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16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

Consistence of Wind Power Technologies with the Fault


Ride-through Capability Requirements
Nesma Ghaly Mohamed EL-Shimy and Mahmoud Abdelhamed
Engineer at the Arab Contractors Co. Electrical Power and Machines Department
M.Sc. Candidate, Ain Shams University Ain Shams University
Abbassia, Cairo 11517, Egypt Abbassia, Cairo 11517, Egypt
nisma.mostafa@yahoo.com shimymb@gmail.com; mohamed_bekhet@eng.asu.edu.eg

Abstract - This paper provides an overview of the on the protection system response time. It may vary between
requirements imposed by international grid-codes for 0.1s to several seconds; the most usual duration being in the
connecting large amounts of wind power to various electric range of a few tenths of a second. In the event of such dips,
power systems. The main concern here is the fault ride- generating stations may encounter stability problems,
through (FRT) capability requirements. The consistency of
depending on the type, magnitude and duration of the dip, as
popular wind power technologies with the FRT requirements
is evaluated considering the German E.ON Netz code. This is well as on the type and technology of the power station.
achieved through appropriate modeling and simulation of The large increase in the installed wind power in the
grid-connected fixed-speed and variable-speed wind power transmission systems necessitates that wind generation
technologies. Two methods of evaluation are presented in the remains in operation in the event of network disturbances.
paper. The results show some exceptional characteristics of the Consequently [1, 3, 4], current grid codes invariably
doubly-fed induction-generator (DFIG) in comparison with the demand that large wind farms (especially those connected to
squirrel-cage induction-generator (SCIG). the HV grids) must withstand voltage dips down to a certain
Index Terms - Grid codes, fault ride-through, wind power percentage of the nominal voltage (0% in some cases) and
technologies, modeling, simulation.
for a specified duration. Such requirements are known as
I. INTRODUCTION FRT or low voltage ride through (LVRT) requirements and
they are described by a voltage against time characteristic,
In addition to their environmental benefits, the recent denoting the minimum required immunity of the wind
progress in wind energy technologies leads to cost reduction power station to dips of the system voltage. Based on
to levels comparable, in many cases, with conventional popular international grid codes, various FRT capability
generation technologies [1]. As a result the penetration of requirements will be presented in the next section.
wind power in power systems is increasing. This major This paper provides an overview of the requirements
change in the energy mix of power systems raises a number imposed by international grid-codes for connecting large
of challenges regarding grid stability, power quality and amounts of wind power to various electric power systems.
behavior during fault situations. Consequently, elaboration The main concern here is the fault ride-through (FRT)
of specific technical requirements or grid codes for the capability requirements. The consistency of popular wind
connection of large wind farms has been constructed. The power technologies with the FRT requirements is evaluated
new grid codes stipulate that wind farms should contribute considering the German E.ON Netz code. This is achieved
to power system operation and control in a similar way the through appropriate modeling and simulation of grid-
conventional generating systems do [1, 2]. connected fixed-speed and variable-speed wind power
Essential grid code requirements are related to technologies. Two methods of evaluation are presented in
frequency, voltage and wind turbine behavior in case of grid the paper.
faults. The most common requirements include [3] active
power control, frequency control, frequency and voltage II. FRT CAPABILITY REQUIREMENTS
acceptable ranges, voltage control, voltage quality, fault This section presents the FRT capability requirements
ride-through (FRT) capability, wind farm modeling, and encountered in the majority of grid codes concerning wind
communication and external control. The main aim of the farm interconnection. Generally, various FRT requirements
requirements is to ensure that wind farms do not adversely take the form shown in Fig. 1. Above the FRT requirements
affect the power system operation and control with respect line, wind farms must not be disconnected to support the
to security of supply, reliability, and power quality [2 - 6]. system while below the line the wind farm can be
The occurrence of a fault (short-circuit) at some point disconnected; however, each grid code may add some other
of a power network inevitably results in voltage dips in one constraints on the possibility of connection and
or more phases and possibly also a voltage rise in the disconnection of wind farms. Four parameters can be used
healthy phases [3]. This depends on the type and location of to define the FRT requirements. As shown in Fig. 1, these
the fault. These voltage disturbances may be propagated to parameters are the fault duration, the minimum voltage
fairly remote locations on the network, especially in the case during the fault (Vmin), the voltage restoration time, and the
of weak grids. The duration of the voltage dips is dependent acceptable minimum steady state voltage (Vss); however, the
16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

