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6 Exercises with

Worked Solutions

Cambridge

University

Version MFA 09

Materials selection in mechanical design, 3rd edition

Mike Ashby

Engineering Department,

Cambridge, CB2 1 PZ, UK

Version 1

Part 1

E1 Introduction to exercises

E2 Devising concepts

E3 Use of material selection charts

E4 Translation: constraints and objectives

E5 Deriving and using material indices

Part 2

E6 Selecting processes

E7 Multiple constraints and objectives

Part 3

E 8 Selecting material and shape

E9 Hybrid materials

E1 Introduction to exercises 3. A request for a selection based on one material index alone (such as

M = E 1 / 2 / ) is correctly answered by listing the subset of materials

These exercises are designed to develop facility in selecting materials,

processes and shape, and in devising hybrid materials when no monolithic that maximize this index. But a request for a selection of materials for a

material completely meets the design requirements. Each exercise is component a wing spar, for instance (which is a light, stiff beam, for

accompanied by a worked solution. They are organized into nine sections: which the index is M = E 1 / 2 / ) requires more: some materials

E1: Introduction to the exercises with high E 1 / 2 / such as silicon carbide, are unsuitable for obvious

E2: Devising concepts

reasons. It is a poor answer that ignores common sense and experience

E3: Use of materials selection charts

and fails to add further constraints to incorporate them. Students should

E4: Translation: constraints and objectives

be encouraged to discuss the implications of their selection and to

E5: Deriving and using material indices

suggest further selection stages.

E6: Selecting processes

E7: Multiple constraints and objectives The best way to use the charts that are a feature of the book is to make

E8: Selecting material and shape clean copies (or down-load them from http://www.grantadesign.com ) on

E9: Hybrid materials which you can draw, try out alternative selection criteria, write comments and

so forth. Although the book itself is copyrighted, the reader is authorized to

make copies of the charts and to reproduce these, with proper reference to

The early exercises are very easy. Those that follow lead the reader

their source, as he or she wishes.

through the use of property charts, translation, the derivation of indices,

screening and ranking, multi-objective optimization and choice of shape. All the materials selection problems can be solved using the CES

Difficulty, when it arises, is not caused by mathematical complexity the software, which is particularly effective when multiple criteria and unusual

maths involved is simple throughout; it arises from the need to think clearly indices are involved.

about the constraints, the objectives and the free variables.

Three important points.

1. Selection problems are open-ended and, generally, under-specified; there

is seldom a single, correct answer. The proper answer is sensible

translation of the design requirements into material constraints and

objectives, applied to give a short-list of potential candidates with

commentary suggesting what supporting information would be needed to

narrow the choice further.

2. The positioning of selection-lines on charts is a matter of judgement.

The goal is to place the lines such that they leave an adequately large

"short list" of candidates (aim for 4 or so), drawn, if possible, from more

than one class of material.

E2 Devising concepts

These two examples illustrate the way in which concepts are generate. The Concept Embodiment

left-hand part of each diagram describes a physical principle by which the

need might be met; the right-hand part elaborates, suggesting how the

principle might be used.

Electric fan pulling air stream through

paper or cloth filter in portable unit

C1 Entrain in air stream

and filter

E2.1 Concepts and embodiments for dust removers. We met the need for Central pump and filter linked to

rooms by ducting

a device to remove household dust in Chapter 1, with examples of

established solutions. Now it is time for more creative thinking. Devise

as many concepts to meet this need as you can. Nothing, at the concept Centrifugal turbo-fan with surrounding

stage, is too far-fetched; decisions about practicality and cost come dust collector, in portable unit

later, at the detailed stage. So think along the lines of Figure 2.2 of the C2 Entrain in air

main text and list concepts and outline embodiments as block diagrams stream,

Central turbo-fan with centrifugal

like this:

dust collector linked to rooms by ducting

Concept Embodiment

spray to wash air stream, in portable unit

C3 Entrain in air

stream,

Electric fan pulling air stream through Central turbo-fan , water spray to wash

paper or cloth filter in portable unit air stream, linked to rooms by ducting

C1 Entrain in air stream

and filter

Central pump and filter linked to Axial fan drawing air stream between

rooms by ducting charged plates, in portable unit

C4 Entrain in air

stream, trap

Central fan with electrostatic collector,

linked to rooms by ducting

solutions. Here are some for dust removers. C5 Trap dust on Reel-to-reel single sided adhesive tape

adhesive strip running over flexible pressure-pad

E2.2 Cooling power electronics. Microchips, particularly those for power

Concept Embodiment

electronics, get hot. If they get too hot they cease to function. The

need: a scheme for removing heat from power microchips. Devise

concepts to meet the need and sketch an embodiment of one of them,

Massive, with sufficient heat capacity to absorb heat

laying out your ideas in the way suggested in exercise E2.1. over work cycle without significant increase in

C1 Conduction

Answer. Four working principles are listed below: thermal conduction, Compact, requiring back-up by coupling to convection,

convection by heat transfer to a fluid medium, evaporation exploiting evaporation or radiation

the latent heat of evaporation of a fluid, and radiation, best achieved

with a surface with high emissivity. Free convection not requiring fan or pump.

The best solutions may be found by combining two of these: conduction

coupled with convection (as in the sketch an often-used combination) C2 Convection

or radiation coupled with evaporation (a possibility for short-life space Forced convection with fan or pump

structures).

C3 Evaporation

Confined, utilising heat-pipe technology

C4 Radiation

Radiation to cooled surface, from high emissivity

surface to highly absorbent surface

Sketch.

E3. Use of material selection charts E3.2 Use the Youngs modulus Density (E-) chart of Figure 4.3 to

The 21 exercises in this section involve the simple use of the charts of identify materials with both a modulus E > 50 GPa and a density < 2

Chapter 4 to find materials with give property profiles. They are answered by Mg/m3.

placing selection lines on the appropriate chart and reading off the materials Answer. There is only two materials on the chart with modulus E > 50

that lie on the appropriate side of the line. It is a good idea to present the

GPa and density < 2 Mg/m3.

results as a table. All can be solved by using the printed charts.

Material Comment

If the CES EDU Materials Selection software is available the same exercises

can be solved by its use. This involves first creating the chart, then applying Magnesium alloys Magnesium is the lightest of all

the appropriate box or line selection. The results, at Level 1 or 2, are the common structural metals

same as those read from the hard copy charts (which were made using the only beryllium is lighter, but it

Level 2 database). The software offers links to processes, allows a wider is very expensive and its oxide

search by using the Level 3 database, and gives access to supporting is toxic.

information via the Search Web function. CFRP carbon-fiber CFRP is both lighter and stiffer

reinforced plastic than magnesium. That is one

reason it is used for competition

E3.1 A component is at present made from a brass, a copper alloy. Use cars and bikes.

the Youngs modulus Density (E-) chart of Figure 4.3 to suggest

three other metals that, in the same shape, would be stiffer. Stiffer E3.3 Use the Youngs Modulus-Density (E-) chart of Figure 4.3 to find

means a higher value of Youngs modulus. (a) metals that are stiffer and less dense than steels and (b) materials (not

just metals) that are both stiffer and less dense than steel.

Answer. Metals that are stiffer than brass are listed in the table. Answer. (a) No metals in Figure 4.3 are both stiffer and less dense than steel.

(b) Several ceramics qualify: Boron carbide, B4C, silicon carbide, SiC,

Material Comment silicon nitride Si3N4 and alumina Al203.

Steels The cheapest stiff, strong structural

metal, widely used. Material Comment

Nickel alloys More expensive than steel Alumina Al203 Alumina is the most widely used

Tungsten alloys Refractory (high-melting) and of all technical

relatively expensive Silicon nitride Si3N4 ceramics (spark plugs, circuit

boards) All

Boron carbide, B4C ceramics are brittle they have

low values of

Silicon carbide, SiC fracture toughness K1c and

toughness G1c .

E3.4 Use the E- chart of Figure 4.3 to identify metals with both E > 100 E3.5 Use the E- chart of Figure 4.3 to identify materials with both E >

GPa and E/ > 23 GPa/(Mg/m3). 1/3

100 GPa and E 1 / 3 / > 3 (GPa) /(Mg/m3). Remember that, on

taking logs, the index M = E 1 / 3 / becomes

Answer. The chart shows the selection. The metals that lie in the search Log ( E ) = 3 Log ( ) + 3 Log ( M )

area are listed in the table.

and that this plots as a line of slope 3 on the chart, passing through the

Material Comment point = 1/3 = 0.33 at E = 1 in the units on the chart.

Steels Cheap, widely used. Stiff structural Answer. The chart shows the selection. The materials that lie in the search

material. area are listed in the table. No metals survive.

Nickel alloys More expensive than steel Material Comment

Titanium alloys Titanium alloys are expensive. Their CFRP Carbon-fiber composites excel in stiffness

main asset is not their stiffness/weight at low weight.

but their strength/weight. Boron carbide, B4C Boron carbide is exceptionally stiff, hard

and light; it is used for body armour.

E3.6 Use the E- chart of Figure 4.3 to establish whether woods have a E 3.8 Use the modulus-strength E f chart of Figure 4.5 to find

higher specific stiffness E/ than epoxies.

materials that have E > 10 GPa and f 1000 MPa.

Answer. The strongest steels, titanium alloys (Ti-alloys) and carbon fiber

Answer. Parallel to the grain, woods have much higher specific stiffness

reinforced polymers (CFRP) meet these limits.

than epoxies. Perpendicular to the grain, woods have about the same

value as epoxies. Material Comment

Material E/ (GPa/(Mg/m ) 3

High strength steels

Woods parallel to the grain 8 30 High strength nickel alloys All have f above 1000 MPa,

Woods transverse to the grain 0.8 3.5

Titanium alloys a very large value

Epoxies 1.75 2.4

CFRP

E3.9 Are the fracture toughnesses, K1c, of the common polymers

(strength/density, f / ) than tungsten alloys? This is important

polycarbonate, ABS, or polystyrene larger or smaller than the

when you want strength at low weight (landing gear of aircraft,

mountain bikes). Use the f / chart of Figure 4.4 to decide. engineering ceramic alumina? Are their toughnesses G1c = K12c / E

larger or smaller? The K1c E chart, Figure 4.7, will help.

Answer. Most polymers have a lower fracture toughness, K1c, than

Answer. The guide line for f / on the strength density chart of

alumina. Their toughnesses, G1c = K12c / E , however, are much larger.

Figure 4.4, if drawn through titanium alloys shows that they have a

much the higher specific strength than tungsten, even though tungsten is Even the most brittle of polymers, polystyrene, has a toughness G1c c

stronger. that is nearly ten times greater than that of alumina. The values in the

table are read from Chart 4.7, using the K1c axis to read off values of

Material f/ (MPa/(Mg/m3))

Titanium alloys 60 - 250 fracture toughness, and the G1c contours to read off values of

Tungsten alloys 29 - 41 toughness.

