a respective equalizer port,
controlling bulb 720-1. A capillary tube bypass 721 is and a connection 907-1, 907-2, 907-3 to a gas-filled con
installed between the inlet 717 and the outlet 718 of the trolling bulb 912-1, 912-2, 912-3, respectively. A capillary
thermostatic expansion valve 709. The equalizer tube 719 of tube bypass 9131, 9132, 913-3 is installed in lines 9061,
the thermostatic expansion valve 709 is connected to the 50 9062,906-3, respectively, bypassing the inlet 909-1,9092,
common suction outlet 723 of the reversing valve 724. The 909-3, and the outlet 910-1, 9102, 9103, of each of the
controlling bulb or sensing bulb 725 of the thermostatic heating TX valves 908-1,908-2,908-3, respectively,. The
expansion valve 709, is placed in thermal contact with the inlet 909-1 of the first heating TX valve 908-1 is con
common suction outlet 723 of the reversing valve 724. A nected by liquid line 906-1 to the refrigerant liquid line
scavenging line 726 is connected between the refrigerant 55 header 906 downstream of the cooling TX valve 908-6.
vapor header 704 upstream of the check valve 705 and the The outlet 9101 of that TX Valve 908-1 is connected to
inlet 727 of an accumulator 728. The reversing valve 724, the liquid line 903-1 of the first loop 901-1. The equalizer
has two inlets 7291, 729-2 and two outlets 730-1,7302. A line 911-1 from its associated equalization port of that TX
compressor 731 having a suction inlet 732 and a discharge valve 908-1 is connected to the equalization port of cooling
outlet 733 is provided, the discharge outlet 733 being 60 TX valve 9086 via line 911. The controlling bulb 912-1
connected to the refrigerant vapor inlet 729-1 of the revers connected to that TX valve 908-1 is placed in thermal
ing valve 724. - contact with the refrigerant vapor line 902-1 of the first loop
The accumulator 728 has an inlet 735 and an outlet 736, 901-1 a short distance from its connection to refrigerant
the outlet 736 being connected to the inlet 732 of the vapor header 904.
compressor 731. The refrigerant vapor outlet 730-1 of the 65 Similarly, the inlet 909-2 of the second heating TX
reversing valve 724 is connected by a refrigerant vapor line valve 908-2 is connected by liquid line 9062 to the refrig
735 to the inlet 736 of the air condenser 707. The common erant liquid line header 906 downstream of the solenoid
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valve 905-8, and upstream of the solenoid valve 905-9. The As seen in FIGS. 11 and 12, the system 1100 includes two
outlet 9102 of that TX Valve 908-2 is connected to the ground loops, namely a first loop 1101-1 including a refrig
liquid line 903-2 of the second loop 901-2. The equalizer erant vapor suction/hot gas line 1102-1 and a liquid line
line 911-2 from its associated equalization port of that TX 1103-1, and a second loop 1101-2 such loop including a
valve 908-2 is connected to the equalization port of cooling suction?hot gas line 1102-2, and a liquid line 1103-2. Each
TX valve 908-6 via line 911. The controlling bulb 912-2 loop 1101-1 and 1101-2 is adapted to be buried underground
connected to that TX valve 908-2 is placed in thermal in heat exchange relationship with the earth. A refrigerant
contact with the refrigerant vapor line 902-2 of the second vapor header 1104 is provided with a pressure sensing
loop 901-2 a short distance from its connection to refrigerant device 1130-1. In addition, the refrigerant vapor header 1104
vapor header 904. 10 is provided with two solenoid valves 1105-1 and 1105-2.
Also, similarly, the inlet 909-3 of the third heating TX The refrigerant vapor line 1102-1 of the first loop 1001-1 is
valve 908-3 is connected by liquid line 906-3 to the refrig connected to the refrigerant vapor header 1104 upstream of
erant liquid line header 906 downstream of the solenoid the first solenoid valve 1105-1. The refrigerant vapor line
valve 905-9. The outlet 9103 of that TX Valve 908-3 is
connected to the liquid line 903-3 of the third loop 901-3. 1102-2 of the second loop 1101-2 is connected to the
The equalizer line 911-3 from its associated equalization 15 refrigerant vapor header 1104 upstream of the second sole
port of that TX valve 908-3 is connected to the equaliza noid valve 11052.
tion port of cooling TX valve 9086 via line 911. The The refrigerant liquid line header 1106 is provided with a
controlling bulb 912-3 connected to that TX valve 908-3 cooling thermostatic expansion valve (TX valve) 1108-6.
is placed in thermal contact with the refrigerant vapor line 20
Cooling TX valve 1108-6 has one inlet 1109-6 and one
902-3 of the third loop 901-3 a short distance from its outlet 1110-6, an equalizer line 1111 leading from an equal
connection to refrigerant vapor header 904. izer port, and a connection 1107 to a gas-filled controlling
Line 9062 leading from liquid line 906 to the liquid line bulb 1112-4. A capillary tube bypass 1113-6 is installed to
903-2 of the second loop 901-2 is connected to a fourth bypass the inlet 1109-6 and the outlet 1110-6 of the cooling
solenoid valve 905-8, and similarly, line 906-3 leading from TX Valve 1108-6.
25
liquid line 906 to the liquid line 903-3 of the third loop 901-3 Two heating TX valves, namely, 1108-1 and 1108-2, are
is connected to a fifth solenoid valve 905-9. installed in liquid lines 1006-1, 1006-2, respectively, and
As seen in FIGS. 9 and 10, and as previously described, provide refrigerant metering in the heating mode, each TX
cooling TX valve 908-6 provides refrigerant metering in valve 1108-1, 1108-2, having one inlet 11091, 11092, one
the cooling mode (shown explicitly in FIG. 10). As previ 30
outlet 1110-1, 1110-2, a heating equalizer line 1111-1, 1111
ously described, cooling TX valve 908-6 has one inlet 2, leading to a respective equalizer port, and a connection
909-6 and one outlet 910-6, a cooling equalizer line 911 1107-1,1107-2 to a gas-filled controlling bulb 1112-1, 1112
leading to a cooling equalization port and a line 907-6 2, respectively. A capillary tube bypass 1113-1, 1113-2, is
connected to a gas-filled controlling bulb 912-6. All equal installed in lines 1006-1, 1006-2, bypassing the inlet 1109
izer lines 911-1, 911-2, 911-3, 911-4 are interconnected by 35
1,11092, and the outlet 1110-1, 1110-2, of each of the
means of cooling equalizer line 911. The controller bulb heating TX valves 1108-1, 1108-2, respectively. The inlet
912-6 connected to the cooling TX valve 908-6 is placed 1109-1 of the first heating TX valve 1108-1 is connected
in thermal contact with the refrigerant vapor line 913 of the by liquid line 11061 to the refrigerant liquid line header
refrigerant/air heat exchanger coil 914 a short distance from 1106 downstream of the cooling TX valve 1108-6. The
the outlet 915 of the refrigerant/air heat exchanger coil 914. outlet 11101 of that TX valve 1108-1 is connected to the
40
A scavenging line 918 is connected between the refrigerant liquid line 1003-1 of the first loop 1101-1. The equalizer line
vapor header 904 downstream of the third solenoid valve 1111-1 from its associated equalization port of that TX
905-3 and upstream of an accumulator 919. Cooling equal valve 1108-1 is connected to the equalization port of cooling
izer line 911 is also connected to scavenger line 918. A TX valve 10086 via line 1111. The controlling bulb
compressor 922 in the system has a suction inlet 923 and a 45 1112-1 connected to that TX valve 1108-1 is placed in
discharge outlet 924. A reversing valve 920 is connected thermal contact with the refrigerant vapor line 1102-1 of the
between outlet line 924-1 of compressor 922 and inlet line first loop 1101-1 a short distance from its connection to
925-1 of accumulator 919, reversing valve 920 having two refrigerant vapor header 1104.
inlets 920-1,920-2 and two outlets 921,921-2. The discharge Similarly, the inlet 11092 of the second heating TX
outlet 924 to line 924-1 is connected to the hot gas inlet 50 valve 1108-2 is connected by. liquid line 11062 to the
920-1 of the reversing valve 920. The accumulator 919 in the refrigerant liquid line header 1106 downstream of the sole
system has an inlet 925 connected to line 925-1 and an outlet noid valve 1105-9. The outlet 1110-2 of that TX valve
926 leading to line 9231. The outlet 926 is connected to the 1108-2 is connected to the liquid line 1103-2 of the second
suction inlet 927 of the compressor 922 via line 923-1. The loop 1001-2. The equalizer line 1111-2 from its associated
hot gas outlet 921-2 of the reversing valve 920 is connected 55 equalization port of that TX valve 1108-2 is connected to
to the inlet 915 of the air coil 914 by line 913. The common the equalization port of cooling TX valve 11086 via line
suction outlet 921-1 of the reversing valve 920 is connected 1111. The controlling bulb 1112-2 connected to that TX
to the inlet 925 of the accumulator 919 via line 925-1. The valve 1108-2 is placed in thermal contact with the refrigerant
suction inlet 920-2 of the reversing valve 920 is connected vapor line 1102-2 of the second loop 1101-2 a short distance
to the refrigerant vapor header 904 downstream of the first 60 from its connection to refrigerant vapor header 1104.
solenoid valve 905-1. cl Description of FIGS. 11 and 12 Line 11062 leading from liquid line 1106 to the liquid
FIGS. 11 and 12 show another embodiment of the present line 1103-2 of the second loop 1101-2 is fitted with a third
invention, i.e., a 2 ton/2 loop system, which uses individual Solenoid valve 1105-9.
TX valve metering for the heating mode and employs a As seen in FIGS. 11 and 12, and as previously described,
staged condenser cooling mode, FIG. 11 being the configu 65 cooling TX valve 1108-6 provides refrigerant metering in
ration for the heating mode and FIG. 12 being the configu the cooling mode (shown explicitly in FIG. 11). As previ
ration for the cooling mode. ously described, cooling TX valve 1108-6 has one inlet
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1109-6 and one outlet 1110-6, a cooling equalizer line 1111-4 The refrigerant liquid line header 1306 is provided with a
leading to a cooling equalization port and a line 1107-6 cooling TX valve 1308-6. Cooling TX valve 1308-6 has
connected to a gas-filled controlling bulb 1112-6. Equalizer one inlet 1309-6 and one outlet 1310-6, an equalizer line
lines 1111-1, 1011-2, are interconnected by means of equal 1311-6 leading from an equalizer port, and a connection
izer line 1111. The controller bulb 1112-4 connected to the 1307-6 to a gas-filled controlling bulb 1312-6. A capillary
cooling TX valve 1108-6 is placed in thermal contact with tube bypass 1313-4 bypasses the inlet 1309-6 and the outlet
the refrigerant vapor line 1113 of the refrigerant/air heat 1310-6 of the cooling TX valve 13086.
exchanger coil 1114 a short distance from the outlet 1115 of Four heating TX valves, namely, 1308-1, 1308-2, 1308
the refrigerant/air heat exchanger coil 1114. 3, 1308-4 are installed in liquid lines 1306-1, 13062,
A scavenging line 1118 is connected between the refrig 10 13063, 13064, respectively, and provide refrigerant meter
erant vapor header 1104 downstream of the second solenoid ing in the heating mode, each TX valve 1308-1, 1308-2,
valve 11052 and upstream of an accumulator 1119. Cooling 1308-3 and 1308-4 having one inlet 1309-1, 1309-2, 1309-3,
equalizer line 1111 is also connected to scavenger line 1118. 1309-4, one outlet 1310-1, 1310-2, 1310-3, 1310-4, a heat
A compressor 1122 in the system has a suction inlet 1123 ing equalizer line 13111, 1311-2, 1311-3, 1311-4, leading to
and a discharge outlet 1124. A reversing valve 1120 is 15 a respective equalizer port, and a connection 1307-1, 1307
2, 1307-3, 1307-4 to a gas-filled controlling bulb 1312-1,
connected between outlet line 1124-1 of compressor 1122 1312-2, 1312-3, 1312-4 respectively. A capillary tube bypass
and inlet line 1125-1 of accumulator 1119, reversing valve 1313-1, 13132, 1313-3, 1313-4 bypasses lines 13061,
1120 having two inlets 1120-1,1120-2 and two outlets 1121 13062, 13063, 13064, between the inlet 1309-1, 1309-2,
1,1121-2. The discharge outlet 1124 to line 1124-1 is con 1309-3, 1309-4, and the outlet 13101, 1310-2, 1310-3,
nected to the hot gas inlet 1120-1 of the reversing valve 20
1310-4, of each of the heating TX valves 1308-1, 1308-2,
1120. The accumulator 1119 in the system has an inlet 1125 1308-3 and 1308-4, respectively. The inlet 1309-1 of the first
connected to line 1125-1 and an outlet 1126 leading to line heating TX valve 1308-1 is connected by liquid line
1123-1. The outlet 1126 is connected to the Suction inlet 13061 to the refrigerant liquid line header 1306 down
1127 of the compressor 1122 via line 1123-1. The hot gas stream of the cooling TX valve 1308-6. The outlet 1310-1
outlet 1121-1 of the reversing valve 1120 is connected to the 25
of that TX valve 1308-1 is connected to the liquid line
inlet 1115 of the air coil 1014 by line 1113. The common 1303-1 of the first loop 1301-1. The equalizer line 1311-1
suction outlet 1121-2 of the reversing valve 1120 is con from its associated equalization port of that TX valve
nected to the inlet 1125 of the accumulator 1119 via line 1308-1 is connected to the equalization port of cooling TX
1125-1. The suction inlet 1120-2 of the reversing valve 1120 valve 13086 via line 1311. The controlling bulb 1312-1
is connected to the refrigerant vapor header 1104 down 30
connected to that TX valve 1308-1 is placed in thermal
Stream of the first Solenoid valve 1105-1. contact with the refrigerant vapor line 13021 of the first
loop 1301-1 a short distance from its connection to refrig
erant vapor header 1304.