minimum value of the acceptable steady state voltage is


usually 90% of the nominal voltage while the maximum
value is usually 110%. Fig. 2 shows the values of these
parameters according to various international grid codes [1].
It is clear from that figure that the parameters of various are
widely from country to country. The differences are
attributed to the characteristics of each power system, and
the employed protection.
It is depicted from Fig. 2 that the requirements of the
German, UK, Nordic, Danish, Belgian, Hydro-Quebec, Fig. 1Generic FRT requirements
Swedish and New Zealand grid codes demand that wind
farms must remain connected during voltage dips down to
zero; however, it must be noted that these requirements
apply to the point of common coupling (PCC) with the
network, which is generally at the HV level [1,7, 8].Taking
into account the typical impedance values of the step-up
transformers and interconnecting lines, the corresponding
voltage dip at lower voltage levels, near the wind turbine
terminals, are likely to be somewhat around 15% [1, 8].
This facilitates compliance with the LVRT requirements. As
shown in Fig. 2, the FRT specifications may vary according
to the voltage level or the wind farm power. For example,
wind farms connected to the Danish grid at voltages below Fig. 2 Parameters of FRT requirements
100 KV are required to withstand less severe voltage dips
than the ones connected at higher voltages, in terms of
voltage dip magnitude and duration. Similar differences can
be observed in the regulation governing the connection of
wind farms below and above 100MW in the Swedish
transmission system.
Apart from the FRT curve, the Denmark and Hydro-
Quebec codes define specific kinds of faults (or sequences
of faults, in the Danish code) that the wind farm must
withstand (including remote faults in the case of the Hydro-
Quebec code, cleared by slow protective devices). These
more detailed requirements could be attributed to the Fig. 3 FRT requirements of the E.ON Netz code
isolation of the Hydro-Quebec transmission system, which
has no synchronous link to neighboring systems [9]. grid connection code [10]; however, the Egyptian code is
Another important difference lies in the active power under construction and it is not yet in its final form.The FRT
restoration rates specified by the German and British/Irish requirements of the E.ON Netz code are shown in Fig. 3.
grid codes, whereas the British code requires immediate This code requires a wind farm to be connected to the grid
restoration (at 90% in 0.5s after voltage recovery), the as long as the voltage at the grid connection point is above
German (E.ON Netz) code requires restoration with a rate at the solid line (limit line 2) shown in Fig. 3. The E.ON Netz
least equal to 20% of the nominal output power (reaching code specifies the following:
100% in 5s after voltage recovery). The less demanding (a) According to Fig. 3, wind farms must withstand voltage
requirement of the German code may be attributed to the drops down to zero at the connection point for durations
physical location of the German grid and its strong up to 150 ms (7.5cycles) for 50Hz systems (or 125 ms
interconnected system, as opposed to the weakly (7.5 cycles) for 60 Hz systems). In addition, the E.ON
interconnected British system, where the need for active Netz code requires a voltage restoration time of no
power restoration to the pre-fault values is more crucial for more than 1.5 s as shown in Fig. 2.
system stability. (b) Three-phase short circuits or fault-related symmetrical
Because of its popular use in the research and its voltage dips must neither lead to instability above limit
demanding requirements (see Fig. 2), the German E.ON line 1 nor disconnection of the wind farm. After fault
Netz code will be considered in this paper for the analysis of clearance, the active power in-feed must increase with a
the compatibility of various Wind Energy Conversion rate of 20% of the rated power per second.
Technologies (WECT) with the grid code requirements. In (c) Voltage drops within the area between limit line 1 and
addition, the E.ON Betz code demanding FRT capability limit line 2 should not lead to disconnection, but in case
requirements that are very close to the Egyptian wind farm of wind turbine instability, short-time disconnection is
16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

allowed. The resynchronization must take place within


up to 2s and active power in-feed must increase with a
rate of 10% of the rated power per second after fault
clearance.
(d) Below limit line 2 disconnections of the wind turbines
are allowed. Fig. 4 SMIB system with wind power generation