Material K1c (MPa.m1/2) G1c (kJ/m2)

Polycarbonate 2.0 4.0 0.5 - 8

ABS 1.2 3.5 1-8

Polystyrene 0.7 1.1 0.25 0.7

Alumina Al2O3 3.5 4.5 0.04 0.07

E 3.10 Use the fracture toughness-modulus chart (Figure 4.7) to find Answer. Polymers and foams both have large K 1c / E allowing them to flex

materials that have a fracture toughness K 1c greater than 100 MPa.m1/2 without fracturing. They have much higher values K 1c / E than metals

and a toughness G1c = K 12c / E (shown as contours on Figure 4.7) or ceramics, and thus large fracture strains. Only polymers have,

greater than 10 kJ/m3. additionally, K 1c > 1 MPa.m1/2 . This makes them attractive for snap-

together parts that must flex without failing.

Answer. The table lists the results. Only metals have both high fracture

toughness K 1c and high toughness G1c . That is one reason that they

are used for pressure vessels (boilers, submarine hulls, gas containers E 3.12 One criterion for design of a safe pressure vessel is that it should leak

etc). before it breaks: the leak can be detected and the pressure released. This

is achieved by designing the vessel to tolerate a crack of length equal to

Material Comment the thickness t of the pressure vessel wall, without failing by fast

High strength steels fracture. The safe pressure p is then

High strength nickel alloys All have high K 1c and high G1c

4 1 K Ic

2

Titanium alloys p

R f

E3.11 The elastic deflection at fracture (the resilience) of an elastic- vessel radius. The pressure is maximized by choosing the material with

brittle solid is proportional to the failure strain, fr = fr / E , where the greatest value of

fr is the stress that will cause a crack to propagate: K 12c

M =

K 1c y

fr =

c

Use the K 1c f chart of Figure 4.8 to identify three alloys that have

Here K 1c is the fracture toughness and c is the length of the longest particularly high values of M.

crack the materials may contain. Thus

Answer. Alloys with high values of K 12c / y , read from the chart, are listed

1 K 1c

fr = below

c E

Material Comment

Materials that can deflect elastically without fracturing are therefore Low alloy steels Traditional material for pressure vessels

those with large values of K 1c / E . Use the K1c E chart of Figure 4.7 Stainless steels Used for nuclear pressure vessels

to identify the class of materials with K 1c > 1 MPa.m1/2 and high values Copper alloys Small boilers are made of copper

Nickel alloys Reactors for chemical engineering and

of K 1c / E . turbine combustion chambers are made of

nickel based alloys.

E3.13 A material is required for the blade of a rotary lawn-mower. Cost is E 3.14 Bells ring because they have a low loss (or damping) coefficient, ;

a consideration. For safety reasons, the designer specified a minimum a high damping gives a dead sound. Use the Loss coefficient

fracture toughness for the blade: it is K 1c > 30 MPa m1/2. The other Modulus ( E ) chart of Figure 4.9 to identify material that should

mechanical requirement is for high hardness, H, to minimize blade make good bells.

wear. Hardness, in applications like this one, is related to strength:

H 3 y Answer. Materials with low loss coefficient, any of which could be used to

make a bell, are listed below.

where f is the strength (Chapter 4 gives a fuller definition). Use the

Material Comment

K 1c f chart of Figure 4.8 to identify three materials that have

Copper alloys The traditional material for bells:

1/2 bronzes and brasses

K 1c > 30 MPa m and the highest possible strength. To do this,

Glass, silica, SiO2 Glass makes excellent bells

position a " K 1c " selection line at 30 MPa m1/2 and then adjust a Ceramics: Al2O3, SiC Unusual choice, expensive, but

"strength" selection line such that it just admits three candidates. Use should work.

the Cost chart of Figure 4.19 to rank your selection by material cost,

hence making a final selection.

Answer. Applying the property limit K 1c > 30 MPam1/2, and reading of metals with the highest possible damping.

materials with f > 800 MPa, gives three groups of materials. Chart

4.19 identifies the price of each of these per unit volume. The steels are

Answer. Lead alloys have very high damping they are used to clad

far cheaper than the other two.

buildings to deaden sound and vibration. Magnesium alloys also have

Material Comment high damping: they are used to dampen vibration in machine tools.

High-strength steels Traditional material for blades

Material Comment

Nickel alloys Meets the requirements, but more Lead alloys Used to clad buildings to damp sound

expensive than steel and vibration

Titanium alloys Meets the requirements, but MUCH more Magnesium alloys Used to damp vibration in machine

expensive tools

E 3.16 The window through which the beam emerges from a high-powered E 3.18 Use the Strength-Maximum service temperature ( f Tmax ) chart

laser must obviously be transparent to light. Even then, some of the

energy of the beam is absorbed in the window and can cause it to heat (Figure 4.14) to find polymers that can be used above 2000 C.

and crack. This problem is minimized by choosing a window material

with a high thermal conductivity (to conduct the heat away) and a

low expansion coefficient (to reduce thermal strains), that is, by Answer. The chart shows just two classes of rigid polymer and one class of

seeking a window material with a high value of elastomer with maximum service temperatures greater than 200C. They

are listed below.

M = /

Material Comment

Use the chart of Figure 4.12 to identify the best material for an Polytetrafluorethylene, PTFE (Teflon) is used as non-stick

ultra-high powered laser window. PTFE coatings for cooking ware, easily surviving

Answer. The chart shows three transparent materials with high / : soda the temperatures of baking and frying.

glass, silica glass and alumina, which, in single crystal form (sapphire) Polyetheretherketone, PEEK is a high-temperature structural

or ultra-fine grained form (Lucalox) is transparent and hard. PEEK polymer. The problem is its cost about

Diamond, not shown on the chart, has an exceptionally high value: it 40 times that of polypropylene.

has been used for ultra high-powered laser windows. Silicone elastomers Silicones are polymers with a Si-O-Si

Material Comment chain structure instead of the C-C-C chain

Soda glass of polyolefins. They are more stable than

M = 3 x 105 W/m; poor resistance to thermal pulse carbon-based polymers, but expensive.

Silica glass M= 2 x 106 W/m; much better than soda glass

Alumina M = 3 x 106 W/m; a little better than silica glass

(sapphire)

(Diamond M = 3 x 108 W/m; not shown on chart, but E 3.19 (a) Use the Youngs modulus-Relative cost ( E C R ) chart (Figure

outstanding) 4.18) to find the cheapest materials with a modulus, E, greater than 100

GPa.

(b) Use the Strength-Relative cost ( f C R ) chart (Figure 4.19) to

E 3.17 Use the Thermal conductivity-Electrical resistivity ( e ) chart find the cheapest materials with a strength, f , above 100MPa.

(Figure 4.10) to find three materials with high thermal conductivity, ,

and high electrical resistivity, e .

Answer. Aluminum nitride is the best choice. The next best are alumina and Answer. (a) The two cheap classes of material that meet the constraints are

silicon carbide. cast irons and carbon steels.

Material Comment (b) Cast irons and steels are again the best choice. It is because of their

Aluminum nitride, AlN Favored material for heat sinks high stiffness and strength at low cost that they are so widely used.

requiring this combination of properties

Alumina, Al2O3 Both meet the requirements

Silicon carbide, SiC

E 3.20 Use the Friction coefficient chart, (Figure 4.15) to find two materials

with exceptionally low coefficient of friction.

Answer. PTFE and polyethylene (PE) have low coefficient of friction when

sliding on steel (and on most other materials). Both are used for the

sliding surface of skis.

molded in ABS or polyester GFRP. Use the appropriate production-

energy chart of Figure 16.7 to decide which choice minimizes the

material production energy.

and the density) is one axis of the chart of Figure 16.7 (b). It shows

that ABS wins. For a casing using the same volume of material, ABS

requires only one fifth of the production energy of aluminum.

Material Production energy/m3, H p , MJ/m3

ABS 1 x 105

GFRP 4 x 105

Aluminum 7 x 105

E4. Translation: constraints and objectives

Two rules-of-thumb, useful in many translation exercises. Many

Translation is the task of re-expressing design requirements in terms that applications require sufficient fracture toughness for the component can

enable material and process selection. Tackle the exercises by formulating survive mishandling and accidental impact during service; a totally brittle

the answers to the questions in this table. Dont try to model the behavior at material (like un-toughened glass) is unsuitable. Then a necessary constraint

this point (that comes in later exercises). Just think out what the component is that of adequate toughness. This is achieved by requiring that the

does, and list the constraints that this imposes on material choice, including

processing requirements. fracture toughness K 1c > 15 MPa.m 1 / 2 . Other applications require some

ductility, sufficient to allow stress redistribution under loading points, and

Function What does component do? some ability to bend or shape the material plastically. This is achieved by

Constraints What essential conditions must be met? requiring that the (tensile) ductility f > 2% .

Objective What is to be maximized or minimized? (If the CES software is available it can be used to impose the constraints and

Free variables What parameters of the problem is the to rank the survivors using the objective.)

designer free to change?

objectives. As the table says, a constraint is an essential condition that must

be met, usually expressed as a limit on a material or process attribute. An

objective is an quantity for which an extremum (a maximum or minimum) is

sought, frequently cost, mass or volume, but there are others, several of

which appear in the exercises below. Take the example of a bicycle frame. It

must have a certain stiffness and strength. If it is not stiff and strong enough

it will not work, but it is never required to have infinite stiffness or strength.

Stiffness and strength are therefore constraints that become limits on

modulus, elastic limit and shape. If the bicycle is for sprint racing, it should

be as light as possible if you could make it infinitely light, that would be

best of all. Minimizing mass, here, is the objective, perhaps with an upper

limit (a constraint) on cost. If instead it is a shopping bike to be sold through

supermarkets it should be as cheap as possible the cheaper it is, the more

will be sold. This time minimizing cost is the objective, possible with an

upper limit (a constraint) on mass. For most bikes, of course, minimizing

mass and cost are both objectives, and then trade-off methods are needed.

They come later. For now use judgement to choose the single most important

objective and make all others into constraints.

E4.1 A material is required for the windings of an electric air-furnace

capable of temperatures up to 1000oC. Think out what attributes a Function Scissors

material must have if it is to be made into windings and function Constraints High hardness

properly in a furnace. List the function and the constraints; set the

objective to minimize cost and the free variables to choice of Adequate toughness: K 1c > 15 MPa.m 1 / 2

material. Good wear resistance

Answer. If the material is to be used as windings it must be able to be drawn Able to be forged

to wire and wound to a coil, requiring ductility. It must conduct Objective Minimize material cost

electricity and be able to operate at 1000oC in air. The constraints are Free variables Choice of material

tabulated below.

Function High temperature furnace winding E4.3 A material is required for a heat exchanger to extract heat from

Constraints Maximum service temperature, Tmax > 1000 C geo-thermally heated, saline, water at 120oC (and thus under pressure).

Able to be rolled or drawn to wire List function and constraints; set the objective to minimize cost and

the free variables to choice of material.