Description of FIGS. 13 and 14 Similarly, the inlet 1309-2 of the second heating TX
35
FIGS. 13 and 14 show yet another preferred embodiment valve 1308-2 is connected by liquid line 13062 to the
of the present invention, i.e., a 4ton/4 loop system, which refrigerant liquid line header 1306 downstream of the sole
uses individual TX valve metering in the heating mode noid valve 1305-7. The outlet 13102 of that TX valve
and employs a staged condenser cooling mode, FIG. 13 1308-2 is connected to the liquid line 1303-2 of the second
being the configuration for the heating mode and FIG. 14 40 loop 1301-2. The equalizer line 1311-2 from its associated
being the configuration for the cooling mode. equalization port of that TX valve 1308-2 is connected to
As seen in FIGS. 13 and 14, the system 1300 includes four the equalization port of cooling TX valve 13086 via line
ground loops, namely a first loop 1301-1 including a refrig 1311. The controlling bulb 1312-2 connected to that TX
erant vapor suction?hot gas line 1302-1 and a liquid line valve 1308-2 is placed in thermal contact with the refriger
1303-1, a second loop 1301-2, a third loop 1301-3 and a 45 distanceant vapor line 1302-2 of the second loop 1301-2 a short
fourth loop 1301-4, each such second, third and fourth loop from its connection to refrigerant vapor header
including a suction?hot gas line 1302-2, 13023, 1302-4 and 1304.
a liquid line 13032, 1303-3, 1303-4 respectively. Each loop Also, similarly, the inlet 1309-3 of the third heating TX
1301-1, 1301-2, 1301-3, 1301-4 is adapted to be buried valve 1308-3 is connected by liquid line 13063 to the
underground in heat exchange relationship with the earth. A 50 refrigerant liquid line header 1306 downstream of the sole
refrigerant vapor header 1304 is provided with a first pres noid valve 1305-8. The outlet 1310-3 of that TX Valve
sure sensing device 1330-1 and with a second pressure 1308-3 is connected to the liquid line 1303-3 of the third
sensing device 1330-2, and with a third pressure sensing loop 1301-3. The equalizer line 1311-3 from its associated
device 13303 upstream of solenoid valve 1305-1. In addi equalization port of that TX valve 1308-3 is connected to
tion, the refrigerant vapor header 1304 is provided with four 55 the equalization port of cooling TX valve 13086 via line
solenoid valves 1305-1, 1305-2, 1305-3, 1305-4. The refrig 1311. The controlling bulb 1312-3 connected to that TX
erant vapor line 13021 of the first loop 1301-1 is connected valve 1308-3 is placed in thermal contact with the refriger
to the refrigerant vapor header 1304 upstream of the first ant vapor line 1302-3 of the third loop 1301-3 a short
solenoid valve 1305-1. The refrigerant vapor line 1302-2 of distance from its connection to refrigerant vapor header
the second loop 1301-2 is connected to the refrigerant vapor 1304.
header 1304 upstream of the second solenoid valve 1305-2. Still further, similarly, the inlet 1309-4 of the fourth
Similarly, the refrigerant vapor line 1302-3 of the third loop heating TX valve 1308-4 is connected by liquid line
1301-3 is connected to the refrigerant vapor header 1304 1306-4 to the refrigerant liquid line header 1306 down
upstream of the third solenoid valve 1305-3, and further stream of the Solenoid valve 1305-9. The outlet 1310-4 of
similarly, the refrigerant vapor line 1302-4 of the fourth loop 65 that TX valve 1308-4 is connected to the liquid line
1301-4 is connected to the refrigerant vapor header 1304 1303-4 of the fourth loop 1301-4. The equalizer line 1311-4
upstream of the fourth solenoid valve 1305-4. from its associated equalization port of that TX valve
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1308-4 is connected to the equalization port of cooling TX 1503-2, 1503-3, 1503-4, 1503-5, respectively. Each loop
valve 13086 via line 1311. The controlling bulb 1312-4 1501-1, 1501-2, 1501-3, 1501-4, 1501-5 is adapted to be
connected to that TX valve 1308-4 is placed in thermal buried underground in heat exchange relationship with the
contact with the refrigerant vapor line 1302-4 of the fourth earth. A refrigerant vapor header 1504 is provided with a
loop 1301-4 a short distance from its connection to refrig first pressure sensing device 1530-1 and with second, third
erant vapor header 1304. - and fourth pressure sensing devices 1530-2, 1530-2 and
Line 13062 leading from liquid line 1306 to the liquid 1530-4, respectively. In addition, the refrigerant vapor
line 1303-2 of the second loop 1301-2 is connected to a fifth header 1504 is provided with five solenoid valves 1505-1,
solenoid valve 1305-7. Similarly, line 13063 leading from 1505-2, 1505-3, 1505-4, 1505-5. The refrigerant vapor line
liquid line 1306 to the liquid line 1303-3 of the third loop 10 15021 of the first loop 1501-1 is connected to the refrigerant
1301-3 is connected to a sixth solenoid valve 1305-8. vapor header 1504 upstream of the first solenoid valve
1505-1. The refrigerant vapor line 1502-2 of the second loop
Finally, similarly, line 13064 leading from liquid line 1306 1501-2 is connected to the refrigerant vapor header 1504
to the liquid line 1303-4 of the fourth loop 1301-4 is upstream of the second solenoid valve 1505-2. Similarly, the
connected to a seventh Solenoid valve 1305-9. refrigerant vapor line 1502-3 of the third loop 1501-3 is
15
As seen in FIGS. 13 and 14, and as previously described, connected to the refrigerant vapor header 1504 upstream of
cooling TX valve 1308-6 provides refrigerant metering in the third solenoid valve 1505-3. Similarly, the refrigerant
the cooling mode (shown explicitly in FIG. 13). As previ vapor line 1502-4 of the fourth loop 1501-4 is connected to
ously described, cooling TX valve 1308-6 has one inlet the refrigerant vapor header 1504 upstream of the fourth
13095 and one outlet 1310-5, a cooling equalizer line 20
solenoid valve 1505-4. Similarly, the refrigerant vapor line
1311-6 leading to a cooling equalization port and a line 1502-5 of the fifth loop 1501-5 is connected to the refrig
1307-6 connected to a gas-filled controlling bulb 1312-6. All erant vapor header 1504 upstream of the fifth solenoid valve
equalizer lines 1311-1, 1311-2, 1311-3, 1311-4, 1311-6 are 15055.
interconnected by means of cooling equalizer line 1311. The The refrigerant liquid line header 1506 is provided with a
controller bulb 1312-6 connected to the cooling TX valve 25 cooling TX valve 1508-6. Cooling TX valve 1508-6 has
1308-6 is placed in thermal contact with the refrigerant one inlet 15096 and one outlet 1510-6, an equalizer line
vapor line 1313 of the refrigerant/air heat exchanger coil 1511-6 leading from an equalizer port, and a connection
1314 a short distance from the outlet 1315 of the refrigerant/ 1507 to a gas-filled controlling bulb 1512-6. A capillary tube
air heat exchanger coil 1314. bypass 1513-6 bypasses the inlet 1509-6 and the outlet
A scavenging line 1318 is connected between the refrig 30 1510-6 of the cooling TX valve 15086. Five heating
erant vapor header 1304 downstream of the fourth solenoid TX valves, namely, 1508-1, 1508-2, 1508-3, 1508-4,
valve 1305-4 and upstream of an accumulator 1319. Cooling 1508-5 are installed in liquid lines 1506-1, 1506-2, 15063,
equalizer line 1311 is also connected to scavenger line 1318. 15064, 1506-5 and provide refrigerant metering in the
A compressor 1322 in the system has a suction inlet 1323 heating mode, each TX valve 1508-1, 1508-2, 1508-3,
and a discharge outlet 1324. A reversing valve 1320 is 35 1508-4, 1508-5 having one inlet 15091, 1509-2, 1509-3,
connected between outlet line 13241 of compressor 1322 1509-4, 15095, one outlet 1510-1, 1510-2, 15103, 1510-4,
and inlet line 1325-1 of accumulator 1319, reversing valve 1510-5, a heating equalizer line 1511-1, 1511-2, 1511-3,
1320 having two inlets 1320-1, 1320-2 and two outlets 1511-4, 15115, leading to a respective equalizer port, and a
1321-1, 1321-2. The discharge outlet 1324 to line 1324-1 is connection to a gas-filled controlling bulb 1512-1, 1512-2,
connected to the hot gas inlet 1320-1 of the reversing valve 1512-3, 1512-4, 1512-5 respectively. A capillary tube bypass
1320. The accumulator 1319 in the system has an inlet 1325 1513-1, 1513-2, 1513-3, 15134, 1513-5 by passes lines
connected to line 1325-1 and an outlet 1326 leading to line 1506-1, 1506-2, 15063, 15064, 1506-5, between the inlet
1323-1. The outlet 1326 is connected to the suction inlet 15091, 1509-2, 1509-3, 1509-4, 1509-5, and the outlet
1323 of the compressor 1322 via line 13231. The hot gas 1510-1, 15102, 1510-3, 1510-4, 1510-5, of each of the
outlet 1321-2 of the reversing valve 1320 is connected to the 45 heating TX valves 1508-1, 1508-2, 1508-3, 1508-4, 1508
inlet 1315 of the air coil 1314 by line 1313. The common 5
suction outlet 1321-1 of the reversing valve 1320 is con The inlet 1509-1 of the first heating TX valve 1508-1 is
nected to the inlet 1325 of the accumulator 1319 via line connected by liquid line 1506-1 to the refrigerant liquid line
1325-1. The suction inlet 1320-2 of the reversing valve 1320 header 1506 downstream of the cooling TX valve 15086.
is connected to the refrigerant vapor header 1304 down 50 The outlet 1510-1 of that TX valve 1508-1 is connected to
stream of the first solenoid valve 13051. the liquid line 1503-1 of the first loop 1501-1. The equalizer
line 1511-1 from its associated equalization port of that
Description of FIGS. 15 and 16 TX valve 1508-1 is connected to the equalization port of
cooling TX valve 15086 via line 1511. The controlling
FIGS. 15 and 16 show yet another preferred embodiment 55 bulb 1512-1 connected to that TX valve 1508-1 is placed
of the present invention, i.e., 5 ton/5 loop system which used in thermal contact with the refrigerant vapor line 15021 of
individual TX valve metering in the heating mode and the first loop 15011 a short distance from its connection to
employs a staged condenser cooling mode, FIG. 15 being refrigerant vapor header 1504.
the configuration for the heating mode and FIG. 16 being the Similarly, the inlet 1509-2 of the second heating TX
configuration for the cooling mode. 60 valve 1508-2 is connected by liquid line 1506-2 to the
As seen in FIGS. 15 and 16, the system 1500 includes five refrigerant liquid line header 1506 downstream of the sole
ground loops, namely a first loop 1501-1 including a refrig noid valve 1505-6. The outlet 1510-2 of that TX Valve
erant vapor suction?hot gas line 15021 and a liquid line 1508-2 is connected to the liquid line 1503-2 of the second
1503-1, as well as a second loop 1501-2, a third loop 1501-3, loop 1501-2. The equalizer line 1511-2 from its associated
a fourth loop 1501-4 and a fifth loop 1501-5, each such loop, 65 equalization port of that TX valve 1508-2 is connected to
second, third, fourth and fifth including a suction?hot gas the equalization port of cooling TX valve 15086 via line
line 1502-2, 1502-3, 1502-4, 1502-5, and a liquid line 1511. The controlling bulb 1512-2 connected to that TX
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valve 1508-2 is placed in thermal contact with the refriger 1514 a short distance from the outlet 1515 of the refrigerant/
ant vapor line 1502-2 of the second loop 1501-2 a short air heat exchanger coil 1514.
distance from its connection to refrigerant vapor header A scavenging line 1518 is connected between the refrig
1504.
erant vapor header 1504 downstream of the third solenoid
Also, similarly, the inlet 1509-3 of the third heating TX valve 1505-3 and an accumulator 1519. Cooling equalizer
valve 1508-3 is connected by liquid line 1506-3 to the line 1511 is also connected to scavenger line 1518. A
refrigerant liquid line header 1506 downstream of the sole compressor 1522 in the system has a suction inlet 1523 and
noid valve 15057. The outlet 15103 of that TX Valve a discharge outlet 1524. A reversing valve 1520 is connected
1508-3 is connected to the liquid line 1503-3 of the third between outlet line 1524-1 of compressor 1522 and inlet line
loop 1501-3. The equalizer line 1511-3 from its associated 10
1525-1 of accumulator 1519, reversing valve 1520 having
equalization port of that TX valve 1508-3 is connected to two inlets 15201, 15202 and two outlets 1521-1, 1521-2.
the equalization port of cooling TX valve 1508-6 via line The discharge outlet 1524 to line 1524-1 is connected to the
1511. The controlling bulb 1512-3 connected to that TX hot gas inlet 15201 of the reversing valve 1520. The
valve 1508-3 is placed in thermal contact with the refriger accumulator 1519 in the system has an inlet 1525 connected
ant vapor line 1502-3 of the third loop 1501-3 a short 15 to line 1525-1 and an outlet 1526 leading to line 1523-1. The
distance from its connection to refrigerant vapor header outlet 1526 is connected to the Suction inlet 1523 of the
1504, compressor 1522 via line 1523-1. The hot gas outlet 1521-1
Still further, similarly, the inlet 1509-4 of the fourth of the reversing valve 1520 is connected to the inlet 1515 of
heating TX valve 1508-4 is connected by liquid line 20
the air coil 1514 by line 1513. The common suction outlet
15064 to the refrigerant liquid line header 1506 down 1521-2 of the reversing valve 1520 is connected to the inlet
Stream of the Solenoid valve 1505-8. The outlet 1510-4 of 1525 of the accumulator 1519 via line 15251. The Suction
that TX valve 1508-4 is connected to the liquid line inlet 1520-2 of the reversing valve 1520 is connected to the
1503-4 of the fourth loop 1501-4. The equalizer line 1511-4 refrigerant vapor header 1504 downstream of the first sole
from its associated equalization port of that TX valve noid valve 1505-1.