TABLE I
III. THE STUDY SYSTEM WIND TURBINE AND INDUCTION MACHINE PARAMETERS
The study systems, as shown in Fig.4, consist of a Wind
Value
Turbine Generator (WTG) representing a wind farm Parameter
SCIG DFIG
connected to the grid through a transmission link [11, 12]. Number of blades 3
In the first case, the generator is a SCIG while in the second Rated wind speed, u [m/s] 16
case the generator is a DFIG. For proper comparison and Blade length [m] 75 75
analysis, identical parameters are used for both machines as Turbine inertia constant (Hwr) [kWs/kVA] 2.5 2.5
Generator inertia constant (Hm)[kWs/kVA] 0.5 0.5
well as the network interconnecting the generator to the stiff
Shaft stiffness for FSWT[p.u.] 0.3 ------
grid. The study system shown in Fig. 4 is modeled and Pitch control gain [p.u] 10
simulated through the classes of PSAT-2.1.6 [13 - 15]. The Pitch control time constant [s] 2
parameters of the connection to the grid are shown on Fig. 4 Voltage control gain Kv [p.u] ------ 10
while the wind turbine, generator, and control parameters Power control time constant Te [s] ------ 0.01
Gear box ratio [41/89]
are shown in Table I.
Number of poles 4
Rated voltage [kV] 0.69
IV. MODELING OF WTGS Frequency [Hz] 60
Resistance of the stator, rS [p.u.] 0.01
The list of symbols used in the modeling of the
Resistance of the rotor, rr[p.u.] 0.01
considered WTGs is shown in Appendix 1. The models of Leakage inductance of the stator, xs [p.u.] 0.1
various system components are summarized here and they Leakage inductance of the rotor, xr [p.u.] 0.08
are based on [4, 11- 20]. Mutual inductance, xm [p.u.] 3

A. Wind Turbine Model and its control


The modeling of the pure mechanical items of the wind
turbine is independent of the generator configuration [13-
14]. Thus, the mechanical equations of the turbine can be
implemented as a separate class and then imported into the
generator model. The considered model here is for pitch-
controlled wind turbines which are currently dominating the
wind turbine industry [20]. This is because this model is
adequate for a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) with speed
control.
In this model, turbine blades can rotate in order to (a)
reduce the rotor speed and output power in case of high
wind speeds. The angular position of the blades is called
pitch angle. The mechanical power extracted from the
wind is a function of the wind speed , the rotor speed
and the pitch angle . The mechanical power (b)
model can be approximated by Fig. 5: Wind turbine; (a) Power curve and operational regions of a pitch
controlled wind turbine; (b) Pitch angle control scheme
( )
The power curve and the operational regions for a
typical pitch-controlled wind turbine are shown in Fig. 5(a).
The speed tip ratio is the ratio between the blade tip speed
As shown, there are four operational regions each of which
and the wind upstream the rotor . The tip speed ratio
has its own characteristics and limitations. In region 1, the
is defined by
wind speeds are insufficient to run the turbine. Therefore,

the output power is zero. Region 2 starts when the wind
The curve is popularly approximated as follows speed exceeds the cut-in value and extends up to the rated
wind speed at which the rated output power is produced. In
( ) this region, maximization of the power extraction is the
main concern. Therefore, the pitch angle is kept zero. This
where { ( )} ( ) is achieved by an anti-windup limiter in the pitch angle
16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