Good electrical conductor

Some ductility so that it can be wound, Answer. The obvious constraints here are those on service-temperature,

f > 2% corrosion resistance, the ability to conduct heat well and strength.

There are manufacturing constraints too: if the heat exchanger is to be

Good resistance to oxidation at elevated made from tubes or folded sheet, the material must be available in

temperature these forms, and have sufficient ductility to allow manufacture.

Objective Minimize material cost

Function Heat exchanger

Free variables Choice of material

Constraints Maximum service temperature, Tmax > 120 C

Good thermal conductor

E4.2 A material is required to manufacture office scissors. Paper is an Resistance to corrosion in salt water:

abrasive material, and scissors sometimes encounter hard obstacles like good/excellent

staples. List function and constraints; set the objective to minimize

Sufficient strength to support the pressure of

cost and the free variables to choice of material.

the super-heated water

Answer. To resist abrasive wear the scissors must have blades of high Ability to be rolled to sheet or tube

hardness. In cutting, they will sooner or later encounter a staple or other

Adequate ductility to allow shaping,

hard obstruction that would chip a brittle blade some toughness is

required. These two parameters help reduce wear, but there are other f > 2%

factors that influence it, so it is sensible to specify good wear resistance. Objective Minimize material cost

Finally, the scissors must be formed if the handles are integral with

Free variables Choice of material

the blades, they must be forged or stamped from sheet, requiring the

ability to be processed in this way.

E4.4 A C-clamp is required for processing of electronic components at Function C-clamp of low thermal inertia

temperatures up to 450 oC. It is essential that the clamp have low

thermal inertia so that it reaches temperature quickly, and it must not Constraints Maximum service temperature, Tmax > 450 C

charge-up when exposed to an electron beam. The time t it takes a High thermal diffusivity, a

component of thickness x to reach thermal equilibrium when the

Sufficient strength to carry clamping loads

temperature is suddenly changed (a transient heat flow problem) is

without failure

x2 Electrical conductor (to prevent charging)

t

2a Objective Minimize material cost

Free variables Choice of material

where the thermal diffusivity a = / C p and is the thermal

conductivity, the density and C p the specific heat.

List function and constraints; set the objective to minimize cost and E4.5 A furnace is required to sinter powder-metal parts. It operates

the free variables to choice of material. continuously at 650 oC while the parts are fed through on a moving

belt. You are asked to select a material for furnace insulation to

minimize heat loss and thus to make the furnace as energy-efficient as

possible. For reasons of space the insulation is limited to a maximum

thickness of x = 0.2 m. List the function, constraints, objective and

free variable.

Answer. This is a problem involving steady-state heat flow. The heat lost

by conduction per unit area of insulation per second, q, is

T

Figure E1. q =

x

where is the thermal conductivity, x the insulation thickness and

Answer. If the C-clamp is to reach temperature quickly it must, according to T the temperature difference between the interior of the furnace and

the equation givenin the question, be made of a material with a high its surroundings. The aim is to minimize q, leading (via the equation)

thermal diffusivity, a. It carries loads, so it must have adequate to the objective of minimizing the thermal conductivity of the

strength, and it must not charge up, so it must be an electrical conductor. insulation material. There are two constraints: one on thickness, the

other on service temperature.

Answer. The objective is to minimize the radius of curvature at the contact.

This is limited by the hardness H and modulus E of the materials. The

Function Insulation for energy-efficient furnace objective is met by seeking materials with: maximimum hardness H to

Constraints Maximum service temperature, Tmax > 650 C enable the smallest possible area of contact without damage, and

maximum modulus E to minimize elastic flattening of the contact. In a

Insulation thickness x 0.2 m

later exercise we return to this problem of two objectives, treating it by

Objective Minimize thermal conductivity trade-off methods. Here we choose maximizing hardness as the primary

Free variables Choice of material objective, since deficiency here results in a damaged bearing. We then

treat modulus as a constraint, together with the other obvious constraints

suggested by the design requirements.

Function Rocking bearing

E4.6 Ultra-precise bearings that allow a rocking motion make use of knife-

edges or pivots. As the bearing rocks, it rolls, translating sideways by a Constraints Maximum service temperature, Tmax > 100 C

distance that depends on the radius of contact. The further it rolls, the Good electrical conductor

less precise is its positioning, so the smaller the radius of contact R the Good resistance to fluorine gas

better. But the smaller the radius of contact, the greater is the contact

High modulus, E

pressure (F/A). If this exceeds the hardness H of either face of the

bearing, it will be damaged. Elastic deformation is bad too: it flattens Objective Maximize hardness H of bearing faces

the contact, increasing the contact area and the roll. Free variables Choice of material

A rocking bearing is required to operate in a micro-chip fabrication unit

using fluorine gas at 100oC, followed by e-beam processing requiring E4.7 The standard CD (Jewel case) cracks easily and, if broken, can

that all structural parts of the equipment can be earthed to prevent stray scratch the CD. Jewel cases are made of injection molded polystyrene,

charges. Translate the requirements into material selection criteria, chosen because it is transparent, cheap and easy to mold. A material is

listing function, constraints, objective and free variable. sought to make CD cases that do not crack so easily. The case must still

be transparent, able to be injection molded, and able to compete with

polystyrene in cost.

Answer. The question expresses constraints on transparency, moudablity and

fracture toughness (it must be greater than that of polystyrene). Given

these, the cheapest material is the best choice.

Constraints Optically transparent

Fracture toughness greater than that of

polystyrene

Able to be injection molded

Objective Minimize material cost

Figure E2 Free variables Choice of material

E4.8 A storage heater captures heat over a period of time, then releases it,

usually to an air stream, when required. Those for domestic heating

store solar energy or energy from cheap off-peak electricity and release

it slowly during the cold part of the day. Those for research release the

heat to a supersonic air stream to test system behavior in supersonic

flight. What is a good material for the core of a compact storage

material capable of temperatures up to 120oC?

Answer. When a material is heated from room temperature To to a working

temperature T, it absorbs heat Q per unit volume where

Q = C p ( T To )

and C p is the specific heat of the material of the core (in J/kg.C) and

is its density (in kg/m3). Thus the most compact storage heater is

one made from a material with a high C p . Even a small storage

heater contains a considerable quantity of core (that is why they are

heavy), so it is probable that an objective will be to minimize its cost

per unit volume. If, however, space were critical, maximizing C p

might become the objective.

Constraints Maximum service temperature, Tmax > 120 C

High heat capacity per unit volume C p

Free variables Choice of material

E5. Deriving and using material indices To avoid this, the newest shadow masks are made of Invar, a nickel

The exercises in this section give practice in deriving indices. alloy with a near-zero expansion coefficient between room temperature

and 150C. It is a consequence of shadow-mask technology that the

(a) Start each by listing function, constraints, objectives and free variables; glass screen of the CRT curves inward on all four edges, increasing the

without having those straight, you will get in a mess. Then write down probability of reflected glare.

an equation for the objective. Consider whether it contains a free

variable other than material choice; if it does, identify the constraint that Sonys Trinitron technology overcomes this problem and allows

limits it, substitute, and read off the material index. greater brightness by replacing the shadow mask by an aperture grill of

(b) If the CES Edu software is available, use it to apply the constraints and fine vertical wires, each about 200 m in thickness, that allows the

rank the survivors using the index (start with the Level 2 database). Are intended beam to strike either the red, the green or the blue phosphor to

the results sensible? If not, what constraint has been overlooked or create the image. The glass face of the Trinitron tube is curved in one

incorrectly formulated? plane only, reducing glare.

The wires of the aperture grill are tightly stretched, so that they remain

taut even when hot it is this tension that allows the greater brightness.

E5.1 Aperture grills for cathode ray tubes (Figure E3). Two types of What index guides the choice of material to make them? The table

cathode ray tube (CRT) dominate the computer monitor and television summarises the requirements.

marketplace. In the older technology, colour separation is achieved by

using a shadow mask: a thin metal plate with a grid of holes that allow

only the correct beam to strike a red, green or blue phosphor. A shadow Function Aperture grill for CRT

mask can heat up and distort at high brightness levels (doming), Constraints Wire thickness and spacing specified

causing the beams to miss their targets, and giving a blotchy image. Must carry pre-tension without failure

Electrically conducting to prevent charging

Able to be drawn to wire

Objective Maximize permitted temperature rise without

loss of tension

Free variables Choice of material

Answer.

The model. A thin, taut wire slackens and sags when the strain due to

thermal expansion,

th = T

exceeds the elastic strain caused by the pre-tension,

Figure E3

= .

Here is the thermal expansion coefficient of the wire, T the

The final choice, using this database, is stainless steel or tungsten. If

temperature rise caused by the electron beams that strike it, the the selection is repeated using the more detailed Level 3 database,

tensile pre-stress in the wire and E its modulus. We wish to maximize carbon fiber emerges as a potential candidate. Carbon fibre of the

the brightness, and thus T . desired diameter is available; it conducts well, both electrically and

The tension is limited by the elastic limit of the wire, f . Inserting thermally, it has high strength and best of all it has almost zero

this and writing thermal expansion along the fiber direction.

pt th

as the condition that the wire remains taut gives E5.2 Material indices for elastic beams with differing constraints (Figure

f E4). Start each of the four parts of this problem by listing the function,

T = . the objective and the constraints. You will need the equations for the

E deflection of a cantilever beam with a square cross-section t x t, given in

The result could hardly be simpler. To maximize the brightness, Appendix A, Section A3. The two that matter are that for the deflection

maximize of a beam of length L under an end load F:

f

M = . F L3

E =

3 EI

There is a second requirement. The wires must conduct, otherwise they and that for the deflection of a beam under a distributed load f per unit

would charge up, distorting the image. We therefore require, also, that length:

the material be a good electrical conductor and that it is capable of

being rolled or drawn to wire. 1 f L4

=

8 EI

The selection. Applying the constraints listed in the table above to the

CES Edu Level 1 or 2 database and ranking the survivors by the index where I = t 4 / 12 . For a self-loaded beam f = A g where is the

M leads to the selection listed below. density of the material of the beam, A its cross-sectional area and g the

acceleration due to gravity.

Material Comment (a) Show that the best material for a cantilever beam of given length L and

Carbon steel Carbon steel is ferro-magnetic, so will interact given (i.e. fixed) square cross-section (t x t) that will deflect least under

with the scanning magnetic fields reject. a given end load F is that with the largest value of the index M = E,

where E is Young's modulus (neglect self-weight). (Figure E4a.)

Stainless steel Austenitic stainless steels are non-magnetic and

available as fine wire a viable choice. (b) Show that the best material choice for a cantilever beam of given length

Tungsten A logical choice tungsten has a high melting L and with a given section (t x t) that will deflect least under its own

point and is routinely produced as fine wire self-weight is that with the largest value of M = E/, where is the

density. (Figure E4b.)