25
1508-4 is connected to the equalization port of cooling TX
valve 15086 via line 1511. The controlling bulb 1512-4 Operation of the System of FIGS. 3 and 4 in the
connected to that TX valve 1508-4 is placed in thermal Heating Mode
contact with the refrigerant vapor line 1502-4 of the fourth
loop 1501-4 a short distance from its connection to refrig In the operation of the system of a first embodiment of the
erant vapor header 1504. 30 invention provided in the above-identified patent application
Finally, similarly, the inlet 1509-5 of the fifth heating Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993, in the heating mode
TX valve 1508-5 is connected by liquid line 1506-5 to the shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, it is seen that there are three (3)
refrigerant liquid line header 1506 downstream of the sole circuits, i.e., three loops 13, 14 and 15, operational as an
noid valve 1505-9. The outlet 1510-5 of that TX valve evaporator in the heating mode. During typical operation,
1508-5 is connected to the liquid line 1503-5 of the fifth loop
35 each loop 13, 14 and 15 would be approximately 25% full
1501-5. The equalizer line 1511-5 from its associated equal of liquid refrigerant. The conventional %" OD copper tubing
ization port of that TX valve 1508-5 is connected to the used in the exchanger provides sufficient velocity to entrain
equalization port of cooling TX valve 15086 via line the oil, whether the loops 13, 14 and 15 are installed
1511. The controlling bulb 1512-5 connected to that TX vertically or horizontally. As shown in FIG. 4, the solenoid
valve 1508-5 is placed in thermal contact with the refriger
40 valve 37 is open and allows liquid refrigerant to be metered
ant vapor line 1502-4 of the fifth loop 1501-5 a short down all three liquid lines 33-1, 33-2, and 33-3 where it is
distance from its connection to refrigerant vapor header vaporized by the warm and returns via the three suction lines
1504. 31-1, 31-2 and 31-3 and to suction header 28. Check valve
Line 1506-2 leading from liquid line 1506 to the liquid 29 is sited after (i.e. upstream) of loop 13 and before (i.e.
line 1503-2 of the second loop 1501-2 is connected to a sixth
45 downstream) of loops 14 and 15 in the main refrigerant
solenoid valve 1505-6. Similarly, line 15063 leading from vapor header 28. This configuration allows warmed gas from
liquid line 1506 to the liquid line 1503-3 of the third loop all three lines, 31-1, 31-2, 31-3, to proceed to the accumu
1501-3 is connected to a seventh Solenoid valve 1505-7. lator 21 and thence to the compressor 46. Line 41 is a
Also, similarly, line 15064 leading from liquid line 1506 to conventional %" OD copper line which serves no useful
the liquid line 1503-4 of the fourth loop 1501-4 is connected
50 purpose in the heating mode as described herein but is
to an eighth solenoid valve 1505-8. Finally, similarly, line absolutely imperative to the system in the cooling mode.
1506-5 leading from liquid line 1506 to the liquid line Line 41 must be placed upstream of the check valve 28 as
1503-5 of the fifth loop 1501-b is connected to a ninth shown so that it will be able to evacuate loops 14 and 15 in
Solenoid valve 1505-9. the cooling mode. The placement of solenoid valve 37 and
55 check valve 28 are technically important so that loop 13 can
As seen in FIGS. 15 and 16, and as previously described, be separated from loops 14 and 15 during the cooling mode.
cooling TX valve 1508-6 provides refrigerant metering in
the cooling mode (shown explicitly in FIG. 15). As previ Operation of the System of FIGS. 5 and 6 in the
ously described, cooling TX valve 1508-6 has one inlet Cooling Mode
1509-6 and one outlet 1510-6, a cooling equalizer line
1511-6 leading to a cooling equalization port and a line 1507 The operation of the system of a first embodiment of the
connected to a gas-filled controlling bulb 1512-6. All equal invention provided in the above-identified patent application
izer lines 1511-1, 1511-2, 1511-3, 1511-4, 1511-5 are inter Ser. No. 08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993, in the cooling mode
connected by means of cooling equalizer line 1511. The as shown in FIG. 5, is such that, during the cooling mode,
controller bulb 1512-6 connected to the cooling TX valve 65 solenoid valve 37 is closed, preventing liquid refrigerant
1508-6 is placed in thermal contact with the refrigerant from entering loops 14 and 15. Check valve 28 insures that
vapor line 1513 of the refrigerant/air heat exchanger coil hot refrigerant gas enters only the cooling loop 13. Line 41
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begins to scavenge any refrigerant in loops 14 and 15 since technique is as follows: All solenoid valves 905-1, 905-2,
they are open to the suction side of the compressor 46. The 905-3, 905-4 and 905-5 are initially allowed to be in their
extra refrigerant is quickly pumped to loop 13 which is the normally open state. The cooling TX valve 908-6 is
only active cooling loop. The extra refrigerant from loops 14 maintained fully open by indirect connection of its equalizer
and 15 fills the single condenser loop 13 to such a level as tube to the common suction line 925 upstream of the
will allow the heat pump to reject its heat to the ground at accumulator 919 and through connection of its controlling
a head pressure high enough to force the liquid refrigerant bulb 912-4 to the refrigerant vapor connection 913 of the
back to the single %" O.D. liquid line 33-1 to the expansion refrigerant/air condenser 914 which is hot in the heating
valve 36, into the air evaporator 80 and exiting via outlet line mode. Liquid refrigerant is allowed to flow into the refrig
54 back to the accumulator 21 via the reversing valve 48, 10 erant liquid line header 906 directly to heating TX valve
thus establishing continuity in the process. 908-1 and through solenoid valves 905-8 and 905-9 to
heating TX valves 908-2 and 908-3, respectively. The
Operation of The Second Embodiment of FIG. 7 in heating TX valves 908-1, 908-2, 908-3 are allowed to
the Heating Mode meter liquid refrigerant down each of the three loops 901-1,
In the operation of a second embodiment in the heating 15 901-2, 901-3 by way of the signal of the respective control
mode, the liquid line solenoid valve 713 is opened. The ler bulbs 912-1, 912-2, 912-3. Vaporized refrigerant is
bypass check valve 716 around capillary tube 711-1 is allowed to flow upwardly in each of the suction lines 902-1,
maintained closed by high pressure liquid. The TX valve 902-2, 902-3 to the refrigerant vapor header 904, through
709 is allowed to meter liquid refrigerant to the refrigerant open solenoid valves 905-1, 905-2, 905-3 as required,
liquid line header 710 controlled by a signal of the controller 20 through the reversing valve 920 and thence to the accumu
bulb 720-1. The capillary tubes 711-1, 711-2, 7 11-3 are lator 919 and to the compressor 922. Compressed refrigerant
allowed to restrict the flow slightly so that equal pressure is gas is allowed to flow from the compressor 922 through the
maintained on the inlet side 7121, 7122, 712-3 of each reversing valve 920 to the refrigerant/air condenser coil 914.
capillary tube 711-1, 711-2, 711-3. Liquid refrigerant is Finally, liquid refrigerant is withdrawn from the refrigerant/
allowed to flow down the liquid lines 7031, 703-2, 703-3. 25 air condenser coil 914 through refrigerant liquid line header
Vaporized refrigerant is allowed to flow upwardly in each of 906.
the suction lines 7021, 702-2, 702-3 and the refrigerant
vapor header 704 through the reversing valve 724 and Operation of The Preferred Embodiment of the
thence to the accumulator 728 and to the compressor 731. Invention of FIG. 10 in the Cooling Mode
Compressed refrigerant gas is then flowed from the com 30
pressor 731 through the reversing valve 724 to the air coil The operation of this embodiment of the presentinvention
707. Liquid refrigerant is then withdrawn from the air coil in the cooling mode using the described staged condenser
707 through a liquid line 706 towards the TX valve 709 cooling mode technique is in three stages as follows:
and refrigerant liquid line header 710. In the first stage, initial activation is accomplished by an
35 electric signal from the room thermostat which instructs the
Operation of The Second Embodiment of FIG. 8 in - DX heat pump to be placed in cooling mode. Solenoid
the Cooling Mode valves 905-1 and 905-8 are closed and solenoid valves
905-2, 905-3, 905-9 remain open. Hot refrigerant vapor is
In the operation of a second embodiment of the invention allowed to enter only loop 901-1. Heating TX valve 908-1
provided in the above-identified patent application Ser. No. is maintained open by indirect connection of its equalizer
08/053,050 filed Apr. 23, 1993, in the cooling mode, the tube to the common suction line 925 ahead of the accumu
liquid line solenoid valve 713 is closed. The bypass check lator 919 and by connection of its controller bulb 912-1 to
valve 716 around capillary tube 711-1 is maintained open by the vapor line 902-1 of loop 901-1 which is hot in the
high pressure liquid. Residual liquid refrigerant is evapo cooling mode. Hot compressed refrigerant is passed from
rated and scavenged from the idle suction lines 702-2,702-3 45 the compressor outlet 924 through line 924-1 and through
by way of scavenger line 918 into the accumulator 728 and the reversing valve 920 and into the hot gas line 904 which
thence to the compressor. Compressed refrigerant is passed is upstream of closed solenoid valve 905-1. The heat pump
through the reversing valve 724 and into the hot gas line 900 is allowed to reject its heat to the ground at a pressure
extension of the refrigerant vapor header 704 which is which is high enough to force liquid refrigerant through the
downstream of the check valve 705 on the refrigerant vapor 50 liquid refrigerant line 903-1 and through heating TX valve
header 704. The heat pump 11 is allowed to reject its heat to 908-1 and on to the refrigerant liquid line header 906
the ground at a pressure which is high enough to force liquid connected to the inlet port 910-6 of the cooling TX valve
refrigerant up the liquid line 703-1. The liquid refrigerant is 908-6. Liquid line solenoid valve 905-8 is closed, thereby
allowed to flow through the bypass line 715 and check valve preventing liquid refrigerant from entering the two loops
and also through the parallel capillary tube 711-1 of ground 55 903-2. 9033 which are downstream of the solenoid valve
loop 701-1 to inlet to the TX valve 709. The TX valve 905-8. Residual liquid refrigerant is evaporated and scav
709 meters liquid refrigerant to the air coil 707 as per the enged from the liquid refrigerant lines which are down
signal of the controller bulb 720. Warmed refrigerant gas is stream of the refrigerant vapor header solenoid valve 905-1,
withdrawn from the air coil 707 into the suction line and through solenoid valves 905-2,905-3 via scavenger line 918
through the reversing valve 724 and through the common 60 to the accumulator 919 and then to the compressor 922. The
suction outlet 723 into the accumulator 728 and thence to the cooling TX valve 908-6 is allowed to meter the correct
suction inlet 732 of the compressor 731. amount of liquid refrigerant into the air evaporator 914 by
Operation of The Preferred Embodiment of the indirect connection of its equalizer tube to the common
Invention of FIG. 9 in the Heating Mode suction line 925-1 ahead of the accumulator 919 and by
65 connection of its controlling bulb 912-6 a short distance
The operation of this embodiment of the present invention from the refrigerant vapor outlet 915. Finally, warmed
in the heating mode, using the described heating mode refrigerant gas is withdrawn from the air evaporator 914 into
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the suction line 913 and through the reversing valve 920 into hot in the third stage cooling mode. Hot compressed refrig
the accumulator 919 and thence to the compressor suction erant is then passed from the compressor outlet 924 through
inlet 923. line 924-1 and through the reversing valve 920 and refrig
In the second stage, solenoid valve 905-9 is actuated by erant vapor header,904 into the hot gas lines which are
means of a first pressure sensing device 930-1 placed on the upstream of closed solenoid valve 905-3. The heat pump 900
refrigerant vapor header 904 upstream of solenoid valve is allowed to reject its heat to the ground at a pressure which
905-1. When the pressure reaches a predefined point which is high enough to force liquid refrigerant through the liquid
is sufficient to override the electric signal sent by the room refrigerant lines 9031, 903-2 and 903-3, through heating
thermostat and thereby to operate the internal switch of the TX valves 908-1, 908-2, 908-3 and through open sole
pressure devices which activates and closes the loop sole 10 noids valves 905-8, 905-9 and into to the refrigerant liquid
noid valves 905-9, 905-2. Solenoid valves 905-1, 9058 are line header 906 which is connected to the inlet port 9106 of
opened and solenoid valves 903-2, 903-9 are closed. Sole the cooling TX valve 908-6. The cooling TX valve
noid valve 905-1 is opened and solenoid valve 905-2 is then 9086 is allowed to meter the correct amount of liquid
closed to allow hot gas to flow to loops 901-1, 901-2. refrigerant into the air evaporator 914 by indirect connection
Heating TX valves 908-1, 908-2 are maintained open by 15 of its equalizer tube to the common suction line 925-1 ahead
indirect connection of their respective equalizer tubes to the of the accumulator 919 and by connection of its controlling
common suction line 925 upstream of the accumulator 919, bulb 912-6 a short distance from the refrigerant vapor outlet
and by connection of their respective controller bulbs 912-1, 915. Finally, warmed refrigerant gas is withdrawn from the
912-2 to vapor lines 902-1, 902-2 of loops 901-1, 901-2, air evaporator 914 into the suction line 913 and through the
respectively, which are hot in this second stage cooling 20 reversing valve 920 into the accumulator 919 and thence to
mode. Hot compressed refrigerant is passed from the com the compressor suction inlet 923.