controller. In the 3rd region, the rotor speed and


consequently the power extraction is limited to the rated
power to avoid overloading the turbine. This is achieved on
the turbine level by using the pitch angle control which
adjusts the pitch angle to an appropriate controlled value. In
region 4 where the wind speeds reach dangerous limits, the
turbine is taken out of service for protection against Fig. 6 Equivalent circuit of a SCIG
mechanical damage. A schematic diagram of a pitch-angle
controller is shown in Fig. 5(b) and it can be described
mathematically by
In the VSWT concept, the Voltage Source Converter
{ ( ) } (VSC) controls can effectively damp shadow effect modes
and shaft oscillations. If the control is efficient enough, the
where is a function which allows varying the pitch angle shaft can be considered rigid, i.e., = and can be
set point only when the difference( ) exceeds a modeled using,
predefined value depending on the operating concept
of the WTG.
In the Fixed-Speed Wind Turbine (FSWT) concept the C. Modeling of Generators, and their controls
turbine drive a Squirrel-Cage Induction Generator (SCIG) C.1. SCIG model
that is directly connected to the grid expect during start-up
The equivalent circuit of a SCIG (with a single-cage) is
where a soft-starter is used to minimize the startup stresses
shown in Fig. 6. The only difference with respect to the
on the system and the grid. In this operating concept, induction motor is that the currents are positive if injected
should not exceed 1% or 2% above the synchronous speed into the network. The equations are formulated in terms of
and the speed is kept constant within this range. In the the real (d) and imaginary (q) axes, with respect to the
Variable-Speed Wind-Turbine (VSWT) concept, the network reference angle. Considering the third-order model
allowable speed range is high. For example it is 30 around of the machine, the equations of the machine are as follows,
the synchronous speed in DFIG-based systems.

B. Shaft model
The consideration mechanical dynamics of the shaft
depends on the operational concept of the WTG [13, 20]. In
FSWT concept, the shaft dynamics should be considered The link between the voltages, currents, and state variables
due to its significant impact on the WTG performance is modeled as follows,
including power and voltage fluctuations. Therefore,
popularly a two mass model is adopted to represent the shaft
in the FSWT concept. In the VSWT concept, the available

controls minimize or prevent the impact of the shaft
dynamics. Therefore, usually the shaft dynamics are not where , , and
considered in the modeling of the WTG and one mass

model is adopted. In the two-mass model, the shaft
dynamics is represented by, In the synchronously rotating reference frame, the link
between the network and the stator voltages of the machine
is as follows,

where is the displacement of the two shafts, is the


electrical torque, and is the mechanical torque which can The active and reactive power flow can be determined by
be represented by

( )
A periodic torque pulsation can be added to Tt to
simulate the tower shadow effect. The shadow-effect where is the fixed capacitor conductance which is
frequency depends on the rotor speed t, the gear box ratio connected to the generator terminals. The value of this
GB, and the number of blades nblade. The torque pulsation capacitor is determined at the initialization step to impose
model is the required bus voltage level.
16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

In the FSWT concept, the only available control is the


pitch angle control and no additional control is provided to
the system.

C.2. DFIG model and control


Fig. 7 shows the basic building blocks of a DFIG-based
VSWT [20]. The system consists of a wound-rotor Fig. 9 Equivalent circuit of a DFIG
induction machine controlled by two back-to-back
The speed control is aimed to maximize the power
connected PWM converters with a controllable DC
production of the wind turbine. Fig. 8 shows the
intermediate link scheme. The first converter is an AC-DC
dependence of the mechanical power produced by the
PWM-converter called the rotor-side-converter (RSC)
connected between the rotor AC-windings (via slip rings wind turbine on the wind speed and the turbine rotor
and brushes) and the DC-link. The second converter is a speed . The solid line is the maximum mechanical power
DC-AC PWM-converter called the grid-side-converter locus for each wind and rotor speeds. This curve is used for
(GSC) connected between the AC-grid (i.e the DFIG stator defining, for each value of the rotor speed, the optimal
windings) and the DC-link. A wind turbine (WT), with mechanical power that the turbine has to produce. For
energy-control via the pitch-angle controller, is coupled to super-synchronous speeds, the reference power is fixed to
the generator shaft via a gearbox. The RSC controller 1.0 p.u to avoid overloading the generator. For < 0.5 pu,
provides control of both the WT output power and the DFIG the reference mechanical power is set to zero. For
reactive power output or terminal voltage or power factor. ,the detailed ( , ) characteristic is,
The main function of the GSC control is to regulate the DC-
link voltage as well as possible other control functions such
as the generation or absorption of reactive power. In power
control, the turbine output is controlled in order to follow a This is can be simplified to
pre-defined power-speed characteristic corresponding to the Due to the fast dynamics of the stator flux comparison
maximum wind-energy-capture tracking called the with the grid dynamics, the electromagnetic equations of the
maximum power tracking characteristics (MPTC). This DFIG are usually represented by a steady-state model. The
achieved through integration between the RSC and the equivalent circuit of a DFIG is shown in Fig. 9. The three
pitch-angle controllers. phase stator and rotor windings of an induction machine can
be represented by two sets of orthogonal fictitious coils. The
DFIG is controlled in a rotating d-q reference frame, with
the d-axis aligned along the stator-flux vector. The machine
stator and rotor voltages are functions of the stator and rotor
currents as well as the rotor speed . The d-q
representation of the machine is as follows,