Nickel-based alloys Many nickel alloys are weakly ferromagnetic

reject for the same reason as carbon steel

(c) Show that the material index for the lightest cantilever beam of length L Answer.

and square section (not given, i.e., the area is a free variable) that will not

The model. The point of this problem is that the material index

deflect by more than under its own weight is M = E / 2 . (Figure depends on the mode of loading, on the geometric constraints and on

E4c.) the design goal.

(d) Show that the lightest cantilever beam of length L and square section

(a) The table lists the design requirements for part (a) of the problem.

(area free) that will not deflect by more than under an end load F is

that made of the material with the largest value of M = E 1 / 2 / Function End-loaded cantilever beam

(neglect self weight). (Figure E4d.) Constraints Length L specified

Section t x t specified

End load F specified

Objective Minimize the deflection,

Free variables Choice of material only

An end-load F produces a deflection of

F L3

=

3 EI

second moment of the area, so that the deflection becomes

F L3 1

= 4

t4 E

The magnitude of the load F and the dimensions L and t are all

given. The deflection is minimized by maximizing

M1 = E

Figure E4 (b) The design requirements for part (b) are listed below

Function Self-loaded cantilever beam

Constraints Length L specified

Section t x t specified

Objective Minimize the deflection,

Free variables Choice of material only

The beam carries a distributed load, f per unit length, where

Substituting for t (the free variable) from the second equation into the

f = gt2 first, gives

where is the density of the beam material and g is the acceleration 3 g L5 2

m =

due to gravity. Such a load produces a deflection (Appendix A, 2 E

Section A3)

The quantities L and are given. The mass is minimized by

3 f L4 3 g L4

= = maximizing

2 Et4 2t2 E

E

M3 =

(the objective function). As before, t and L are given. The

2

deflection is minimized by maximizing

E

M2 =

(d) The design requirements for part (d) are listed below

Function End-loaded cantilever beam

Constraints Length L specified

(c) The design requirements for part (c) are listed below End-load F specified

Function Self-loaded cantilever beam Maximum deflection, , specified

Constraints Length L specified Objective Minimize the mass, m

Maximum deflection, , specified Free variables Choice of material

Objective Minimize the mass, m Section area A = t 2

Free variables Choice of material

Section area A = t 2 The section is square, but the dimension t is free. The objective

function is

The beam deflects under its own weight but now the section can be m = t2L

varied to reduce the weight provided the deflection does not exceed ,

as in the figure. The objective function (the quantity to be minimized) The deflection is, as in part (a)

is the mass m of the beam F L3 1

= 4

m = t2 L t4 E

Using this to eliminate the free variable, t, gives

1/ 2

F L5

m = 2

1/ 2

E

The quantities F , and L are given. The mass is minimized by E5.3 Material index for a light, strong beam (Figure E5). In stiffness-

maximizing limited applications, it is elastic deflection that is the active constraint: it

limits performance. In strength-limited applications, deflection is

E1/ 2 acceptable provided the component does not fail; strength is the active

M4 = constraint. Derive the material index for selecting materials for a beam

of length L, specified strength and minimum weight. For simplicity,

From a selection standpoint, M3 and M4 are equivalent. assume the beam to have a solid square cross-section t x t. You will need

the equation for the failure load of a beam (Appendix A, Section A4). It

The selection. Applying the three indices to the CES Edu Level 1 or 2 is

database gives the top-ranked candidates listed below.

I f

Ff =

Index Material choice ym L

Metals: tungsten alloys, steels. where y m is the distance between the neutral axis of the beam and its

High M1 = E Ceramics: SiC, Si3N4, B4C and AlN, but of

course all are brittle. outer filament and I = t 4 / 12 = A 2 / 12 is the second moment of the

Metals: aluminum, magnesium, titanium alloys cross-section. The table itemizes the design requirements.

E and steels all have almost the same value of

High M 2 = E/

Composites: CFRP

Ceramics SiC, Si3N4, B4C and AlN

Metals: aluminum and magnesium alloys

superior to all other metals. Figure E5

E1/ 2

High M 4 = Composites: CFRP excels

Ceramics: SiC, Si3N4, B4C and AlN Function Beam

Constraints Length L is specified

Beam must support a bending load F

without yield or fracture

Objective Minimize the mass of the beam

Free variables Cross-section area, A

Choice of material

Answer.

The model. The objective is to minimize the mass, giving the objective The selection. Applying the constraint on K 1c and ranking by the index

function M using the CES Edu Level 1 or 2 database gives the top-ranked

candidates listed below.

m = AL

Material Comment

Inverting the equation given in the question leads to an expression for CFRP Exceptionally good, mainly because of

the area A that will support the design load F: its very low density.

2/3 Metals: titanium,

F L

A = 6 aluminum and Here the light alloys out-perform steel

f magnesium alloys

Substituting A into the objective function gives the mass of the beam

that will just support the load F f : E5.4 Material index for a cheap, stiff column (Figure E6).

In the last two exercises the objective has been that of minimizing weight.

m = (6 F ) L

2/3 5 / 3 There are many others. In the selection of a material for a spring, the

2/3 objective is that of maximizing the elastic energy it can store. In seeking

f materials for thermal-efficient insulation for a furnace, the best are those

The mass is minimized by selecting materials with the largest values with the lowest thermal conductivity and heat capacity. And most

of the index common of all is the wish to minimize cost. So here is an example

involving cost.

2/3

f Columns support compressive loads: the legs of a table; the pillars of the

M= Parthenon. Derive the index for selecting materials for the cheapest

cylindrical column of specified height, H, that will safely support a load F

without buckling elastically. You will need the equation for the load

Fcrit at which a slender column buckles. It is

If the cantilever is part of a mechanical system it is important that it

have sufficient fracture toughness to survive accidental impact loads.

n2E I

For this we add the requirement of adequate toughness: Fcrit =

H2

K 1c > 15 MPa .m 1 / 2

where n is a constant that depends on the end constraints and

I = r 4 / 4 = A 2 / 4 is the second moment of area of the column (see

Appendix A for both). The table lists the requirements.

The selection. The loading here is compressive, so brittle materials are

viable candidates. Since some are also very cheap, they dominate the

Function Cylindrical column selection. Applying the index M to the CES Edu Level 1 or 2 database

Constraints Length L is specified gives the top-ranked candidates listed below.

Column must support a

compressive load F without

buckling Material Comment

Objective Minimize the material Ceramics: brick, The low cost and fairly high

cost of the column concrete and stone modulus makes these the top-ranked

Free variables Cross-section area, A candidates.

Choice of material Wood Exceptional stiffness parallel to the

grain, and cheap.

Carbon steel, cast iron Steel out-performs all other metals

Figure E6 when strength at low cost is sought.

Answer.

The model. A slender column uses less material than a fat one, and

thus is cheaper; but it must not be so slender that it will buckle under the E5.5 Indices for stiff plates and shells (Figure E7). Aircraft and space

design load, F. The objective function is the cost structures make use of plates and shells. The index depends on the

configuration. Here you are asked to derive the material index for

C = A H Cm

(a) a circular plate of radius a carrying a central load W with a prescribed

Where C m is the cost/kg of the material* of the column. It will buckle

stiffness S = W / and of minimum mass, and

elastically if F exceeds the Euler load, Fcrit , given in the question.

Eliminating A between the two equations, using the definition of I, (b) a hemispherical shell of radius a carrying a central load W with a

gives: prescribed stiffness S = W / and of minimum mass, as shown in the

1/2

figures.

4F C

C H 2 m

n E 1/2

with the largest value of the index

E1 2

M=

Cm

*

Cm is the cost/kg of the processed material, here, the material in the form of

a circular rod or column.

Figure E7

Use the two results listed below for the mid-point deflection of a

plate or spherical shell under a load W applied over a small central, Inserting this into the equation for the mass gives

circular area. 1/ 3

3 S a2

3 Wa 2

3 + m = a2

1 / 3 f ( )

Circular plate: = ( 1 2 ) 4 E

4 E t3 1 +

The lightest plate is that made from a material with a large value of the

Wa

Hemispherical shell = A ( 1 2 ) index

Et2

in which A 0.35 is a constant. Here E is Youngs modulus, t is the

thickness of the plate or shell and is Poissons ratio. Poissons ratio E1/ 3

M1 =

is almost the same for all structural materials and can be treated as a

constant. The table summarizes the requirements.

(a) The hemispherical shell The objective again is to minimize the mass,

Function Stiff circular plate, or m

Stiff hemispherical shell

Constraints Stiffness S under central load W specified m = 2 a2 t

Radius a of plate or shell specified

Inverting the second equation in the question gives, for the shell,

Objective Minimize the mass of the plate or shell

Free variables Plate or shell thickness, t Sa

1/ 2

Choice of material t = A f 2 ( )

E

Answer. where f 2 ( ) as before is a function of , and thus a constant. Inserting

(a) The plate. The objective is to minimize the mass, m this into the equation for the mass gives

m = a2 t

m = 2 a 2 ( A S a )1 / 2 f ( )

where is the density of the material of which the plate is made. The E1/ 2

thickness t is free, but must be sufficient to meet the constraint on The lightest shell is that made from a material with a large value of the

stiffness. Inverting the first equation in the question gives, for the plate, index

1/ 3

3 S a2

t = f 1 ( ) E1/ 2

4 E M2 =

where f 1 ( ) is simply a function of , and thus a constant.

The index for the shell differs from that for the plate, requiring a

different choice of material. This is because the flat plate, when loaded,

deforms by bending. The hemispherical shell, by contrast, carries

membrane stresses (tension and compression in the plane of the shell

wall), and because of this is much stiffer. Singly-curved shells behave

like the plate, doubly-curved shells like the hemisphere.

The selection. Applying the three indices to the CES Edu Level 1 or 2

database gives the top-ranked candidates listed below.

High M 1 = Composites: CFRP

Figure E8

E 1/ 2 Metals: aluminum and magnesium alloys The time to reach thermal equilibrium is reduced by making the section

High M 2 = superior to all other metals. x thinner, but it must not be so thin that it fails in service. Use this

Composites: CFRP constraint to eliminate x in the equation above, thereby deriving a

Ceramics: SiC, Si3N4, B4C and AlN material index for the clamp. Use the fact that the clamping force F

creates a moment on the body of the clamp of M = F L , and that the

peak stress in the body is given by

xM

=

E5.6 The C-clamp in more detail (Figure E8). Exercise E4.4 introduced 2 I

the C-clamp for processing of electronic components. The clamp has a

square cross-section of width x and given depth b. It is essential that the where I = b x 3 / 12 is the second moment of area of the body. The

clamp have low thermal inertia so that it reaches temperature quickly. table summarizes the requirements.

The time t it takes a component of thickness x to reach thermal

equilibrium when the temperature is suddenly changed (a transient heat Function C-clamp of low thermal inertia

flow problem) is Constraints Depth b specified

x2 Must carry clamping load F without failure

t Objective Minimize time to reach thermal equilibrium

2a

Free variables Width of clamp body, x

where the thermal diffusivity a = / C p and is the thermal Choice of material

conductivity, the density and C p the specific heat.