pressor outlet 924 through line 924-1 and through the
reversing valve 920 and refrigerant vapor header 904 into Operation of the Preferred Embodiment of the
the hot gas lines 902-1, 902-2 of loops 901-1, 901-2 which Invention of FIG. 11 in the Heating Mode
are upstream of closed solenoid valve 905-2. The heat pump 25
900 is allowed to reject its heat to the ground at a pressure In the heating mode, using the described heating mode
which is high enough to force liquid refrigerant through the technique is as follows: All solenoid valves 1105-1, 1105-2,
liquid refrigerant lines 903-1, 903-2 of loops 901-1, 901-2, 1105-9 are initially allowed to be in their normally open state
through heating TX valves 908-1, 908-2 and into the and all circuits are active. The cooling TX valve 1108-6 is
refrigerant liquid line header 906 which is connected to the 30 maintained fully open by indirect connection of its equalizer
inlet port 910-6 of the cooling TX valve 9086. Liquid line tube to the common suction line 1125-1 upstream of the
solenoid valve 905-9 is closed, thereby preventing liquid accumulator 1119 and through connection of its controlling
refrigerant from entering loop 901-3 which is downstream of bulb 1112-6 to the refrigerant vapor line 1113 of the refrig
the solenoid valve 905-9. Residual liquid refrigerant is erant/air condenser 1114 which is hot in the heating mode.
evaporated and scavenged from the liquid refrigerant lines 35 Liquid refrigerant is allowed to flow into the refrigerant
which are downstream of the refrigerant vapor header sole liquid line header 1106 directly to heating TX valve
noid valve 905-2, through solenoid valve 905-3 via scaven 11086 and through solenoid valve 1105-9 to heating TX
ger line 918 to the accumulator 919 and then to the com valve 1108-2. The heating TX valves 1108-1, 1108-2 are
pressor 922. The cooling TX valve 908-6 is allowed to allowed to meter liquid refrigerant down each of the two
meter the correct amount of liquid refrigerant into the air loops 1101-1, 1101-2 by way of the signal of the respective
evaporator 914 by virtue of the indirect connection of its controller bulbs 1112-1, 1112-2. Vaporized refrigerant is
equalizer tube to the common suction line 925-1 which is allowed to flow upwardly in each of the suction lines 1102-1,
upstream of the accumulator 919 and by connection of its 1102-2 to the refrigerant vapor header 1104, through open
controlling bulb 912-6 a short distance from the refrigerant solenoid valves 1105-1, 1105-2, through the reversing valve
vapor outlet 915. Finally, warmed refrigerant gas is with 45 1120 and thence to the accumulator 1119 and to the com
drawn from the air evaporator 914 into the suction line 913 pressor 1122. Compressed refrigerant gas is allowed to flow
and through the reversing valve 920 into the accumulator from the compressor 1122 through the reversing valve 1120
919 and thence to the suction inlet 723 of the compressor to the refrigerant/air condenser coil 1114. Finally, liquid
922. refrigerant is withdrawn from the refrigerant/air condenser
In the third stage, all solenoid valves 905-1,905-2,905-3, 50 coil 1114 through refrigerant liquid line header 1106.
905-4,9055 and individual loop connections 901-1, 901-2,
9013 to the header 904 are actuated by a second pressure Operation of the Preferred Embodiment of the
sensing device 930-2 placed on the refrigerant vapor header Invention of FIG. 12 in the Cooling Mode
904 upstream thereof, until the pressure reaches a predefined
point sufficient to override the electric signal sent by the 55 The cooling mode using the described staged condenser
room thermostat and by the first pressure sensing device cooling mode technique in this embodiment of the invention
930-1, and thereby to operate the internal switch of the is in two stages as follows:
pressure devices which activates the loop solenoid valves by In the first stage, initial activation is accomplished by an
allowing solenoid valves 9051, 905-2, 905-8, 905-9 to be electric signal from the room thermostat which instructs the
open while closing solenoid valve 905-3. Solenoid valves 60 DX heat pump to be placed in cooling mode. Solenoid
905-1, 905-2 are open to allow hot gas to flow to loops valves 1105-1, 1105-9 are closed and solenoid valve 11052
901-1, 901-2, 901-3. Heating TX valves 908-1, 908-2, is opened. Since solenoid valve 1105-1 is closed, hot refrig
908-3 are maintained open by indirect connection of their erant vapor is allowed to enter only loop 1101-1. Heating
respective equalizer tubes to the common suction line 925-1 TX valve 1108-1 is maintained open by indirect connec
ahead of the accumulator 919, and by connection of their 65 tion of its equalizer tube to the common suction line 1125-1
respective controller bulbs to the vapor lines 902-1, 902-2, ahead of the accumulator 1119, and by connection of its
902-3 of loops 901-1, 901-2, 901-3 respectively which are controller bulb 1112-1 to the vapor line 1102-1 of first loop
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1101-1 which is hot in the cooling mode. Hot compressed All solenoid valves 13051, 1305-2, 1305-3, 1305-4, 1305
refrigerant is passed from the compressor outlet 1124 7, 1305-8, 1305-9 are initially allowed to be in their nor
through the reversing valve 1120 and into the hot gas header mally open state, and all circuits are active. The cooling
1104 which is downstream of closed Solenoid valve 1105-1. TX valve 1308-6 is maintained fully open by indirect
The heat pump 1100 is allowed to reject its heat to the connection of its equalizer tube to the common suction line
ground at a pressure which is high enough to force liquid 1325-1 upstream of the accumulator 1319 and through
refrigerant through the liquid refrigerant line 1103-1 and connection of its controlling bulb 1312-6 to the refrigerant
through heating TX valve 1108-1 into the refrigerant vapor connection 1313 of the refrigerant/air condenser 1314
liquid line header 1106 connected to the inlet port 1110-6 of which is hot in the heating mode. Liquid refrigerant is
the cooling TX valve 11086. Liquid line solenoid valve 10 allowed to flow into the refrigerant liquid line header 1306
1105-9 is closed, thereby preventing liquid refrigerant from directly to heating TX valve 1308-1 and through solenoid
entering loop 1101-2 which is downstream of the solenoid valves 1305-7, 1305-8, 1305-9 to heating TX valves
valve 1105-9. Residual liquid refrigerant is evaporated and
scavenged from the liquid refrigerant line which is down 1308-2, 1308-3, 1308-4, respectively. The heating TX
stream of the refrigerant vapor header solenoid valve 1105 15 valves 1308-1, 1308-2, 1308-3, 1308-4 are allowed to meter
1, through solenoid valve 11052 via scavenger line 1118 to liquid refrigerant down each of the four loops 1303-1,
the accumulator 1119 and then to the compressor 1122. The 1303-2, 1303-3, 1303-4 by way of the signal of the respec
cooling TX valve 1108-6 is allowed to meter the correct tive controller bulbs 1312-1, 13122, 1312-3, 1312-4. Vapor
amount of liquid refrigerant into the air evaporator 1114 by ized refrigerant is allowed to flow upwardly in each of the
indirect connection of its equalizer tube to the common suction lines 13021, 1302-2, 13023, 1302-4 to the refrig
suction line 1125 ahead of the accumulator 1119, and by 20 erant vapor header 1304, through open solenoid valves
connection of its controlling bulb 1112-6 a short distance 13051, 1305-2, 1305-3, 1305-4, through the reversing valve
from the refrigerant vapor outlet 1115. Finally, warmed 1320 and thence to the accumulator 1319 and to the com
refrigerant gas is withdrawn from the air evaporator 1114 pressor 1322. Compressed refrigerant gas is allowed to flow
into the suction line 1113 and through the reversing valve from the compressor 1322 through the reversing valve 1320
1120 into the accumulator 1119 and thence to the suction 25 to the refrigerant/air condenser coil 1314. Finally, liquid
inlet 1127 of the compressor 1122. refrigerant is withdrawn from the refrigerant/air condenser
In the second stage, solenoid valves 1105-1, 1105-2, coil 1314 through refrigerant liquid line header 1306.
1105-9 and individual loop connections 1101-1, 1101-2 to
the header 1104 are actuated by pressure sensing device Operation of the Preferred Embodiment of the
1130-1 placed on the refrigerant vapor header 1104, until the 30
Invention of FIG. 14 in the Cooling Mode
pressure reaches a predefined point sufficient to override the
electric signal sent by the room thermostat and thereby to The cooling mode using the described staged condenser
operate the internal switch of the pressure devices which cooling mode technique of this embodiment of the invention
activates the loop solenoid valves by allowing solenoid is in four stages as follows:
valves 1105-1, 1105-9 to be open while closing solenoid
valve 1105-2. Solenoid valve 1105-1 is open to allow hot gas 35 In the first stage, initial activation is accomplished by an
to flow to loops 1101-1, 1101-2. Heating TX valves electric signal from the room thermostat which instructs the
1108-1, 1108-2 are maintained open by indirect connection DX heat pump to be placed in cooling mode. Solenoid
of their respective equalizer tubes to the common suction valves 1305-1, 1305-7 are closed and solenoid valves 1305
line 11251 ahead of the accumulator 1119, and by connec 2, 1305-3, 1305-4, 1305-8, 1305-9 are opened. Since sole
tion of their respective controller bulbs to the vapor lines noid valve 1305-1 is closed, hot refrigerant vapor is allowed
1102-1, 1102-2 of loops 1101-1, 1101-2 which are hot in this to enter only first loop 1301-1. Heating TX valve 1308-1
cooling mode. Hot compressed refrigerant is then passed is maintained open by indirect connection of its equalizer
from the compressor outlet 1125 through the reversing valve tube to the common suction line 13251 ahead of the
1120 and refrigerant vapor header 1104 into the hot gas lines accumulator 1319, and by connection of its controller bulb
which are upstream of closed solenoid valve 1105-2. The 45 1312-1 to the vapor line 13021 of loop 1301-1 which is hot
heat pump 1100 is allowed to reject its heat to the ground at in the cooling mode. Hot compressed refrigerant is passed
a pressure which is high enough to force liquid refrigerant from the compressor outlet 1324 through the reversing valve
through the liquid refrigerant lines 1103-1, 1103-2, through 1320 and into the hot gas line 1304 which is upstream of
heating TX valves 1108-1, 1108-3 and through open closed solenoid valve 1305-1. The heat pump 1300 is
solenoid valve 11052, and on to the refrigerant liquid line 50 allowed to reject its heat to the ground at a pressure which
header 1106 which is connected to the inlet port 1110-4 of is high enough to force liquid refrigerant through the liquid
the cooling TX valve 11086. The cooling TX valve refrigerant line 1303-1 and through heating TX valve
11086 is allowed to meter the correct amount of liquid 1308-1 and into the refrigerant liquid line header 1306
refrigerant into the air evaporator 1114 by indirect connec connected to the inlet port 1310-6 of the cooling TX valve
tion of its equalizer tube 1107 to the common suction line 55 13086. Liquid line solenoid valves. 1305-1, 1305-7 are
1125-1 ahead of the accumulator 1119 and by connection of closed, thereby preventing liquid refrigerant from entering
its controlling bulb 1112-6 a short distance from the refrig the three loops 1303-2, 1303-3, 1303-4 which are down
erant vapor outlet 1115. Finally, warmed refrigerant gas is stream of such solenoid valves. Residual liquid refrigerant is
withdrawn from the air evaporator 1114 into the suction line evaporated and scavenged from the liquid refrigerant lines
1113 and through the reversing valve 1120 into the accu which are downstream of the refrigerant vapor header sole
mulator 1119 and thence to the suction inlet 1127 of the noid valve 1305-1, through solenoid valves 1305-2, 1305-3,
compressor 1122. 1305-4 via scavenger line 1318 to the accumulator 1319 and
Operation of the Preferred Embodiment of the then to the compressor 1322. The cooling TX valve
Invention of FIG. 13 in the Heating Mode 1308-6 is allowed to meter the correct amount of liquid
65 refrigerant into the air evaporator 1314 by indirect connec
The heating mode using the described heating mode tion of its equalizer tube to the common suction line 1325-1
technique of this embodiment of the invention is as follows: ahead of the accumulator 1319 and by connection of its
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controlling bulb 1312-6 a short distance from the refrigerant to flow to loops 1301-1, 1301-2, 1301-3. Heating TX
vapor outlet 1315. Finally, warmed refrigerant gas is with valves 1308-1, 1308-2, 1308-3 are maintained open by
drawn from the air evaporator 1314 into the suction line indirect connection of their respective equalizer tubes to the
1313 and through the reversing valve 1320 into the accu common Suction line 1325-1 ahead of the accumulator 1319,
mulator 1319 and thence to the Suction inlet 1323 of and by connection of their respective controller bulbs 1312
compressor 1322. 1, 1312-2, 1312-3 to the vapor lines 13021, 1302-2, 1302-3
In the second stage, all solenoid valves 1305-1, 1305-2, of loops 1301-1, 1301-2, 1301-3 which are hot in this
1305-3, 1305-4, 1305-5, 1305-7, 1305-8, 1305-9 and indi cooling mode. Hot compressed refrigerant is then passed
vidual loop connections 1301-1, 1301-2, 1301-3, 1301-4 to from the compressor outlet 1324 through the reversing valve
the header 1304 are controlled by means of a first pressure 10 1320 and refrigerant vapor header 1304 into the hot gas lines
sensing device 1330-1 placed on the refrigerant vapor which are upstream of closed solenoid valve 1305-3. The
header 1304 upstream of solenoid valve 1305-1 until the heat pump 1300 is allowed to reject its heat to the ground at
pressure reaches a predefined point which is sufficient to a pressure which is high enough to force liquid refrigerant
override the electric signal sent by the room thermostat and through the liquid refrigerant lines 1303-1, 1303-2, 1303-3,
thereby to operate the internal switch of the pressure devices 15 through heating TX valves 1308-1, 1308-2, 1308-3, and
which activates the loop solenoid valves 1305-2, 1305-8. through open solenoid valves 1305-7, 1305-8 and on to the
Solenoid valves 13051, 1305-3, 1305-4, 1305-7, 1305-9 are refrigerant liquid line header 1306 which is connected to the
opened and solenoid valves 1303-2, 1303-8 are closed. inlet port 1310-6 of the cooling TX valve 13086.