( )

Fig. 7: Basic building blocks of a DFIG-based VSWT ( )

The links between stator fluxes and generator currents are


modeled using

( )

( )

The network interface is modeled as follows,

Fig. 8 Speed-power characteristic of VSWT wind turbine at zero pitch The generator active and reactive power productions
angle
depend on the stator currents ( ), the converter
16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

currents , the stator voltages ( ), and dip curve of the system. This CCT-voltage dip curve in
the converter voltages as follows, comparison with the limit line 2 shown in Fig. 3 gives a
clear evaluation of the compatibility of the system with the
E.ON code.
VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The expressions above can be rewritten as a function of Considering the first method, a three-phase fault is
stator and rotor currents and stator and rotor voltages. In applied to the terminals of the wind farms shown in Fig. 4.
fact, the converter powers on the grid side are represented The faults duration is varied from 7.5 cycles to 36 cycles
by (30) and (31) while the converter powers on the rotor and the minimum voltage during the faults is approximately
side are represented by (32) and (33). zero for all values of the fault durations. These low voltages
dip at the generator terminals results in a very conservative
result. This is because the generators are subjected to the
most severe fault conditions. The wind farm terminal
voltage, active power, and reactive power are respectively
shown in Fig. 10, Fig. 11, and Fig. 12.

Assuming a loss-less converter model, the active power


of the converter coincides with the rotor active power, thus
= . The reactive power injected into the grid can be
approximated by neglecting stator resistance and assuming
that the d-axis coincides with the maximum of the stator
flux. Therefore, the powers injected in the grid can be
simply represented by, (a)

V. METHODOLOGY
The main objective of this paper is to check the
compatibility of the transient response of the considered
generators with the E.ON Netz grid code. In addition, the
paper provides a comparison between the responses of the (b)
considered generators as affected by faults of various Fig. 10 Terminal voltage: (a) SCIG based system; (b) DFIG based system
durations. To fulfill the main objective, two methods are
adopted.
In the first method, the wind farm is subjected to three-
phase fault close to its terminals and the transient response
of the system determined by simulation. The success criteria
here is the success of the system to withstand a three-phase
fault for a duration of 7.5 cycles (150 ms on 50 Hz systems
or 125 ms on 60 Hz systems) as required by the E.ON code.
(a)
In addition, the quality of the response responses is
determined by calculating two indices. The indices are the
duration of the voltage restoration (i.e. the time required to
restore the post-fault voltage to 90% of the nominal
voltage), and the duration of the power restoration (time
required to restore the generated power to the pre-fault
value), The calculation of the duration of the power
restoration is valid only if the system is capable of
producing the same power as the pre-fault value. (b)
Fig. 11 Active Power: (a) SCIG based system; (b) DFIG based system
The second method is based on the determination of the
Critical Clearing Times (CCT) when the system is subjected
to three-phase faults each of which result in different
voltage dips. The idea here is to construct the CCT-voltage
16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