Answer. The clamp will fail if the stress in it exceeds its elastic limit E5.7 Springs for trucks. In vehicle suspension design it is desirable to

f . Equating the peak stress to f and solving for x gives minimize the mass of all components. You have been asked to select a

material and dimensions for a light spring to replace the steel leaf-spring

1/ 2 of an existing truck suspension. The existing leaf-spring is a beam,

FL shown schematically in the figure. The new spring must have the same

x = 6

b f length L and stiffness S as the existing one, and must deflect through a

maximum safe displacement max without failure. The width b and

Inserting this into the equation for the time to reach equilibrium gives thickness t are free variables.

F L 1

t =3

b a f

The time is minimized by choosing materials with large values of the

index

M = a f .

Additional constraints on modulus E > 50 GPa (to ensure that the clamp

is sufficiently stiff) on fracture toughness K 1c > 18 MPa.m 1 / 2 (to

guard against accidental impact) and on formability will, in practice, be

needed. Figure E9

ranking by the index M using the CES Edu Level 1 or 2 database gives Derive a material index for the selection of a material for this application.

the top-ranked candidates listed below. Note that this is a problem with two free variables: b and t; and there are

two constraints, one on safe deflection max and the other on stiffness S.

Use the two constraints to fix free variables. The table catalogs the

Material Comment requirements.

Aluminum alloys The obvious candidate good thermal Function Leaf spring for truck

conductor, adequately stiff and strong, and easy Constraints Length L specified

to work. Stiffness S specified

Copper alloys Here the high thermal diffusivity of copper is Maximum displacement max specified

dominating the selection. Objective Minimize the mass

Free variables Spring thickness t

Spring width b

Choice of material

You will need the equation for the mid-point deflection of an elastic Equations (2) and (3) can now be solved for t and b, and these

beam of length L loaded in three-point bending by a central load F: substituted back into (1). The result is

1 F L3

= 2 E

48 E I m = 9 S max L

2f

and that for the deflection at which failure occurs

1f L

max =

6 tE 2f

M =

where I is the second moment of area; for a beam of rectangular E

section, I = b t 3 / 12 and E and f are the modulus and failure stress Additional constraints on fracture toughness K 1c > 15 MPa.m 1 / 2 (to

of the material of the beam. (See Appendix A.) guard against accidental impact) and on formability will, in practice, be

needed.

The selection. Applying the constraint on K 1c and formability, and

Answer

ranking by the index M using the CES Edu Level 1 or 2 database gives

The model. The objective function the quantity to be minimized is the top-ranked candidates listed below.

the mass m of the spring:

m = bt L (1) Material Comment

where is its density. The length L is fixed. The dimensions b and t Elastomers (rubber) Oops! we have missed a constraint here.

Elastomers excel as light springs, but the

are free. There are two constraints. The first is a required stiffness, S. constraint on thickness t and depth b in this

From the first equation given in the question application translates via equation (2) into an

additional constraint on modulus:

F EI E bt3

S = = 48 = 4 (2) E > SL3 / 4bt 3 .

L3 L3

Titanium alloys An expensive solution, but one that is lighter

The second constraint is that of a maximum allowable displacement than steel.

max without damage to the spring, given in the question as CFRP CFRP makes exceptionally good light springs.

2 High carbon steel The standard solution, but one that is heavier

1f L than the others above.

max = (3)

6 tE

E5.8 Disposable knives and forks (Figure E10). Disposable knives and

forks are ordered by an environmentally-conscious pizza-house. The This is a straightforward application of the method illustrated by

shape of each (and thus the length, width and profile) are fixed, but the exercise E5.2; the only difference is that energy content, not weight, is

thickness is free: it is chosen to give enough bending-stiffness to cut and minimized. The free variable is the thickness of the shaft of the fork; all

impale the pizza without excessive flexure. The pizzeria-proprietor other dimensions are fixed. There are two alternative constraints, first,

wishes to enhance the greenness of his image by minimizing the energy- that the fork should not flex too much, second, that it should not fail.

content of his throw-away tableware, which could be molded from

polystyrene (PS) or stamped from aluminum sheet.

Function Environmentally friendly disposable forks

Constraints Length L specified

Width b specified

Stiffness S specified, or

Failure load F is specified

Objective Minimize the material energy-content

Free variables Shaft thickness t

Choice of material

Figure E10 The selection can be implemented using Figures 16.8 and 16.9 of the

text. If the CES software is available, make a chart with the stiffness

index as one axis and the strength index as the other. The materials that

Establish an appropriate material index for selecting materials for best meet both criteria lie at the top right.

energy-economic forks. Model the eating implement as a beam of fixed

length L and width w, but with a thickness t that is free, loaded in

bending, as in the figure. The objective-function is the volume of

material in the fork times its energy content, H p , per unit volume

( H p is the production energy per kg, and the density). The limit on

flexure imposes a stiffness constraint (Appendix A, Section A3). Use

this information to develop the index.

Flexure, in cutlery, is an inconvenience. Failure whether by plastic

deformation or by fracture is more serious: it causes loss-of-function;

it might even cause hunger. Repeat the analysis, deriving an index

when a required strength is the constraint.

E5.9 Fin for a rocket (Figure E11). A tube-launched rocket has stabilizing . If the heating time is small compared with the characteristic time for

fins at its rear. During launch the fins experience hot gas at heat to diffuse through the fin, a quasi steady-state exists in which the

T g = 1700oC for a time t = 0.3 seconds. It is important that the fins surface temperature adjusts itself such that the heat entering from the gas

survive launch without surface melting. Suggest a material index for is equal to that diffusing inwards by conduction. This second is equal to

selecting a material for the fins. The table summarizes the (Ts Ti )

requirements. q =

x

where is the thermal conductivity, Ti is the temperature of the (cold)

interior of the fin, and x is a characteristic heat-diffusion length. When

the heating time is short (as here) the thermal front, after a time t, has

penetrated a distance

x (2 a t )1 / 2

Figure E11 x in the previous equation gives

( ) (Ts Ti )

q = C p 1/ 2

Function High heat-transfer rocket fins x

Constraints All dimensions specified

where is the density and C p the specific heat of the material of the

Must not suffer surface melting during

exposure to gas at 1700 C for 0.3 sec. fin.

Objective Minimize the surface temperature rise during Proceed by equating the two equations for q, solving for the surface

firing temperature Ts to give the objective function. Read off the

Maximize the melting point of the material

combination of properties that minimizes Ts ; it is the index for the

Free variables Choice of material

problem.

This is tricky. Heat enters the surface of the fin by transfer from the The selection is made by seeking materials with large values of the

gas. If the heat transfer coefficient is h, the heat flux per unit area is index and with a high melting point, Tm . If the CES software is

available, make a chart with these two as axes and identify materials

q = h ( T g Ts ) with high values of the index that also have high melting points.

where Ts is the surface temperature of the fin the critical quantity we

wish to minimize. Heat is diffuses into the fin surface by thermal

conduction.

Answer. Equating the equations and solving for Ts gives

1e8

h Tg t + C p Ti Copper alloys

Ts =

1e7

h t + Cp Al-SiC composite Nickel alloys Silicon Carbide

When t = 0 the surface temperature Ts = Ti and the fin is completely 1e6

Steels

cold. When t is large, Ts = T g and the surface temperature is equal to Zinc alloys

the gas temperature. For a given t, Ts is minimized by maximizing 100000 Magnesium alloys Tungsten alloys

10000

Alumina

M1 = C p

Polymers

Titanium alloys

1000

and index that often appears in problems involving transient heat flow.

Melting is also made less likely by choosing a material with a high

melting point Tm . The second index is therefore 100

M 2 = Tm

10

100 1000 10000

The selection. The figure shows the two indices, created using the CES M2 = Melting Point (C)

Edu 2 database. The top-ranked candidates are listed below.

Material Comment

Silicon carbide, SiC Silicon carbide out-performs all metals except

tungsten, and is much lighter. If used, its

brittleness would have to be reckoned with..

Copper alloys The exceptional thermal conductivity of copper

is dominating here it is able to conduct heat

away from the surface quickly, limiting the

surface heating.

Aluminum alloys An attractive choice, since Al-alloys are also

light

Aluminum Silicon This metal matrix composite has almost the

carbide MMC thermal conductivity of aluminum and is stiffer

and stronger.

E6. Selecting processes Answer. (a) The function

The exercises of this section use the process selection charts of Chapters 7 and constraints are listed in the table.

and 8. They are useful in giving a feel for process attributes and the way in

which process choice depends on material and the shape. Here the CES

software offers greater advantages: what is cumbersome and of limited Function Shape an elevator quadrant

resolution with the charts is easy with the software, which offers much Constraints Material class: aluminum or magnesium alloy

greater resolution. Shape class: 3D-solid

Each exercise has three parts, labeled (a), (b) and (c). The first involves Mass: 5 kg

translation. The second uses the selection charts of Chapter 7 (which you are Minimum section: 5 mm

free to copy) in the way that was illustrated in Chapter 8. The third involves

the use of the CES software if available. Tolerance: 0.5 mm, (0.05mm on bearing

surfaces)

Surface roughness: 10 m (1 m on bearing

E6.1 Elevator control quadrant (Figure E12). The quadrant sketched here surfaces)

is part of the control system for the wing-elevator of a commercial Planned batch size of 100 - 200

aircraft. It is to be made of a light alloy (aluminum or magnesium) with Objective --

the shape shown in the figure. It weighs about 5 kg. The minimum

section thickness is 5 mm, and apart from the bearing surfaces the

Free variables Choice of process

requirements on surface finish and precision are not strict: surface finish

10 m and precision 0.5 mm. The bearing surfaces require a surface (b) These constraints are applied to the selection charts, shown as

finish 1 m and a precision 0.05 mm. A production run of 100 Charts EA1 to EA7, below. The material constraint limits the selection

200 is planned. to those shown in the first column of the next table. The shape

(a) Itemize the function and constraints, leave the objective blank and constraint eliminates two, leaving those in the second column. All of

enter Choice of process for the free variable. these can meet the constraints on size and section, which are not

restrictive. The tolerance and roughness constraints on the body are not

(b) Use copies of the charts of met by sand casting, though it is worth asking if they have been over-

Chapter 7 in succession to specified. Those on the bearing surfaces are much more restrictive

identify processes to shape the only machining from solid achieves them. The answer here is not to

quadrant. reject the others, but to add a finishing step, shown at the bottom of

(c) If the CES software is Figures E6.5 and E6.6. The result is the list shown in the third column.

available, apply the constraints Economics are important here the batch-size chart of Figure E6.7

and identify in more detail the suggests that only the three listed in the last column are economic at a

viable processes. batch size of 100 200.

The conclusion: explore investment casting, forging (both with

additional machining steps) and numerically controlled machining from

Figure E12 solid.