Solenoid valve 1305-1 is opened and solenoid valve 1305-2 Residual liquid refrigerant is evaporated and scavenged
is closed to allow hot gas to flow to loops 1301-1, 1301-2. 20 from the liquid refrigerant lines which are downstream of
Heating TX valves 1308-1, 1308-2 are maintained open the refrigerant vapor header solenoid valve 1305-3, through
by indirect connection of their respective equalizer tubes to solenoid valve 1305-4 via scavenger line 1318 to the accu
the common suction line 13251 upstream of the accumu mulator 1319 and then to the compressor 1322. The cooling
lator 1319, and by connection of their respective controller TX valve 1308-6 is allowed to meter the correct amount
bulbs 1312-1, 1312-2 to vapor lines 13021, 1302-2 of loops 25 of liquid refrigerant into the air evaporator 1314 by indirect
1301-1, 1301-2, respectively, which are hot in this cooling connection of its equalizer tube to the common suction line
mode. Hot compressed refrigerant is passed from the com 1325-1 ahead of the accumulator 1319 and by connection of
pressor outlet 1324 through the reversing valve 1320 and its controlling bulb 1312-6 a short distance from the refrig
refrigerant vapor header 1304 into the hot gas lines 1302-1, erant vapor outlet 1315. Finally, warmed refrigerant gas is
1302-2 which are upstream of closed solenoid valve 1305-2. 30 withdrawn from the air evaporator 1314 into the suction line
The heat pump 1300 is allowed to reject its heat to the 1313 and through the reversing valve 1320 into the accu
ground at a pressure which is high enough to force liquid mulator 1319 and thence to the Suction inlet 1323 of
refrigerant through the liquid refrigerant lines 1303-1, compressor 1324.
1303-2 through heating TX valves 1308-1, 1308-2 and In the fourth stage, all solenoid valves 13051, 1305-2,
into the refrigerant liquid line header 1306 which is con 35 1305-3, 1305-4, 1305-5, 1305-7, 1305-8, 1305-9 and indi
nected to the inlet port 1310-6 of the cooling TX valve vidual loop connections 1301-1, 1301-2, 1301-3, 1301-4 to
13086. Liquid line solenoid valve 1305-8 is closed, thereby the header 1304 are controlled by a third pressure sensing
preventing liquid refrigerant from entering loops 1301-3, device 13303 placed in the refrigerant vapor header 1304,
1301-4 which are downstream of the Solenoid valve 1305-8. until the pressure reaches a predefined point sufficient to
Residual liquid refrigerant is evaporated and scavenged 40 override the electric signal sent by the room thermostat and
from the liquid refrigerant lines which are downstream of by the first and second pressure sensing devices 1330-1,
the refrigerant vapor header solenoid valve 1305-2, through 1330-2 and thereby to operate the internal switch of the
solenoid valves 1305-3, 1305-4, via scavenger line 1318 to pressure devices which activates the loop solenoid valves by
the accumulator 1319 and then to the compressor 1322. The allowing solenoid valves 1305-1, 1305-2, 1305-3, 1305-7,
cooling TX valve 1308-6 is allowed to meter the correct 45 1305-8, 1305-9 to be open while closing solenoid valve
amount of liquid refrigerant into the air evaporator 1314 by 1305-4. Solenoid valves 1305-1, 1305-2, 1305-3 are open to
virtue of the indirect connection of its equalizer tube to the allow hot gas to flow to loops 1301-1, 1301-2, 1301-3,
common suction line 1325-1 which is upstream of the 1301-4. Heating TX valves 1305-1, 1305-2, 1305-3,
accumulator 1319, and by connection of its controlling bulb 1305-4 are maintained open by indirect connection of their
1312-6 a short distance from the refrigerant vapor outlet 50 respective equalizer tubes to the common suction line
1315. Finally, warmed refrigerant gas is withdrawn from the 1325-1 ahead of the accumulator 1319, and by connection of
air evaporator into the suction line 1313 and through the their respective controller bulbs 1312-1, 1312-2, 1312-3,
reversing valve 1320 into the accumulator 1319 and thence 1312-4, to the vapor lines 1302-1, 1302-2, 1302-3, 1302-4 of
to the suction inlet 1323 of compressor 1322. loops 1301-1, 1301-2, 1301-3, 1301-4 which are hot in this
In the third stage, all solenoid valves 1305-1, 1305-2, 55 cooling mode. Hot compressed refrigerant is then passed
1305-3, 1305-4, 1305-5, 1305-7, 1305-8, 1305-9 and indi from the compressor outlet 1324 through the reversing valve
vidual loop connections 1301-1, 1301-2, 1301-3, 1301-4 to 1320 and refrigerant vapor header 1304 into the hot gas lines
the header 1304 are controlled by a second pressure sensing which are upstream of closed solenoid valve 1305-4. The
device 1330-2 placed in the refrigerant vapor header 1304, heat pump 1300 is allowed to reject its heat to the ground at
until the pressure reaches a predefined point sufficient to a pressure which is high enough to force liquid refrigerant
override the electric signal sent by the room thermostat and through the liquid refrigerant lines 1303-1, 1303-2, 1303-3,
by the first pressure sensing device 1330-1, and thereby to 1303-4, through heating TX valves 1308-1, 1308-2, 1308
operate the internal switch of the pressure devices which 3, 1308-4 and through open solenoid valves 1305-7, 1305-8,
activates the loop solenoid valves by allowing solenoid 1305-9 and into the refrigerant liquid line header 1306
valves 1305-1, 1305-2, 1305-4, 1305-5, 1305-7, 1305-8 to 65 which is connected to the inlet port 1310-6 of the cooling
be open while closing solenoid valves 1305-3, 1305-9. TX valve 1308-6. The cooling TX valve 1308-6 is
Solenoid valves 13051, 1305-2, are open to allow hot gas allowed to meter the correct amount of liquid refrigerant into
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the air evaporator 1314 by indirect connection of its equal refrigerant through the liquid refrigerant line 1503-1, and
izer tube to the common suction line 1325-1 ahead of the through heating TX valve 1508-1 and into the refrigerant
accumulator 1319, and by connection of its controlling bulb liquid line header 1510-6 connected to the inlet port 1509-6
1312-6 a short distance from the refrigerant vapor outlet of the cooling TX valve 15086. Liquid line solenoid
1315. Finally, warmed refrigerant gas is withdrawn from the valve 1505-6 is closed, thereby preventing liquid refrigerant
air evaporator 1314 into the suction line 1313 and through from entering loops 1501-1, 1501-3, 1501-4, 1501-5 which
the reversing valve 1320 into the accumulator 1319 and are downstream of the solenoid valve 1505-6. Residual
thence to the suction inlet 1323 of the compressor 1322. liquid refrigerant is evaporated and scavenged from the
liquid refrigerant lines which are downstream of the refrig
Operation of the Preferred Embodiment of the 10 erant vapor header solenoid valve 1505-1, through solenoid
Invention of FIG. 15 in the Heating Mode valves 1505-2, 1505-3, 1505-4, 1505-5 via scavenger line
1518 to the accumulator 1519, and then to the compressor
The heating mode using the described heating mode 1522. The cooling TX valve 1508-6 is allowed to meter
technique of this embodiment of the invention is as follows: the correct amount of liquid refrigerant into the air evapo
All solenoid valves 1505-1, 1505-2, 1505-3, 1505-4, 1505 15 rator 1514 by indirect connection of its equalizer tube to the
5, 1505-6, 1505-7, 15058, 1505-9 are initially allowed to be common Suction line 15251 ahead of the accumulator 1519
in their normally open state and all circuits are active. The and by connection of its controlling bulb 1512-6 a short
cooling TX valve 1508-6 is maintained fully open by distance from the refrigerant vapor outlet 1513. Finally,
indirect connection of its equalizer tube to the common warmed refrigerant gas is withdrawn from the air evaporator
suction line 1525-1 upstream of the accumulator 1519, and 20 1514 into the suction line 1515 and through the reversing
through connection of its controlling bulb 1512-6 to the valve 1520 into the accumulator 1519 and thence to the
refrigerant vapor connection 1513 of the refrigerant/air suction inlet 1523 of the compressor 1522.
condenser 1514 which is hot in the heating mode. Liquid In the second stage, all solenoid valves 1505-1, 1505-2,
refrigerant is allowed to flow into the refrigerant liquid line 1505-3, 1505-4, 1505-5, 1505-6, 1505-7, 15058, 1505-9
header 1506 directly to heating TX valve 1508-1 and 25 and individual loop connections 1501-1, 1501-2, 1501-3,
through solenoid valves 1505-6, 1505-7, 1505-8, 1505-9 to 1501-4, 1501-5 to the header 1504 are controlled by means
heating TX valves 1508-2, 1508-3, 1508-4, 1508-5 of a first pressure sensing device 1530-1 placed in the
respectively. The heating TX valves 1508-1, 1508-2, refrigerant vapor header 1504 upstream of solenoid valve
1508-3, 1508-4, 1508-5 are allowed to meter liquid refrig 1505-1 until the pressure reaches a predefined point which
erant down each of the five loops 1501-1, 1501-2, 1501-3, 30 is sufficient to override the electric signal sent by the room
1501-4, 1501-5 by way of the signal of the respective thermostat and thereby to operate the internal switch of the
controller bulbs 1512-1, 15122, 1512-3, 15124, 1512-5. pressure devices which activates the loop solenoid valves
Vaporized refrigerant is allowed to flow upwardly in each of 1505-6. Solenoid valves 1505-1, 1505-3, 1505-4, 1505-5,
the suction lines 15021, 15022, 15023, 1502-4, 1502-5 to 1505-6, 15058, 1505-9 are open and solenoid valves 1505
the refrigerant vapor header 1504, through open solenoid 35 2, 1505-7 are closed. Solenoid valve 1505-1 is open and
valves 1505-1, 1505-2, 1505-3, 1505-4, 1505-5 through the solenoid valve 1505-2 is closed to allow hot gas to flow to
reversing valve 1520 and thence to the accumulator 1519 loops 1501-1, 1501-2. Heating TX valves 1508-1, 1508-2
and to the compressor 1522. Compressed refrigerant gas is are maintained open by indirect connection of their respec
allowed to flow from the compressor 1522 through the tive equalizer tubes to the common suction line 1525-1
reversing valve 1520 to the refrigerant/air condenser coil upstream of the accumulator 1519, and by connection of
1514. Finally, liquid refrigerant is withdrawn from the their respective controller bulbs 15121, 1512-2 to vapor
refrigerant/air condenser coil 1514 through refrigerant liquid lines 15021, 1502-2 of loops 1501-1, 1501-2, respectively,
line header 1506. which are hot in this cooling mode. Hot compressed refrig
erant is passed from the compressor outlet 1524 through the
Operation of the Preferred Embodiments of the 45 reversing valve 1520 and refrigerant vapor header 1504 into
Invention of FIG. 16 in the Cooling Mode the hot gas lines 15021, 15022 which are upstream of
The cooling mode using the described staged condenser
closed solenoid valve 1505-2. The heat pump 1500 is
allowed to reject its heat to the ground at a pressure which
cooling mode technique of this embodiment of the invention is high enough to force liquid refrigerant through the liquid
is in five stages as follows: 50 refrigerant lines 1503-1, 1503-2, through heating TX
In the first stage, initial activation is accomplished by an valves 1508-1, 1508-2 and into the refrigerant liquid line
electric signal from the room thermostat which instructs the header 1506 which is connected to the inlet port 1510-6 of
DX heat pump to be placed in cooling mode. Solenoid the cooling TX valve 15086. Liquid line solenoid valve
valves 1505-1, 1505-6 are closed while solenoid valves 1505-7 is closed, thereby preventing liquid refrigerant from
1505-2, 1505-3, 1505-4, 1505-5, 1505-7, 15058, 1505-9 are 55 entering loops 1501-3, 1501-4, 1501-5 which are down
opened. Since solenoid valve 1505-1 is closed, hot refrig stream of the solenoid valve 1505-7. Residual liquid refrig
erant vapor is allowed to enter only first loop 1501-1. erant is evaporated and scavenged from the liquid refrigerant
Heating TX valve 1508-1 is maintained open by indirect lines which are downstream of the refrigerant vapor header
connection of its equalizer tube to the common suction line solenoid valve 1505-2, through solenoid valves 1505-3,
1525-1 ahead of the accumulator 1519, and by connection of 60 1505-4, 1505-5 via scavenger line 1518 to the accumulator
its controller bulb 1512-1 to the vapor line 15021 of first 1519 and then to the compressor 1522. The cooling TX
loop 1501-1 which is hot in the cooling mode. Hot com valve 1508-6 is allowed to meter the correct amount of
pressed refrigerant is passed from the compressor outlet liquid refrigerant into the air evaporator 1514 by virtue of
1524 through the reversing valve 1520 and into the hot gas the indirect connection of its equalizer tube to the common
line 1504 which is upstream of closed solenoid valve 65 suction line 1525-1 which is upstream of the accumulator
1505-1. The heat pump 1500 is allowed to reject its heat to 1519, and by connection of its controlling bulb 1512-6 a
the ground at a pressure which is high enough to force liquid short distance from the refrigerant vapor outlet 1515.