systems with a large penetration level of SCIG. The results


show that the CCT of the SCIG based system is 33.6 cycles
while the DFIG is stable for a fault duration of 36 cycles or
even more. For both WECTs, the results show that the
voltage restoration duration increases with the increase in
the fault duration.
In the second method, the CCTs of the system are
(a) determined for a set of three phase faults located in the close
proximity of the wind farm. The simulation is conducted
such that these faults results in voltage dips that follow the
limit line 2 of the E.ON grid code shown in Fig. 3. This is
controlled by controlling the fault impedance. Since the
CCTs of the DFIG based system are very long and could not
be determined through the simulation, this approach is
applied only to the SCIG based system. The results are
(b) shown in Fig. 13. In addition, the figure also shows the limit
Fig. 12 Reactive power: (a) SCIG based system; (b) DFIG based system line 2 of the code.

For comparison between the responses of the


considered systems, the duration of the voltage restoration,
and the duration of the power restoration indices are
determined and presented in Table II.
TABLE II
QUALITY OF RESPONSE INDICES
Duration of voltage Duration of power
Fault duration
restoration (cycles) restoration (cycles)
(cycles)
SCIG DFIG SCIG DFIG
7.5 12 5.4 259.2 3.6
18 102 7.8 390 7.8 Fig. 13 Fault tolerance curve of the SCIG-based system and the FRT E.ON
33 182.4 8.4 393 6.6 code
33.6 Inf. 8.4 Inf. 7.2
36 Inf. 8.7 Inf. 7.2
It is depicted from Fig. 13 that the CCT increases
with the decrease of the voltage dip (or the increase of the
The voltage transients shown in Fig. 10 can be remaining voltage). In addition, the figure shows that for the
explained based on the reactive power of the machines same voltage dip, the CCT of the system is larger than the
shown Fig. 12 and the nature of the available voltage E.ON code minimum withstand durations of faults.
controls. With the DFIG-based system, the voltage control Therefore, the results show the compatibility of the SCIG
loop causes an initial overshoot in the terminal voltage by based system with the FRT requirements of the E.ON grid
injecting a controlled amount of reactive power from the code. It is should be mentioned that other code requirements
machine. This is followed by a transient period till the such as reactive power control, voltage control, and active
voltage settles to a steady state value. In the SCIG-based power control cannot be provided by the SCIG technology
system, such voltage control loop is absent. Therefore, as due to the limitations of the SCIG and the available controls
shown in Fig. 10 to 12 the machine consumes reactive in the FSWT system [20]. Despite of these drawbacks in the
power from the power system at the instant of fault clearing SCIG, the results show that the already operating SCIG
to restore the voltage magnitude and generation mode. wind farms may be able to withstand the FRT capability
Generally, it can be seen from Fig. 10 that the DFIG-based required by grid codes such as the E.ON Netz code.
system is capable of restoring the system stability faster and
smoother in comparison with the SCIG-based system. In VII. CONCLUSION
addition, the results show that the DFIG-based system can This paper presents a summary of the FRT capability
withstand longer fault durations in comparison with the requirements for interconnecting wind farms to electrical
SCIG-based system. grids. The paper also provides modeling and analysis of the
Fig. 10 to 12 and Table II shows that both systems are popular WTG technologies. The analysis covers the
capable of fulfilling the zero voltage dip requirements of the consistency of popular wind power technologies with the
E.ON code; however, it can be easily depicted from Table II FRT requirements governed by the German E.ON Netz
that the DFIG significantly surpasses the SCIG from the code through the use of two methods of analysis.
points of view of voltage restoration time and duration of The analysis of various international requirements
power restoration. Therefore, power systems with large revealed that from country-to-country, there are significant
amounts of wind power from DFIGs are less vulnerable to differences in the FRT capability requirements. The
stability and security problems in comparison with power differences are attributed to the characteristics of each
16th International Middle- East Power Systems Conference -MEPCON'2014
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, December 23 - 25, 2014

power system, and the employed protection. Therefore,


there are no single FRT requirements that can be applied for REFERENCES
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