The processes surviving the successive applications of the constraints on E6.2 Casing for an electric plug (Figure E13). The electric plug is

the quadrant perhaps the commonest of electrical products. It has a number of

Processes Processes that Processes Processes that components, each performing one or more functions. The most

passing the survive the meeting the are economic at obvious are the casing and the pins, though there are many more

material shape tolerance a batch of 100 - (connectors, a cable clamp, fasteners, and, in some plugs, a fuse).

constraint. constraint constraint 200 The task is to investigate processes for shaping the two-part

Sand casting Sand casting FAILS insulating casing, the thinnest part of which is 2 mm thick. Each part

Die casting Die casting Die casting plus FAILS weighs about 30 grams and is to be made in a single step from a

machining thermoplastic or thermosetting polymer with a planned batch size of 5

Investment Investment Investment Investment x 104 2 x 106. The required tolerance of 0.3 mm and surface

casting casting casting plus casting plus roughness of 1 m must be achieved without using secondary

machining machining operations.

Low pressure Low pressure Low pressure FAILS (a) Itemize the function and constraints, leave the objective blank

casting casting casting plus and enter Choice of process for the free variable.

machining

Forging Forging Forging plus Forging plus (b) Use the charts of Chapter 7 successively to identify possible

machining machining processes to make the casing

Extrusion FAILS (c) Use the CES software to select materials for the casing.

Sheet forming FAILS

Powder methods Powder methods Powder methods FAILS

Machine from Machine from Machine from Machine from

solid solid solid solid

(c) Using CES to apply the constraints gives the selection shown in the

below.

Selection using CES Comment

CES Level 2 links the shape (3-D solid) to

Investment casting closed die forging, for which the economic

batch size is > 1000. The charts give a range

Machining from solid that includes open die forging, not practical for

such a complex shape.

Figure E13

Answer. (a) The table lists the function and constraints. E6.3 Ceramic valves for taps (Figure E14). Few things are more irritating

than a dripping tap. Taps drip because the rubber washer is worn or the

Function Shape an electric plug casing

brass seat is pitted by corrosion, or both. Ceramics wear well, and they

Constraints Material class: thermoplastic or thermosetting have excellent corrosion resistance in both pure and salt water. Many

polymer household taps now use ceramic valves.

Shape class: 3D-solid

The sketch shows how they work. A ceramic valve consists of two

Mass: 0.03 kg disks mounted one above the other, spring-loaded so that their faces are

Minimum section: 2 mm in contact. Each disk has a diameter of 20 mm, a thickness of 3 mm and

Tolerance: 0.3 mm weighs about 10 grams. In order to seal well, the mating surfaces of the

Surface roughness: 1m two disks must be flat and smooth, requiring high levels of precision

and surface finish; typically tolerance < 0.02 mm and surface

Planned batch size of 5 x104 2 x106 roughness < 0.1 m. The outer face of each has a slot that registers it,

Objective -- and allows the upper disc to be rotated through 90o (1/4 turn). In the

Free variables Choice of process off position the holes in the upper disc are blanked off by the solid

part of the lower one; in the on position the holes are aligned. A

production run of 105 106 is envisaged.

(b) Here we seek a net-shape process the casing must be shaped in one

operation without the need for any further finishing. Applying the (a) List the function and constraints, leave the objective blank and enter

constraints as shown in Charts EA1 to EA7, below, eliminating Choice of process for the free variable.

processes that fail a constraint in the manner of the table shown in

exercise E6.1, leaves two candidates: injection molding and (b) Use the charts of Chapter 7 to identify possible processes to make the

compression molding. casing.

(c) Use the CES software to select materials for the casing.

(c) Using CES to apply the constraints gives the selection shown in the

below.

Selection using CES Comment

Injection molding The selection is identical with that derived

Compression molding from the charts, but the software also

delivers data files containing supporting

information for each process.

Figure E14

Answer. (a) The table lists the function and constraints.

Function Shape a ceramic valve

Constraints Material class: technical ceramic

Shape class: prismatic

Mass: 0.01 kg

Minimum section: 3 mm

Tolerance: 0.02 mm

Surface roughness: 0.1m

Planned batch size of 105 106

Objective --

Free variables Choice of process

below, eliminating processes that fail a constraint in the manner of the

table shown in exercise E6.1, leaves only one candidate: powder

methods.

(c) Applying CES to the problem gives the selection shown in the

below.

Selection using CES Comment

Pressing and sintering several powder processes. The

two listed here meet all the

Powder injection molding requirements except those on

precision and tolerance they

must be added by a separate The Process-Material matrix

grinding and polishing operation..

The Process-Shape matrix The Process-Mass range chart

The Process-Section thickness chart The Process-Tolerance chart

The Process-Roughness chart

The Economic batch-size chart

E6.4 Shaping plastic bottles

(b) Applying the constraints as shown on the Charts eliminating

(Figure E15). Plastic bottles

processes that fail a constraint in the manner of the table shown in

are used to contain fluids as

exercise E6.1, leaves only two candidates: blow molding and injection

various as milk and engine

molding.

oil. A typical polyethylene

bottle weighs about 30 grams

and has a wall thickness of

about 0.8 mm. The shape is 3- (c) Applying CES to the problem gives the selection shown in the

D hollow. The batch size is below.

large (1,000,000 bottles).

What process could be used

to make them? Selection using CES Comment

(a) List the function and

constraints, leave the objective blank and Figure E15 enter At the CES selection at Level 1 and 2 is the

Choice of process for the free variable. Blow molding same as that derived from the charts. At

Level 3 CES distinguishes two variants of

(b) Use the charts of Chapter 7 to identify possible processes to make Injection molding

blow molding, identifying injection blow

the casing. molding, as the best choice because it can

(d) Use the CES software to select materials for the casing. provide the desired change of section.

Commercially, plastic bottles are made using

injection blow molding.

Answer. (a) The table lists the function and constraints.

Function Shape a polyethylene bottle

Constraints Material class: Polyethylene (or thermoplastic)

Shape class: 3-D hollow

Mass: 0.02 0.04 kg

Minimum section: 0.7 - 1 mm

Tolerance: 1 mm

Surface roughness: 10 m

Planned batch size of > 106

Objective --

Free variables Choice of process

E6.5 Car hood (bonnet) (Figure E16). As weight-saving assumes greater

Answer. (a) The table lists the function and constraints.

importance in automobile design, the replacement of steel parts with

polymer-composite substitutes becomes increasingly attractive. Weight Function Shape a car hood

can be saved by replacing a steel hood with one made from a

Constraints Material class: Thermosetting composite

thermosetting composites. The weight of the hood depends on the car

model: a typical composite hood weighs is 8 - 10 kg. The shape is a Shape class: Dished sheet

dished-sheet and the requirements on tolerance and roughness are 0.2 Mass: 8 10 kg

mm and 2 m, respectively. A production run of 100,000 is envisaged. Minimum section: 3 mm

(a) List the function and constraints, leave the objective blank and enter Tolerance: 1 mm

Choice of process for the free variable. Surface roughness: 2 m

(b) Use the charts of Chapter 7 to identify possible processes to make Planned batch size of 100,000

the casing.

Objective --

(c) Use the CES software to select materials for the casing.

Free variables Choice of process

that fail a constraint in the manner of the table shown in exercise E6.1,

leaves resin transfer molding as the prime choice.

(c) Applying CES to the problem gives the selection shown in the

below.

Selection using CES Comment

Resin transfer molding the same as that derived from the charts.

At Level 3 CES gives also SMC

molding. Commercially, that is the most

commonly used process.

E6.6 Complex structural channels (Figure E17). Channel sections for Answer. (a) The table lists the function and constraints.

window frames, for slide-together sections for versatile assembly and

for ducting for electrical wiring can be complex in shape. The figure Function Shape an aluminum section with a complex profile

shows an example. The order is for 10,000 such sections, each 1 m in Constraints Material class: aluminum alloy

length and weighing 1.2 kg, with a minimum section of 4 mm. A Shape class: prismatic, non-circular

tolerance of 0.2 mm and a surface roughness of less than 1 m must be

Mass: 1.2 kg

achieved without any additional finishing operation.

Minimum section: 4 mm

(a) List the function and constraints, leave the objective blank and enter Tolerance: 0.2 mm

Choice of process for the free variable. Surface roughness: 1 m

(b) Use the charts of Chapter 7 to identify possible processes to make Planned batch size of 10,000

the casing. Objective --

(c) Use the CES software to select materials for the casing. Free variables Choice of process

processes that fail a constraint in the manner of the table shown in

exercise E6.1, leaves extrusion and die-casting as viable candidates.

The re-entrant profile makes die casting extremely difficult, leaving

extrusion as the best choice.

(c) Applying CES to the problem gives the selection shown in the

below.

Selection using CES Comment

Extrusion prismatic sections. In practice a

Die casting section as complex as that shown in the

Figure E17 Powder pressing and sintering figure would require dies of such

Sheet forming complexity that die casting and powder

methods are not viable. Complex

prismatic sections can be made by

sheet forming, but not to the shape

shown here. This leaves extrusion as

the only practical choice

The Process-Material chart The Process-Shape chart

The Process-Mass raange chart The Process-Section thickness chart

The Process-Tolerance chart The Process-Roughness chart

The Economic batch-size chart

E6.7 Selecting joining processes. This exercise and the next require the use Answer. (a) Applying CES to the problem gives the selection shown in the

of the CES software. below.

(a) Use CES to select a joining process to meet the following Selection using CES Level 1 or 2 Comment

requirements.

Brazing

Friction welding

There are many ways to

Function Create a permanent butt joint between steel Friction-stir welding

make a permanent watertight

plates Gas metal arc (MIG) welding

joint in steel.

Constraints Material class: carbon steel Gas-tungsten arc (TIG) welding

Manual metal arc (MMA) welding

Joint geometry: butt joint

Power (electron, laser) beam welding

Section thickness: 8 mm

Permanent

(b) Applying CES to the problem gives the selection shown in the

Watertight below.

Objective --

Selection using CES Level 1 or 2 Comment

Free variables Choice of process

Snap fit

(b) Use CES to select a joining process to meet the following Threaded fasteners

All are practical

requirements. Flexible adhesives

Rigid adhesives

between glass and polymer

Constraints Material class: glass and polymers

Joint geometry: lap joint

Section thickness: 4 mm

Demountable

Watertight

Objective --

Free variables Choice of process

E6.8 Selecting surface treatment processes. This exercise, like the last,

Answer. (a) Applying CES to the problem gives the selection shown in the

requires the use of the CES software.

below.

(a) Use CES to select a surface treatment process to meet the following

requirements. Selection using CES Level 1 or 2 Comment

Carburizing and carbonitriding

Nitriding

There are many ways to

Induction and flame hardening

Function Increase the surface hardness and wear increase the surface hardness

Laser surface hardening

resistance of a high carbon steel component of carbon steel.

Electro plating

Constraints Material class: carbon steel Vapor metallizing

Purpose of treatment: increase surface

hardness and wear resistance

(b) Applying CES to the problem gives the selection shown in the

Objective -- below.