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Finally, warmed refrigerant gas is withdrawn from the air indirect connection of their respective equalizer tubes to the
evaporator 1514 into the suction line 1513 and through the common suction line 1525-1 ahead of the accumulator 1519,
reversing valve 1520 into the accumulator 1519 and thence and by connection of their respective controller bulbs 1512
to the suction inlet 1523 of the compressor 1522. 1, 1512-2, 1512-3, 15124 to the vapor lines 15021, 1502-2,
In the third stage, all solenoid valves 1505-1, 1505-2, 1502-3, 1502-4 of loops 1501-1, 1501-2, 1501-3, 1501-4
1505-3, 1505-4, 1505-5, 1505-6, 1505-7, 15058, 1505-9 which are hot in this cooling mode. Hot compressed refrig
and individual loop connections 1501-1, 1501-2, 1501-3, erant is then passed from the compressor outlet 1525
1501-4, 1501-5 to the header 1504 are controlled by a through the reversing valve 1520 and refrigerant vapor
second pressure sensing device 1530-2 placed in the refrig header 1504 into the hot gas lines which are upstream of
erant vapor header 1504, until the pressure reaches a pre 10 closed solenoid valve 1505-4. The heat pump 1500 is
defined point sufficient to override the electric signal sent by allowed to reject its heat to the ground at a pressure which
the room thermostat and by the first pressure sensing device is high enough to force liquid refrigerant through the liquid
1530-1 and thereby to operate the internal switch of the refrigerant lines 1503-1, 1503-2, 1503-3, 1503-4, through
pressure devices which activates the loop solenoid valves by heating TX valves 1508-1, 1508-2, 1508-3, 1508-4, and
allowing solenoid valves 1505-1, 1505-2, 1505-4, 1505-5, 15 through open solenoids valves 1505-6, 1505-7, 15058, and
1505-6, 1505-7, 1505-9 to be open while closing solenoid into the refrigerant liquid line header 1506 which is con
valves 1505-3, 1505-8. Solenoid valves 1505-1, 1505-2 are nected to the inlet port 1510-6 of the cooling TX valve
open to allow hot gas to flow to loops 1501-1, 1501-2, 15086. Residual liquid refrigerant is evaporated and scav
1501-3. Heating TX valves 1505-1, 1505-2, 1505-3 are enged from the liquid refrigerant lines which are down
maintained open by indirect connection of their respective 20 stream of the refrigerant vapor header solenoid valve 1505
equalizer tubes to the common suction line 1525-1 ahead of 4, through solenoid valve 1505-5 via scavenger line 1518 to
the accumulator 1519 and by connection of their respective the accumulator 1519 and then to the compressor 1522. The
controller bulbs 1512-1, 1512-2, 1512-3 to the vapor lines cooling TX valve 1508-6 is allowed to meter the correct
15021, 1502-2, 1502-3 of loops 1501-1, 1501-2, 1501-3, amount of liquid refrigerant into the air evaporator 1514 by
which are hot in this cooling mode. Hot compressed refrig 25 indirect connection of its equalizer tube to the common
erant is then passed from the compressor outlet 1525 suction line 1525-1 ahead of the accumulator 1519 and by
through the reversing valve 1520 and refrigerant vapor connection of its controlling bulb 1512-6 a short distance
header 1504 into the hot gas lines which are upstream of from the refrigerant vapor outlet 1515. Finally, warmed
closed solenoid valve 1505-3. The heat pump 1500 is refrigerant gas is withdrawn from the air evaporator 1514
allowed to reject its heat to the ground at a pressure which 30 into the suction line 1513 and through the reversing valve
is high enough to force liquid refrigerant through the liquid 1520 into the accumulator 1519 and thence to the Suction
refrigerant lines 1503-1, 1503-2, 1503-3, through heating inlet 1523 of the compressor 1522.
TX valves 1508-1, 1508-2, 1508-3, and through open In the fifth stage, all solenoid valves 1505-1, 1505-2,
solenoids valves 1505-6, 1505-7 and into the refrigerant 1505-3, 1505-4, 1505-5, 1505-6, 1505-7, 15058, 1505-9
liquid line header 1506 which is connected to the inlet port 35 and individual loop connections 1501-1, 1501-2, 1501-3,
1510-6 of the cooling TX valve 15086. Residual liquid 1501-4, 1501-5 to the header 1504 are controlled by a fourth
refrigerant is evaporated and scavenged from the liquid pressure sensing device 1530-4 placed in the refrigerant
refrigerant lines which are downstream of the refrigerant vapor header 1504, until the pressure reaches a predefined
vapor header solenoid valve 1505-3, through solenoid point sufficient to override the electric signal sent by the
valves 1505-4, 1505-5 via scavenger line 918 to the accu room thermostat and the first, second and third pressure
mulator 919 and then to the compressor 922. The cooling sensing devices 1530-1, 1530-2, 1530-3 and thereby to
TX valve 15086 is allowed to meter the correct amount operate the internal switch of the pressure devices which
of liquid refrigerant into the air evaporator 1514 by indirect activates the loop solenoid valves by allowing solenoid
connection of its equalizer tube to the common suction line valves 1505-1, 1505-2, 1505-3, 1505-4, 1505-6, 1505-7,
15251 ahead of the accumulator 1519, and by connection of 45 15058, 1505-9 to be open while closing solenoid valve
its controlling bulb 1512-6 a short distance from the refrig 15055. Solenoid valves 1505-1, 15052, 15053, 1505-4 are
erant vapor outlet 1515. Finally, warmed refrigerant gas is open to allow hot gas to flow to loops 1501-1, 1501-2,
withdrawn from the air evaporator 1514 into the suction line 1501-3, 1501-4, 1501-5. Heating TX valves 1505-1, 1505
1513 and through the reversing valve 1520 into the accu 2, 1505-3, 1505-4, 1505-5 are maintained open by indirect
mulator 1519 and thence to the Suction inlet 1523 of the 50 connection of their respective equalizer tubes to the common
compressor 1522. suction line 1525-1 ahead of the accumulator 1519 and by
In the fourth stage, all solenoid valves 1505-1, 1505-2, connection of their respective controller bulbs 1512-1, 1512
1505-3, 1505-4, 15055, 1505-6, 1505-7, 15058, 1505-9 2, 1512-3, 1512-4, 1512-5 to the vapor lines 1502-1, 1502-2,
and individual loop connections 1501-1, 1501-2, 1501-3, 1502-3, 1502-4, 1502-5 of loops 1501-1, 1501-2, 1501-3,
1501-4, 1501-5 to the header 1504 are controlled by a third 55 1501-4, 1501-5 which are hot in this cooling mode. Hot
pressure sensing device 1530-3 placed in the refrigerant compressed refrigerant is then passed from the compressor
vapor header 1504, until the pressure reaches a predefined outlet 1525 through the reversing valve 1520 and refrigerant
point sufficient to override the electric signal sent by the vapor header 1504 into the hot gas lines which are upstream .
room thermostat and by the first and second pressure sensing of closed solenoid valve 15055. The heat pump 1500 is
device 1530-1, 1530-2 and thereby to operate the internal allowed to reject its heat to the ground at a pressure which
switch of the pressure devices which activates the loop is high enough to force liquid refrigerant through the liquid
solenoid valves by allowing solenoid valves 1505-1, 1505-2, refrigerant lines 1503-1, 1503-2, 1503-3, 1503-4, 15035,
1505-3, 1505-5, 1505-6, 1505-7, 15058 to be open while through heating TX valves 1508-1,1508-2, 1508-3, 1508
closing solenoid valves 1505-4, 1505-9. Solenoid valves 4, 1508-5 and through open solenoids valves 1505-6, 1505
1505-1, 1505-2, 1505-3 are open to allow hot gas to flow to 65 7, 15058, 1505-9 and into the refrigerant liquid line header
loops 1501-1, 1501-2, 1501-3, 1501-4. Heating TX valves 1506 which is connected to the inlet port 1510-6 of the
1505-1, 1505-2, 1505-3, 1505-4 are maintained open by cooling TX valve 15086. The cooling TX valve 1508-6
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43 44
is allowed to meter the correct amount of liquid refrigerant each said loop being adapted to be buried underground
into the air evaporator 1514 by indirect connection of its in heat exchange relationship with the earth;
equalizer tube to the common suction line 1525 ahead of the b) a refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each
accumulator 1519 and by connection of its controlling bulb of said two suction?hot gas lines, said refrigerant vapor
1512-6 a short distance from the refrigerant vapor outlet 5 header being provided with a first solenoid valve posi
1515. Finally, warmed refrigerant gas is withdrawn from the tioned between the junction of said suction/hot gas line
air evaporator 1514 into the suction line 1513 and through of said first said loop with said refrigerant vapor header
the reversing valve 1520 into the accumulator 1519 and and the junction of said suction/hot gas line of said
thence to the suction inlet 1523 of compressor 1522. second said loop with said refrigerant vapor header and
10 a second solenoid valve positioned remote from the
CONCLUSION junction of said suction/hot gas line of said second said
loop with said refrigerant vapor header;
From the foregoing description, one skilled in the art can c) a refrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling
easily ascertain the essential characteristics of this invention, thermostatic expansion valve, said refrigerant liquid
and without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, can 15 line header further being provided with a first solenoid
make various changes and modifications of the invention to valve positioned between the junction of the liquid line
adapt it to various usages and conditions. Consequently, of said first said loop with said refrigerant liquid line
such changes and modifications are properly, equitably, and header and the junction of said liquid line of said
intended to be, within the full range of equivalence of the second said loop with said refrigerant liquid line
following claims. 20 header;
I claim:
1. A loop system for use in combination with a direct d) a first connecting line and a second connecting line
expansion heat pump system comprising: connecting said cooling thermostatic expansion valve
a) at least two loops, each of a first said loop, and at least to an associated one of said liquid line of said first said
a second said loop including a suction?hot gas line and loop and said liquid line of said second said loop,
25 respectively;
a liquid line, each said loop being adapted to be buried e) a first heating expansion valve operatively associated
underground in heat exchange relationship with the
earth; with said first connecting said line and a second heating
b) a refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each expansion valve operatively associated with said sec
of said at least two suction?hot gas lines, said refriger ond said connecting line;
30
ant vapor header being provided with a first solenoid f) one solenoid valve operatively associated with said
valve positioned between the junction of said suction/ refrigerant liquid line header and also operatively asso
hot gas line of said first said loop with said refrigerant ciated with said second said connecting line; and
vapor header and the junction of said suction/hot gas g) one pressure sensing device operatively associated with
line of said at least second said loop with said refrig 35 said refrigerant vapor header.
erant vapor header and at least a second solenoid valve 3. The loop system of claim 2 including an accumulator,
positioned remote from the junction of said suction/hot and a scavenging line connected between said refrigerant
gas line of said at least second said loop with said vapor header and said accumulator.
refrigerant vapor header; 4. The loop system of claim 3 including: a compressor
c) arefrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling 40 connected to said accumulator, said compressor being selec
thermostatic expansion valve, said refrigerant liquid tively connected to said refrigerant liquid line header or to
line header further being provided with a first solenoid said refrigerant vapor header.
valve positioned between the junction of the liquid line 5. The loop system of claim 4 including a reversing valve,
of said first said loop with said refrigerant liquid line which is selectively actuatable to effect said selected con
header and the junction of said liquid line of said at 45 nection of said compressor to said refrigerant liquid line
least second said loop with said refrigerant liquid line header and to said refrigerant vapor header.
header; 6. The loop system of claim 5 including an air/refrigerant
d) a first connecting line and at least a second connecting heat exchanger coil interposed between said refrigerant
line connecting said cooling thermostatic expansion liquid line header and said refrigerant vapor header.
valve to an associated one of said liquid line of said first 50 7. A loop system for use in combination with a direct
expansion heat pump system comprising:
said loop and said liquid line of said at least second said
loop; a) three loops, each of a first said loop, a second said loop
e) a first heating expansion valve operatively associated and a third said loop including a suction/hot gas line
with said first said connecting line and at least a second and a liquid line, each said loop being adapted to be
heating expansion valve operatively associated with . 55 buried underground in heat exchange relationship with
the earth;
said at least second said connecting line; b) a refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each
f) at least one solenoid valve operatively associated with of said three suction?hot gas lines, said refrigerant
said refrigerant liquid line header and also operatively vapor header being provided with a first solenoid valve
associated with said at least second said connecting 60 positioned between the junction of said suction?hot gas
line; and line of said first said loop with said refrigerant vapor
g) at least one pressure sensing device operatively asso header and the junction of said suction?hot gas line of
ciated with said refrigerant vapor header. said second said loop with said refrigerant vapor
2. A loop system for use in combination with a direct header, a second solenoid valve positioned between the
expansion heat pump system comprising: 65 junction of said suction/hot gas line of said second said
a) two loops, each of a first said loop, and a second said loop with said refrigerant vapor header and the junction
loop including a suction/hot gas line and a liquid line, of said suction/hot gas line of said third said loop with
5,564,282
45 46
said refrigerant vapor header and a third solenoid valve loop with said refrigerant vapor header and the junction
situated remote from the junction of said suction?hot of said suction/hot gas line of said third loop with said
gas line of said third said loop with said refrigerant refrigerant vapor header, a third solenoid valve posi
vapor header; tioned between the junction of said suction/hot gas line
c) a refrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling of said third said loop with said refrigerant vapor
thermostatic expansion valve, said refrigerant liquid header and the junction of said suction?hot gas line of
line header further being provided with a first solenoid said fourth said loop with said refrigerant vapor header,
valve positioned between the junction of the liquid line and a fourth solenoid valve situated remote from the
of said first said loop with said refrigerant liquid line junction of said suction?hot gas line of said fourth said
header and the junction of said liquid line of said 10 loop with said refrigerant vapor header;
second said loop with said refrigerant liquid line c) a refrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling
header, and a second solenoid valve positioned between thermostatic expansion valve, said refrigerant liquid
the junction of the liquid line of said second said loop line header further being provided with a first solenoid
with said refrigerant liquid line header and the junction valve positioned between the junction of said liquid
of said liquid line of said third said loop with said 15 line of said first said loop with said refrigerant liquid
refrigerant liquid line header; line header and the junction of said liquid line of said
d) a first connecting line, a second connecting line and a second said loop with said refrigerant liquid line
third connecting line connecting said cooling thermo header, a second solenoid valve positioned between the
static expansion valve to an associated one of said junction of said liquid line of said second said loop with
liquid line of said first said loop, said liquid line of said 20 said refrigerant liquid line header and the junction of
second said loop, and said liquid line of said third said said liquid line of said third said loop with said refrig
loop, respectively; erant liquid line header, and a third solenoid valve
e) a first heating expansion valve operatively associated positioned between the junction of said liquid line of
with said first said connecting line, a second heating said third said loop with said refrigerant liquid line
expansion valve operatively associated with said sec 25 header and the junction of said liquid line of said fourth
ond said connecting line, and a third heating expansion said loop with said refrigerant liquid line header;
valve operatively associated with said third said con d) a first connecting line, a second connecting line, a third
necting line; connecting line and a fourth connecting line connecting
f) a first solenoid valve operatively associated with said 30 said cooling thermostatic expansion valve to an asso
refrigerant liquid line header and also operatively asso ciated one of said liquid line of said first said loop, said
ciated with said second said connecting line, and a liquid line of said second said loop, said liquid line of
second solenoid valve operatively associated with said said third said loop and said liquid line of said fourth
refrigerant liquid line header and also operatively asso said loop, respectively;
ciated with said third said connecting line; and e) a first heating expansion valve operatively associated
g) two pressure sensing devices, each being operatively 35 with said first connecting said line, a second heating
associated with said refrigerant vapor header. expansion valve operatively associated with said sec
8. The loop system of claim 7 including an accumulator, ond said connecting line, a third heating expansion
and a scavenging line connected between said refrigerant valve operatively associated with said third said con
vapor header and said accumulator. necting line and a fourth heating expansion valve
9. The loop system of claim 8 including: a compressor operatively associated with said fourth said connecting
connected to said accumulator, said compressor being selec line;
tively connected to said refrigerant liquid line header or to f) a first solenoid valve operatively associated with said
said refrigerant vapor header. refrigerant liquid line header and also operatively asso
10. The loop system of claim 9 including a reversing 45 ciated with said second said connecting line, a second
valve, which is selectively actuatable to effect said selected solenoid valve operatively associated with said refrig
connection of said compressor to said refrigerant liquid line erant liquid line header and also operatively associated
header and to said refrigerant vapor header. with said third said connecting line, and a third solenoid
11. The loop system of claim 10 including an air/refrig valve operatively associated with said refrigerant liquid
erantheatexchanger coil interposed between said refrigerant 50 line header and also operatively associated with said
liquid line header and said refrigerant vapor header. fourth said connecting line; and
12. A loop system for use in combination with a direct g) three pressure sensing devices, each being operatively
expansion heat pump system comprising: associated with said refrigerant vapor header.