Free variables Choice of process

(b) Use CES to select a joining process to meet the following Selection using CES Level 1 or 2 Comment

requirements. Cubic printing

Pad printing

All are practical

Electroless plating

Organic-solvent based painting

Function Apply color and pattern to the curved

Water-based painting

surface of a polymer molding

Constraints Material class: thermoplastic

Purpose of treatment: aesthetics, color

Curved surface coverage: good or very

good

Objective --

Free variables Choice of process

E7 Multiple constraints and objectives. E7.1 Multiple constraints: a light, stiff, strong tie (Figure E18). A tie, of

length L loaded in tension, is to support a load F, at minimum weight

Over-constrained problems are normal in materials selection. Often it is without failing (implying a constraint on strength) or extending

just a case of applying each constraint in turn, retaining only those elastically by more than (implying a constraint on stiffness, F / ).

solutions that meet them all. But when constraints are used to eliminate The table summarises the requirements.

free variables in an objective function, (as discussed in Section 9.2 of the

text) the active constraint method must be used. The first three exercises

in this section illustrate problems with multiple constraints.

The remaining two concern multiple objectives and trade-off methods. When

a problem has two objectives minimizing both mass m and cost C of a

component, for instance a conflict arises: the cheapest solution is not the

lightest and vice versa. The best combination is sought by constructing a Figure E18

trade-off plot using mass as one axis, and cost as the other. The lower

envelope of the points on this plot defines the trade-off surface. The solutions

that offer the best compromise lie on this surface. To get further we need a Function Tie rod

penalty function. Define the penalty function

Z = C + m Constraints Must not fail by yielding under force F

where is an exchange constant describing the penalty associated with unit Must have specified stiffness, F/

increase in mass, or, equivalently, the value associated with a unit decrease. Length L and axial load F specified

The best solutions are found where the line defined by this equation is Objective Minimize mass m

tangential to the trade-off surface. (Remember that objectives must be

Free variables Section area A

expressed in a form such that a minimum is sought; then a low value of Z is

desirable, a high one is not.) Choice of material

When a substitute is sought for an existing material it is better to work with

ratios. Then the penalty function becomes

C m (a) Follow the method of Chapter 9 to establish two performance

Z* = + * equations for the mass, one for each constraint, from which two material

Co mo

indices and one coupling equation linking them are derived. Show that

in which the subscript o means properties of the existing material and the the two indices are

asterisk * on Z* and * is a reminder that both are now dimensionless. The

relative exchange constant * measures the fractional gain in value for a

M1 = and M2 =

given fractional gain in performance. E y

and that a minimum is sought for both.

(b) Use these and the material chart of Figure E19, which has the

indices as axes, to identify candidate materials for the tie (i) when

L/ = 100 and (ii) when L/ = 103.

Figure E19

Answer. The derivation of performance equations and the indices they contain is laid out here:

Substitute for A

F E A F

Stiffness constraint = m1 = L2 M1 = (1)

L E E

m= AL

Substitute for A

Strength constraint F =y A m2 = L F M2 = (2)

y y

(The symbols have their usual meanings: A = area, L= length, Coupling Material choice Comment

= density, F/ =stiffness, E = Youngs modulus, y = yield strength condition

or elastic limit.) L/ = 100 Ceramics: boron carbide, These materials are

silicon carbide available as fibers as well

The coupling equation is found by equating m1 to m2, giving as bulk.

L/ = 1000 Composites: CFRP; after If ductility and toughness

= L that, Ti, Al and Mg alloys are also required, the

y E metals are the best choice.

defining the coupling constant Cc = L/. The chart below shows the

positions of the coupling line when L/ = 100 and when L/ = 103 and The use of ceramics for a tie, which must carry tension, is normally

the materials that are the best choice for each. ruled out by their low fracture toughness even a small flaw can lead to

brittle failure. But in the form of fibers both boron carbide and silicon

carbide are used as reinforcement in composites, where they are loaded

L Coupling in tension, and their stiffness and strength at low weight are exploited.

= 1000 lines

The CES software allows the construction of charts with axes that are

L combinations of properties, like those of / E and / y shown

= 100

here, and the application of a selection box to identify the optimum

choice of material.

E7.2 Multiple constraints: a light, safe, pressure vessel (Figure E20) where p , the pressure difference across this wall, is fixed by the design.

When a pressure vessel has to be mobile; its weight becomes important.

The first constraint is that the vessel should not yield that is, that the

Aircraft bodies, rocket casings and liquid-natural gas containers are

examples; they must be light, and at the same time they must be safe, tensile stress in the wall should not exceed y. The second is that it

and that means that they must not fail by yielding or by fast fracture. should not fail by fast fracture; this requires that the wall-stress be less

What are the best materials for their construction? The table than K 1c c , where K 1c is the fracture toughness of the material of

summarizes the requirements. which the pressure vessel is made and c is the length of the longest crack

that the wall might contain. Use each of these in turn to eliminate t in the

equation for m; use the results to identify two material indices

M1 = and M2 =

y K 1c

(b) The figure shows the chart you will need with the two material

indices as axes. Plot the coupling equation onto this figure for two values

of c: one of 5 mm, the other 5 m. Identify the lightest candidate

Figure E20 materials for the vessel for each case.

Function Pressure vessel

Constraints Must not fail by yielding

Must not fail by fast fracture.

Diameter 2R and pressure

difference p specified

Objective Minimize mass m

Free variables Wall thickness, t

Choice of material

(a) Write, first, a performance equation for the mass m of the pressure

vessel. Assume, for simplicity, that it is spherical, of specified radius R,

and that the wall thickness, t (the free variable) is small compared with

R. Then the tensile stress in the wall is

p R

=

2t

Figure E21

Granta Design, January 2009

Answer. The objective function is the mass of the pressure vessel:

m = 4 R 2t

The tensile stress in the wall of a thin-walled pressure vessel (Appendix A, Section A11) is

p R

=

2t

Equating this first to the yield strength y , then to the fracture strength K 1c / c and substituting for t

in the objective function leads to the performance equations and indices laid out below.

pR

Yield constraint = y m1 = 2 p.R 3 M1 = (1)

2 t f y

Substitute for t

m = 4 R 2t

pR K 1c

Fracture constraint = m 2 = 2 p R 3 ( c )1 / 2 M2 = (2)

2 t c K 1c K 1c

Substitute for t

The coupling equation is found by equating m1 to m2, giving a relationship between M1 and M2:

M 1 = ( c)1/2 M 2

The position of the coupling line depends on the detection limit, c1 for cracks, through the term ( c)1/2.

The figure shows the appropriate chart with two coupling lines, one for c = 5 mm and the other for c = 5m.

The resulting selection is summarised in the table.

Coupling condition Material choice Comment

Titanium alloys These are the standard Coupling line

Crack length Aluminium alloys materials for pressure c = 5 microns

c 5 mm Steels vessels. Steels appear, Coupling line

despite their high density, c = 5 mm

( c = 0.125 ) because their toughness and

strength are so high

CFRP Ceramics, potentially,

Crack length Silicon carbide are attractive structural

c 5 m Silicon nitride materials, but the difficult

Alumina of fabricating and

( c = 3.96 x 10 3 ) maintaining them with no

flaws greater than 5 m is

enormous

cracks of length greater than 1 mm; then the tough engineering alloys

based on steel, aluminum and titanium are the safe choice. In the field

of MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) , in which films of

micron-thickness are deposited on substrates, etched to shapes and

then loaded in various ways, it is possible even with brittle ceramics

to make components with no flaws greater than 1 m in size. In this

regime, the second selection given above has relevance.

E7.3 A cheap column that must not buckle or C C

crush (Figure E22). The best choice of M 1 = m and M2 = m

material for a light strong column depends on c E 1/2

its aspect ratio: the ratio of its height H to its

where C m is the material cost per kg, the material density, c its

diameter D. This is because short, fat columns

fail by crushing; tall slender columns buckle crushing strength and E its modulus.

instead. Derive two performance equations for (b) Data for six possible candidates for the column are listed in the

the material cost of a column of solid circular Table. Use these to identify candidate materials when F = 105 N and H =

section and specified height H, designed to 3m. Ceramics are admissible here, because they have high strength in

support a load F large compared to its self-load, compression.

one using the constraints that the column must

not crush, the other that it must not buckle. The

table summarizes the needs. Figure E22 Data for candidate materials for the column

(kg/m3) Cm ($/kg) E (MPa) strength

Function Column c (MPa)

Constraints Must not fail by compressive crushing Wood (spruce) 700 0.5 10,000 25

Must not buckle Brick 2100 0.35 22,000 95

Height H and compressive load F specified. Granite 2600 0.6 20,000 150

Poured concrete 2300 0.08 20,000 13

Objective Minimize material cost C Cast iron 7150 0.25 130,000 200

Free variables Diameter D Structural steel 7850 0.4 210,000 300

Choice of material Al-alloy 6061 2700 1.2 69,000 150

(c) Figure E23 show a material chart with the two indices as axes.

(1) Write down an expression for the material cost of the column its mass Identify and plot coupling lines for selecting materials for a column with

times its cost per unit mass. F = 105 N and H = 3m (the same conditions as above), and for a second

column with F = 103 N and H = 20m.

(2) Express the two constraints as equations, and use them to substitute for

the free variable, D, to find the cost of the column that will just support

the load without failing by either mechanism

(3) Identify the material indices M1 and M2 that enter the two equations for

the mass, showing that they are

Answer This, and exercises E 7.1 and E7.2 illustrate the method of solving over-

constrained problems. This one concerns materials for a light column with

circular section which must neither buckle nor crush under a design load F.

The cost, C, is to be minimised

C = D 2 H Cm

4

where D is the diameter (the free variable) and H the height of the column,

Cm is the cost per kg of the material and is its density. The column must

not crush, requiring that

4F

c

D2

Section A5):

2 EI

F

H2

The right-hand side is the Euler buckling load in which E is Youngs

modulus. The second moment of area for a circular column (Appendix A,

Section A2) is

4

Figure E23 I= D

64

The subsequent steps in the derivation of performance equations are laid out

on the next page:

Objective Constraint Performance equation

Substitute for D

D2 C

Crushing constraint Ff c C1 = F H m (1)

4 c

C = D 2 H Cm

4

Substitute for D

2 EI 3 D4 E 2 C

Buckling constraint F = C2 = F 1/2 H 2 m (2)

1/2

H2 64 H 2 E 1/2

C C

The first performance equation contains the index M 1 = m , the second, the index M 2 = m .

c E 1/2

~

This is a min-max problem: we seek the material with the lowest (min) cost C which itself is the larger

(max) of C1 and C2. The two performance equations are evaluated in the Table, which also lists

~

C = max ( C1 , C 2 ). for a column of height H = 3m, carrying a load F = 105 N. The cheapest choice is

concrete.