a) four loops, each of a first said loop, a second said loop, 13. The loop system of claim 12 including an accumula
a third said loop and a fourth said loop including a 55 tor, and a scavenging line connected between said refriger
suction/hot gas line and a liquid line, each said loop
being adapted to be buried underground in heat ant14.vapor header and said accumulator.
The loop system of claim 13 including: a compressor
exchange relationship with the earth; connected to said accumulator, said compressor being selec
b) a refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each tively connected to said refrigerant liquid line header or to
of said four suction?hot gas lines, said refrigerant vapor said refrigerant vapor header.
header being provided with a first solenoid valve posi 15. The loop system of claim 14 including a reversing
tioned between said junction of said suction/hot gas valve, which is selectively actuatable to effect said selected
line of said first said loop with said refrigerant vapor connection of said compressor to said refrigerant liquid line
header and the junction of said suction?hot gas line of header and to said refrigerant vapor header.
said second said loop with said refrigerant vapor 65 16. The loop system of claim 15 including an air/refrig
header, a second solenoid valve positioned between the erantheat exchanger coil interposed between said refrigerant
junction of said suction?hot gas line of said second said liquid line header and said refrigerant vapor header.
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47 48
17. A loop system for use in combination with a direct tively associated with said fourth said connecting line
expansion heat pump system comprising: and a fifth heating expansion valve operatively associ
a) five loops, each of a first said loop, a second said loop, ated with said fifth said connecting line;
a third said loop, a fourth said loop and a fifth said loop f) a first solenoid valve operatively associated with said
including a suction/hot gas line and a liquid line, each refrigerant liquid line header and also operatively asso
said loop being adapted to be buried underground in ciated with said second said connecting line, a second
heat exchange relationship with the earth; solenoid valve operatively associated with said refrig
b) a refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each erant liquid line header and also operatively associated
of said five suction/hot gas lines, said refrigerant vapor with said third said connecting line, a third solenoid
header being provided with a first solenoid valve posi 10 valve operatively associated with said refrigerant liquid
tioned between the junction of said suction/hot gas line line header and also operatively associated with said
of said first said loop with said refrigerant vapor header fourth said connecting line and a fourth solenoid valve
and the junction of said suction?hot gas line of said operatively associated with said refrigerant liquid line
second said loop with said refrigerant vapor header, a header and also operatively associated with said fifth
second solenoid valve positioned between the junction 15 said connecting line; and
of said suction/hot gas line of said second said loop g) four pressure sensing devices, each being operatively
with said refrigerant vapor header, and the junction of associated with said refrigerant vapor header.
said suction?hot gas line of said third loop with said 18. The loop system of claim 17 including an accumula
refrigerant vapor header, a third solenoid valve posi 20
tor, and a scavenging line connected between said refriger
tioned between the junction of said suction/hot gas line ant vapor header and said accumulator.
of said third said loop with said refrigerant vapor 19. The loop system of claim 18 including: a compressor
header and the junction of said suction/hot gas line of connected to said accumulator, said compressor being selec
said fourth said loop with said refrigerant vapor header, tively connected to said refrigerant liquid line header or to
a fourth solenoid valve positioned between the junction said refrigerant vapor header.
25 20. The loop system of claim 19 including a reversing
of said suction?hot gas line of said fourth said loop with
said refrigerant vapor header and the junction of said valve, which is selectively actuatable to effect said selected
suction/hot gas line of said fifth said loop with said connection of said compressor to said refrigerant liquid line
refrigerant vapor header, and a fifth solenoid valve header and to said refrigerant vapor header.
situated remote from said junction of said suction?hot 21. The loop system of claim 20 including an air/refrig
gas line of said fifth said loop with said refrigerant 30 erantheatexchanger coil interposed between said refrigerant
vapor header; liquid line header and said refrigerant vapor header.
c) a refrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling 22. A staged cooling, direct expansion heat pump com
thermostatic expansion valve, said refrigerant liquid prising:
line header further being provided with a first solenoid 35 a) at least two loops, each of a first said loop, and at least
valve positioned between the junction of said liquid a second said loop including a suction?hot gas line and
line of said first said loop with said refrigerant liquid a liquid line, each said loop being adapted to be buried
line header and the junction of said liquid line of said underground in heat exchange relationship with the
second said loop with said refrigerant liquid line earth;
header, a second solenoid valve positioned between the b) a refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each
junction of said liquid line of said second said loop with of said at least two suction/hot gas lines, said refriger
said refrigerant liquid line header and the junction of ant vapor header being provided with a first solenoid
said liquid line of said third said loop with said refrig valve positioned between the junction of said suction/
erant liquid line header, a third solenoid valve posi hot gas line of said first said loop with said refrigerant
tioned between the junction of said liquid line of said 45 vapor header and the junction of said suction?hot gas
third said loop with said refrigerant liquid line header line of said at least second said loop with said refrig
and said junction of said liquid line of said fourth said erant vapor header and at least a second solenoid valve
loop with said refrigerant liquid line header, and a positioned remote from the junction of said suction/hot
fourth solenoid valve positioned between the junction gas line of said at least second said loop with said
of the liquid line of said fourth said loop with said 50 refrigerant vapor header;
refrigerant liquid line header and the junction of said c) a refrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling
liquid line of said fifth said loop with said refrigerant thermostatic expansion valve, said refrigerant liquid
liquid line header; line header further being provided with a first solenoid
d) a first connecting line, a second connecting line, a third valve positioned between the junction of said liquid
connecting line, a fourth connecting line connecting 55 line of said first said loop with said refrigerant liquid
line and a fifth connecting line connecting said cooling line header and the junction of said liquid line of said
thermostatic expansion valve to an associated one of at least second said loop with said refrigerant liquid line
said liquid line of said first said loop, said liquid line of header, said cooling thermostatic expansion valve
said second said loop, said liquid line of said third said being adapted to provide refrigerant metering in the
loop, said liquid line of said fourth said loop, and said 60 cooling mode, said cooling thermostatic expansion
liquid line of said fifth said loop, respectively; valve having one inlet, one outlet, an equalization port,
e) a first heating expansion valve operatively associated and a gas-filled controlling bulb;
with said first said connecting line, a second heating d) a first connecting line and at least a second connecting
expansion valve operatively associated with said sec line connecting said cooling thermostatic expansion
ond said connecting line, a third heating expansion 65 valve to an associated one of said liquid line of said first
valve operatively associated with said third said con said loop and said liquid line of said at least second said
necting line, a fourth heating expansion valve opera loop;
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49 50
e) a first heating expansion valve operatively associated header being provided with a first solenoid valve posi
with said first connecting said line and at least a second tioned between the junction of said suction/hot gas line
heating expansion valve operatively associated with of said first said loop with said refrigerant vapor header
said at least second said connecting line, and each said and the junction of said suction/hot gas line of said
heating expansion valve being adapted to provide second said loop with said refrigerant vapor header and
refrigerant metering in the heating mode, each said a second solenoid valve positioned remote from the
valve having one inlet, and one outlet, an equalization junction of said suction?hot gas line of said second said
port, and a gas-filled controlling bulb; loop with said refrigerant vapor header;
(f) capillary line means for providing a capillary tube c) a refrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling
by-pass around said cooling thermostatic expansion 10 thermostatic expansion valve, said refrigerant liquid
valve; line header further being provided with a first solenoid
(g) capillary line means for providing a capillary tube valve positioned between the junction of said liquid
bypass around said inlet and said outlet of each of said line of said first said loop with said refrigerant liquid
first and at least said second heating expansion valves; line header and the junction of said liquid line of said
(h) at least one pressure sensing device operatively asso 15 second said loop with said refrigerant liquid line
ciated with said refrigerant vapor header; header, said cooling thermostatic expansion valve
being adapted to provide refrigerant metering in the
(i) an accumulator having an inlet and an outlet; cooling mode, said cooling thermostatic expansion
(j) a suction line having an inlet connected to said valve having one inlet, one outlet, an equalization port,
accumulator and an outlet; and a gas-filled controlling bulb;
(k) a scavenger line interconnecting said refrigerant vapor 20
d) a first connecting line and a second connecting line
header and said accumulator; connecting said cooling thermostatic expansion valve
(1) equalization tube means interconnecting said cooling to an associated one of said liquid line of said first said
thermostatic expansion valve, said first heating ther loop and said liquid line of said second said loop,
mostatic expansion valve, said at least second heating respectively;
25
thermostatic expansion valve and said scavenger line; e) a first heating expansion valve operatively associated
(m) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of with said first said connecting line and a second heating
said first heating expansion valve in thermal contact expansion valve operatively associated with said sec
with said suction?hot gas line of said first said loop a ond said connecting line, and each said heating expan
short distance from the connection of said suction?hot sion valve being adapted to provide refrigerant meter
gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
30 ing in the heating mode, each said valve having one
inlet, and one outlet, an equalization port, and a gas
(n) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of filled controlling bulb;
said at least second heating expansion valve into ther (f) capillary line means for providing a capillary tube
mal contact with said suction/hot gas line of said at by-pass around said cooling thermostatic expansion
least second said loop a short distance from the con 35 valve;
nection of said suction/hot gas line to said refrigerant (g) capillary line means for providing a capillary tube
vapor header; bypass around said inlet and said outlet of each of said
(o) an air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil having two first and said second heating expansion valves;
access ports; - (h) one pressure sensing device operatively associated
(p) a reversing valve having two inlets and two outlets; with said refrigerant vapor header;
(q) line means connecting a port of said air/refrigerant (i) an accumulator having an inlet and an outlet;
heat exchanger coil to said refrigerant liquid line (j) a suction line having an inlet connected to said
header; accumulator and an outlet;
(r) line means connecting a port of said air/refrigerantheat 45 (k) a scavenger line interconnecting said refrigerant vapor
exchanger coil to said reversing valve; header and said accumulator;
(s) line means connecting said outlet of said compressor (l) equalization tube means interconnecting said cooling
to an inlet of said reversing valve; thermostatic expansion valve, said first heating ther
(t) line means connecting said outlet of said accumulator mostatic expansion valve, said second heating thermo
to said inlet of said compressor; 50 static expansion valve and said scavenger line;
(u) line means connected between said reversing valve (m) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
and said inlet of said accumulator; said first heating expansion valve in thermal contact
(v) line means connected between said reversing valve with said suction?hot gas line of said first said loop a
and said refrigerant vapor header; and short distance from the connection of said suction?hot
55 gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
(w) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
said cooling thermostatic expansion valve in thermal (n) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
contact with said line means connecting a port of said said second heating expansion valve into thermal con
air/refrigerant heat exchanger to said reversing valve. tact with said suction?hot gas line of said second said
23. A staged cooling, direct expansion heat pump com 60 loop a short distance from the connection of said
prising: suction?hot gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
a) two loops, each of a first said loop, and a second said (o) an air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil having two
loop including a suction?hot gas line and a liquid line, access ports;
each said loop being adapted to be buried underground (p) a reversing valve having two inlets and two outlets;
in heat exchange relationship with the earth; 65 (q) line means connecting a port of said air/refrigerant
b) a refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each heat exchanger coil to said refrigerant liquid line
of said two suction?hot gas lines, said refrigerant vapor header;
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51 52
(r) line means connecting a port of said air/refrigerant heat heating mode, each said valve having one inlet, and one
exchanger coil to said reversing valve; outlet, an equalization port, and a gas-filled controlling
(s) line means connecting said outlet of said compressor bulb;
to an inlet of said reversing valve; (f) capillary line means for providing a capillary tube
(t) line means connecting said outlet of said accumulator by-pass around said cooling thermostatic expansion
to said inlet of said compressor; valve;
(u) line means connected between said reversing valve (g) capillary line means for providing a capillary tube
and said inlet of said accumulator; bypass around said inlet and said outlet of each of said
(v) line means connected between said reversing valve 10
first, said second and said third heating expansion
and said refrigerant vapor header; and valves;
(w) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of (h) two pressure sensing devices, each being operatively
said cooling thermostatic expansion valve in thermal associated with said refrigerant vapor header;
contact with said line means connecting a port of said (i) an accumulator having an inlet and an outlet;
air/refrigerant heat exchanger to said reversing valve. 15 (j) a suction pump having an inlet connected to said
24. A staged cooling, direct expansion heat pump com accumulator and an outlet;
prising: -
(k) a scavenger line interconnecting said refrigerant vapor
a) three loops, each of a first said loop, a second said loop header and said accumulator;
and a third said loop including a suction?hot gas line (l) equalization tube means interconnecting said cooling
and a liquid line, each said loop being adapted to be 20
thermostatic expansion valve, said first heating ther
buried underground in heat exchange relationship with mostatic expansion valve, said second heating thermo
the earth; static expansion valve, said third thermostatic expan
b) a refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each sion valve and said scavenger line;
of said three suction/hot gas lines, said refrigerant 25 (m) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
vapor header being provided with a first solenoid valve said first heating expansion valve in thermal contact
positioned between the junction of said suction/hot gas with said suction/hot gas line of said first said loop a
line of said first said loop with said refrigerant vapor short distance from the connection of said suction?hot
header and the junction of said suction?hot gas line of gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
said second said loop with said refrigerant vapor 30 (n) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
header, a second solenoid valve positioned between the said second heating expansion valve into thermal con
junction of said suction?hot gas line of said second said tact with said suction/hot gas line of said second said
loop with said refrigerant vapor header and the junction loop a short distance from the connection of said
of said suction/hot gas line of said third said loop with suction/hot gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
said refrigerant vapor header and a third solenoid valve
situated remote from the junction of said suction/hot 35 (o) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
gas line of said third said loop with said refrigerant said third heating expansion valve into thermal contact
vapor header; with said suction/hot gas line of said third said loop a
short distance from the connection of said suction/hot
c) a refrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
thermostatic expansion valve, said refrigerant liquid 40
line header further being provided with a first solenoid (p) an air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil having two
valve positioned between the junction of said liquid access ports;
line of said first said loop with said refrigerant liquid (q) a reversing valve having two inlets and two outlets;
line header and the junction of said liquid line of said (r) line means connecting a port of said air/refrigerantheat
second said loop with said refrigerant liquid line 45 exchanger coil to said refrigerant liquid line header;
header, and a second solenoid valve positioned between (s) line means connecting a port of said air/refrigerant
the junction of said liquid line of said second said loop heat exchanger coil to said reversing valve;
with said refrigerant liquid line header and the junction (t) line means connecting said outlet of said compressor to
of said liquid line of said third said loop with said an inlet of said reversing valve;
refrigerant liquid line header, said cooling thermostatic 50
expansion valve being adapted to provide refrigerant (u) line means connecting said outlet of said accumulator
metering in the cooling mode, said cooling thermostatic to said inlet of said compressor;
expansion valve having one inlet, one outlet, an equal (v) line means connected between said reversing valve
ization port, and a gas-filled controlling bulb; and said inlet of said accumulator;
d) a first connecting line, a second connecting line and a 55 (w) line means connected between said reversing valve
third connecting line connecting said cooling thermo and said refrigerant vapor header; and
static expansion valve to an associated one of said (x) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
liquid line of said first said loop, said liquid line of said said cooling thermostatic expansion valve in thermal
second said loop, and said liquid line of said third said contact with said line means connecting a port of said
loop, respectively; 60 air/refrigerant heat exchanger to said reversing valve.
e) a first heating expansion valve operatively associated 25. A staged cooling, direct expansion heat pump com
with said first said connecting line, a second heating prising:
expansion valve operatively associated with said sec a) four loops, each of a first said loop, a second said loop,
ond said connecting line, and a third heating expansion a third said loop and a fourth said loop including a
valve operatively associated with said third said con 65 suction?hot gas line and a liquid line, each said loop
necting line, and each said heating expansion valve being adapted to be buried underground in heat
being adapted to provide refrigerant metering in the exchange relationship with the earth;
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53 54
b) a refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each (i) an accumulator having an inlet and an outlet;
of said four suction?hot gas lines, said refrigerant vapor (j) a suction line having an inlet connected to said
header being provided with a first solenoid valve posi accumulator and an outlet;
tioned between the junction of said suction/hot gas line (k) a scavenger line interconnecting said refrigerant vapor
of the first said loop with said refrigerant vapor header header and said accumulator;
and the junction of said suction?hot gas line of said
second said loop with said refrigerant vapor header, a (1) equalization tube means interconnecting said cooling
second solenoid valve positioned between the junction thermostatic expansion valve, said first heating ther
of said suction/hot gas line of said second said loop mostatic expansion valve, said second heating thermo
with said refrigerant vapor header and the junction of static expansion valve, said third heating thermostatic
said suction?hot gas line of said third said loop with said 10 expansion valve, said fourth thermostatic expansion
refrigerant vapor header, a third solenoid valve posi valve and said scavenger line;
tioned between the junction of said suction?hot gas line (m) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
of said third said loop with said refrigerant vapor said first heating expansion valve in thermal contact
header and the junction of said suction/hot gas line of 15 with said suction/hot gas line of said first said loop a
said fourth said loop with said refrigerant vapor header short distance from the connection of said suction/hot
and a fourth solenoid valve situated remote from the gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
junction of said suction?hot gas line of said fourth said (n) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
loop with said refrigerant vapor header; said second heating expansion valve into thermal con
c) a refrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling tact with said suction/hot gas line of said second said
thermostatic expansion valve, said refrigerant liquid 20 loop a short distance from the connection of said
line header further being provided with a first solenoid suction/hot gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
valve positioned between the junction of said liquid (o) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
line of said first said loop with said refrigerant liquid
line header and the junction of said liquid line of said said third heating expansion valve into thermal contact
second said loop with said refrigerant liquid line 25 with said suction/hot gas line of said third said loop a
header, a second solenoid valve positioned between the short distance from the connection of said suction?hot
junction of said liquid line of said second said loop with gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
said refrigerant liquid line header and the junction of (p) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
said liquid line of said third said loop with said refrig said fourth heating expansion valve into thermal con
erant liquid line header, and a third solenoid valve 30 tact with said suction?hot gas line of said fourth said
positioned between the junction of said liquid line of loop a short distance from the connection of said
said third said loop with said refrigerant liquid line suction/hot gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
header and the junction of said liquid line of said fourth (q) an air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil having two
said loop with said refrigerant liquid line header, said access ports; -
cooling thermostatic expansion valve being adapted to 35 (r) a reversing valve having two inlets and two outlets;
provide refrigerant metering in the cooling mode, said (s) line means connecting a port of said air/refrigerant
cooling thermostatic expansion valve having one inlet, heat exchanger coil to said refrigerant liquid line
one outlet, an equalization port, and a gas-filled con header;
trolling bulb;
d) a first connecting line, a second connecting line, a third 40 (t) line means connecting a port of said air/refrigerantheat
connecting line and a fourth connecting line connecting exchanger coil to said reversing valve;
said cooling thermostatic expansion valve to an asso (u) line means connecting said outlet of said compressor
ciated one of said liquid line of said first said loop, said to an inlet of said reversing valve;
liquid line of said second said loop, said liquid line of (v) line means connecting said outlet of said accumulator
said third said loop and said liquid line of said fourth 45 to said inlet of said compressor;
said loop, respectively; (w) line means connected between said reversing valve
e) a first heating expansion valve operatively associated and said inlet of said accumulator;
with said first said connecting line, a second heating (x) line means connected between said reversing valve
expansion valve operatively associated with said sec 50
and said refrigerant vapor header; and
ond said connecting line, a third heating expansion (y) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
valve operatively associated with said third said con said cooling thermostatic expansion valve in thermal
necting line and a fourth heating expansion valve contact with said line means connecting a port of said
operatively associated with said fourth said connecting air/refrigerant heat exchanger to said reversing valve.
line, and each said heating expansion valve being 55 26. A staged cooling, direct expansion heat pump com
adapted to provide refrigerant metering in the heating prising:
mode, each said valve having one inlet, and one outlet, a) five loops, each of a first said loop, a second said loop,
an equalization port, and a gas-filled controlling bulb; a third said loop, a fourth said loop and a fifth said loop
(f) capillary line means for providing a capillary tube including a suction?hot gas line and a liquid line, each
by-pass around said cooling thermostatic expansion 60 said loop being adapted to be buried underground in
valve; heat exchange relationship with the earth;
(g) capillary line means for providing a capillary tube b) a refrigerant vapor header connected in series to each
bypass around said inlet and said outlet of each of said of said five suction?hot gas lines, said refrigerant vapor
first, said second, said third and said fourth heating header being provided with a first solenoid valve posi
expansion valves; 65 tioned between the junction of said suction/hot gas line
(h) three pressure sensing devices, each being operatively of said first said loop with said refrigerant vapor header
associated with said refrigerant vapor header; and the junction of said suction?hot gas line of said
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55 56
second said loop with said refrigerant vapor header, a (g) capillary line means for providing a capillary tube
second solenoid valve positioned between the junction bypass around said inlet and said outlet of each of said
of said suction/hot gas line of said second said loop first, said second, said third, said fourth and said fifth
with said refrigerant vapor header, and the junction of heating expansion valves;
said suction?hot gas line of said third said loop with said (h) four pressure sensing devices, each being operatively
refrigerant vapor header, a third solenoid valve posi associated with said refrigerant vapor header;
tioned between the junction of said suction/hot gas line (i) an accumulator having an inlet and an outlet;
of said third said loop with said refrigerant vapor (j) a suction pump having an inlet connected to said
header and the junction of said suction?hot gas line of accumulator and an outlet;
said fourth said loop with said refrigerant vapor header,
a fourth solenoid valve positioned between the junction 10 (k) a scavenger line interconnecting said refrigerant vapor
of said suction/hot gas line of said fourth said loop with header and said accumulator;
said refrigerant vapor header and the junction of said (1) equalization tube means interconnecting said cooling
suction/hot gas line of said fifth said loop with said thermostatic expansion valve, said first heating ther
refrigerant vapor header, and a fifth solenoid valve 15 mostatic expansion valve, said second heating thermo
situated remote from said junction of said suction/hot static expansion valve, said third thermostatic expan
gas line of said fifth said loop with said refrigerant sion valve, said fourth thermostatic expansion valve,
vapor header; said fifth thermostatic expansion valve and said scav
c) a refrigerant liquid line header provided with a cooling enger line;
thermostatic expansion valve, said refrigerant liquid (m) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
line header further being provided with a first solenoid 20 said first heating expansion valve in thermal contact
valve positioned between the junction of said liquid with said suction/hot gas line of said first said loop a
line of said first said loop with said refrigerant liquid short distance from the connection of said suction/hot
line header and the junction of said liquid line of said gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
second said loop with said refrigerant liquid line (n) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
header, a second solenoid valve positioned between the 25 said second heating expansion valve into thermal con
junction of said liquid line of said second said loop with tact with said suction/hot gas line of said second said
said refrigerant liquid line header and the junction of loop a short distance from the connection of said
said liquid line of said third said loop with said refrig suction?hot gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
erant liquid line header, a third solenoid valve posi 30 (o) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
tioned between the junction of said liquid line of said said third heating expansion valve into thermal contact
third said loop with said refrigerant liquid line header with said suction?hot gas line of said third said loop a
and the junction of said liquid line of said fourth said short distance from the connection of said suction/hot
loop with said refrigerant liquid line header, and a gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
fourth solenoid valve positioned between the junction 35 (p) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
of said liquid line of said fourth said loop with said said fourth heating expansion valve into thermal con
refrigerant liquid line header and the junction of said
liquid line of said fifth said loop with said refrigerant tact with said suction?hot gas line of said fourth said
liquid line header, said cooling thermostatic expansion loop a short distance from the connection of said
valve being adapted to provide refrigerant metering in Suction?hot gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
the cooling mode, said cooling thermostatic expansion 40 (q) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
valve having one inlet, one outlet, an equalization port, said fifth heating expansion valve into thermal contact
and a gas-filled controlling bulb; with said suction?hot gas line of said fifth said loop a
d) a first connecting line, a second connecting line, a third short distance from the connection of said suction/hot
connecting line, a fourth connecting line connecting 45 gas line to said refrigerant vapor header;
line and a fifth connecting line connecting said cooling (r) an air/refrigerant heat exchanger coil having two
thermostatic expansion valve to an associated one of access ports;
said liquid line of said first said loop, said liquid line of (s) a reversing valve having two inlets and two outlets;
said second said loop, said liquid line of said third said (t) line means connecting a port of said air/refrigerantheat
loop, said liquid line of said fourth said loop, and said 50 exchanger coil to said refrigerant liquid line header;
liquid line of said fifth said loop, respectively; (u) line means connecting a port of said air/refrigerant
e) a first heating expansion valve operatively associated - heat exchanger coil to said reversing valve;
with said first said connecting line, a second heating (v) line means connecting said outlet of said compressor
expansion valve operatively associated with said sec to an inlet of said reversing valve;
ond said connecting line, a third heating expansion 55
valve operatively associated with said third said con (w) line means connecting said outlet of said accumulator
necting line, a fourth heating expansion valve opera to said inlet of said compressor;
tively associated with said fourth said connecting line (x) line means connected between said reversing valve
and a fifth heating expansion valve operatively associ and said inlet of said accumulator;
ated with said fifth said connecting line, and each said 60 (y) line means connected between said reversing valve
heating expansion valve being adapted to provide and said refrigerant vapor header; and
refrigerant metering in the heating mode, each said (z) capillary line means for placing a controlling bulb of
valve having one inlet, and one outlet, an equalization said cooling thermostatic expansion valve in thermal
port, and a gas-filled controlling bulb; contact with said line means connecting a port of said
(f) capillary line means for providing a capillary tube 65 air/refrigerant heat exchanger to said reversing valve.
by-pass around said cooling thermostatic expansion
valve;