C

(kg/m3) Cm ($/kg) E (MPa) strength $ $ $

c (MPa)

Wood (spruce) 700 0.5 10,000 25 4.2 11.2 11.2

Brick 2100 0.35 22,000 95 2.3 16.1 16.1

Granite 2600 0.6 20,000 150 3.1 35.0 35.0

Poured concrete 2300 0.08 20,000 13 4.3 4.7 4.7

Cast iron 7150 0.25 130,000 200 2.6 16.1 16.1

Structural steel 7850 0.4 210,000 300 3.0 21.8 21.8

Al-alloy 6061 2700 1.2 69,000 150 6.5 39.5 39.5

The coupling equation is found by equating C1 to C2 giving

1/ 2

1/2 F

M2 =

M1

2 H2

It contains the structural loading coefficient F/H2. Two positions for the coupling line are shown, one

corresponding to a low value of F/H2 = 0.011 MN/m2 (F = 105 N, H = 3 m) and to a high one F/H2 = 2.5

MN/m2 (F = 107 N, H = 2 m), with associated solutions. Remember that, since E and c are measures in MPa,

the load F must be expressed in units of MN. The selection is listed in the table.

Coupling

lines

Large F/H2

Small F/H2

E7.4 An air cylinder for a truck (Figure E24). Trucks rely on compressed

air for braking and other power-actuated systems. The air is stored in where is the density, y the yield strength and Cm the cost per kg of the

one or a cluster of cylindrical pressure tanks like that shown here (length material, and the subscript o indicates values for mild steel.

L, diameter 2R, hemispherical ends). Most are made of low-carbon

steel, and they are heavy. The task: to explore the potential of

alternative materials for lighter air tanks, recognizing the there must be a (a) Explore the trade-off between relative cost and relative mass using

trade-off between mass and cost if it is too expensive, the truck owner Figure E25, below, which has these quantities as axes. Mild steel lies at

will not want it even if it is lighter. The table summarizes the design the co-ordinates (1,1). Sketch a trade-off surface. Define a relative

requirements. penalty function

m C

Function Air cylinder for truck Z* = * +

Constraints Must not fail by yielding mo Co

Diameter 2R and length L specified. where * is a relative exchange constant, and plot a contour that is

Objectives Minimize mass m approximately tangent to the trade-off surface for * = 1 and for * =

Minimize material cost C 100. What selections do these suggest?

Free variables Wall thickness, t

Choice of material

Figure E24

(a) Show that the mass and material cost of the tank relative to one made of

low-carbon steel are given by

m y ,o C y ,o

= and = Cm

mo y o Co y C m ,o o

Figure E25

Answer. The mass m of the tank is

m = 2R L t + 4 R 2 t = 2R L t ( 1 + Q )

Trade off

where Q, the aspect ratio 2R/L, is fixed by the design requirements.

surface

The stress in the wall of the tank caused by the pressure p must not

exceed y , is the yield strength of the material of the tank wall,

meaning that

pR

= y

t

Substituting for t, the free variable, gives

m = 2R 2 L p ( 1 + Q )

y

The material cost C is simply the mass m times the cost per kg of the

material, Cm, giving

C

C = C m m = 2R 2 L p ( 1 + Q ) m

y *

Z* with * = 1 Z* with * = 100

from which the mass and cost relative to that of a low-carbon steel

(subscript o) tank are

m y ,o

= and To get further we need a penalty function. The relative penalty function

mo y o

m C

Z* = * +

mo Co

C y ,o

= Cm

Co y C m ,o o plots as a family of curves for a given value of *. If the axes were linear

these would be straight lines, but because the axes are logarithmic Z

The figure shows the trade-off surface. Materials on or near this contours are curved. Two that are tangent to the trade-off surface are

surface have attractive combinations of mass and cost. Several are shown. The first, for * = 1 (meaning the halving the weight doubles the

better low-carbon steel. allowable price) identifies higher strength steels as good choices. This is

because their higher strength allows a thinner tank wall. The contour for *

= 100 touches near CFRP, aluminum and magnesium alloys if weight

saving is very highly valued, these become attractive solutions.

E7.5 Insulating walls for freezers

(Figure E26). Freezers and Figure E27 shows the thermal conductivity of foams plotted against

refrigerated trucks have panel- their elastic compliance 1 / E (the reciprocal of their Youngs moduli

walls that provide thermal E, since we must express the objectives in a form that requires

insulation, and at the same time are minimization). The numbers in brackets are the densities of the foams

stiff, strong and light (stiffness to in Mg/m3. The foams with the lowest thermal conductivity are the least

suppress vibration, strength to stiff; the stiffest have the highest conductivity. Explain the reasoning

tolerate rough usage). To achieve you would use to select a foam for the truck panel using a penalty

this the panels are usually of function.

sandwich construction, with two

skins of steel, aluminum or GFRP

(providing the strength) separated

by, and bonded to, a low density

insulating core. In choosing the

core we seek to minimize thermal C Ceramic Metal foams

conductivity, , and at the same c foams

time to maximize stiffness,

because this allows thinner steel

Figure E26

faces, and thus a lighter panel,

while still maintaining the overall

panel stiffness. The table

summarizes the design

requirements. Polymer

foams

Function Foam for panel-wall insulation

Constraint Panel wall thickness specified.

Objectives Minimize foam thermal conductivity,

Maximize foam stiffness, meaning Youngs

modulus, E

Free variables Choice of material

Figure E27

Answer. The steps in making a reasoned choice are as follows.

Ceramic foams are brittle. This probably rules them out for the truck body

(1) Sketch the trade-off surface: the low vs. low 1/E envelope of because is exposed to impact loads. But in other applications ceramic foams

the data, as shown below. The foams that lie on or near the surface particularly glass foams are viable.

are a better choice than those far from it. This already eliminates a

large number of foams and identifies the family from which a choice

should be made. Note that most metal foams are not a good choice;

only if the highest stiffness is wanted is the metal foam Aluminium-

SiC (1.0) an attractive choice.

CCeramic Metal foams

(2) If it is desired to go further, it is necessary to construct a penalty e foams

function: r

1 Penalty line

Z = 1 + 2

E for 1/2 = 100

with reducing heat flow; 2 a measure of the value associated with Polymer

foams

reducing core compliance. Rearranging the equations gives

Penalty line

Z 1 for 1/2 = 0.1

= 2

1 1 E

If the axes were linear, this equation would be that of a family of

straight, parallel, lines on the vs. 1/E diagram, of slope 2 / 1 ,

each line corresponding to a value of Z / 1 . In fact the scales are

logarithmic, and that leads instead to a set of curved lines. One such

line is sketched below for values 2 / 1 = 0.01 (meaning that

thermal insulation is considered very important, and stiffness less

important) and for 2 / 1 = 100 (meaning the opposite). The foam

nearest the point at which the penalty lines are tangent to the trade-

off surface is the best choice. In the first example PVC foam with a

density of about 0.1 Mg/m3 is the best choice, but in the second a

ceramic or even a metal foam is a better choice.

E8. Selecting material and shape Answer

The examples in this section relate to the analysis of material and shape of (a) The shape-efficiency factor for elastic bending for the square box

Chapters 11 and 12. They cover the derivation of shape factors, of indices section (from Table 11.3) is

that combine material and shape, and the use of the 4-quadrant chart arrays 1h

to explore material and shape combinations. For this last purpose it is useful Be = = 16.7

to have clean copies of the chart arrays of Figures 11.12 and 11.15. Like the 2 t

material property charts, they can be copied from the text without restriction That for the tube is

3 r

of copyright. Be = = 12.5

t

The box is more efficient than the tube of the same m/L, and both are

E8.1 Shape factors for tubes (Figure E28). much stiffer in bending than a solid square section of the same area (and

thus mass per unit length).

(a) Evaluate the shape factor Be for stiffness-limited design in bending

of a square box section of outer edge-length h = 100mm and wall (b) The shape-efficiency factor for bending failure for the square box

thickness t = 3mm. Is this shape more efficient than one made of the section (from Table 11.3) is

same material in the form of a tube of diameter 2r = 100mm and wall h

Bf = = 5.8

thickness t = 3.82 mm (giving it the same mass per unit length, m/L)? t

Treat both as thin-walled shapes. That for the tube is

f

(b) Make the same comparison for the shape factor B for strength- 3 r

Bf = = 4.33

limited design. 2 t

The box is more efficient than the tube, and both are roughly 5 times

Use the expressions given in Table 11.3 of the text for the shape factors stronger in bending than a solid square section of the same area (and thus

Be and Bf . mass per unit length).

Figure E28

E8.2 Deriving shape factors for stiffness-limited design (Figure E29). (a)

(b) The second moment of area, I, of the channel (central figure) about

Derive the expression for the shape-efficiency factor Be for stiffness- the axis shown as a dotted line is

limited design for a beam loaded in bending with each of the three

I =

(10t )3 .5t

(8t )3 .4t = 246 t 4

sections listed below. Do not assume that the thin-wall approximations 12 12

is valid.

Its cross section area is A = 18 t 2

(a) a closed circular tube of outer radius 5t and wall thickness t, from which

(b) a channel section of thickness t, overall flange width 5t and overall 12 I

depth 10 t, bent about its major axis; and Be = = 9.11

A2

(c) a box section of wall thickness t, and height and width h1 = 10t.

figure) about the axis shown as a dotted line is

h1 / 2 h2 / 2

I =2 y 2 h1 dy 2 y 2 h2 dy

0 0

=

1 4

12

(

h 1 h 42 ) =

2 3

th

3 1

and

Figure E29 A = h12 h22 4 h1 t

Answer. Assembling these results, and inserting h1 = 10t gives

1 h1

(a) The shape factor for elastic bending of a tubular beam (left-hand Be = =5

figure) is defined by 2 t

12 I

Be =

A2

where I is the second moment of area and A is the area. The second

moment of area, I, of the tube about the axis shown as a dotted line is

I = (5 t )4 (4 t )4 = 92.25 t 4

4 4

Its cross section area is A = (5 t )2 (4 t )2 = 9 t 2

12 I

from which Be = = 4.35

A2

E8.3 Deriving shape factors for strength-limited design.

(c) The second moment, Z, of the box-section about the axis shown as

f a dotted line is

(a), (b) and (c) Determine the shape-efficiency factor B for strength

I

limited design in bending, for the same three sections shown as Figure Z =

29 of Exercise E8.2. You will need the results for I for the sections 10 t

derived in E8.2. 6Z

from which Bf = = 4.47

(d) A beam of length L, loaded in bending, must support a specified A3 / 2

bending moment M without failing and be as light as possible.. Show

that to minimize the mass of the beam per unit length, m/L, one should

select a material and a section-shape to maximize the quantity (d) The beam of length L, loaded in bending, must support a specified

load F without failing and be as light as possible. Its mass m is

2/3

f m = AL (1)

B f

M = where A is the area of its cross section. Failure occurs if the load

exceeds the moment

M = Z f (2)

where f is the failure stress and the density of the material of the

where Z is the section modulus . Replacing Z by the shape-factor

f

beam, and B is the shape-efficiency factor for failure in bending.

Bf = 6 Z / A 3 / 2 gives

Answer. f f

M = A3 / 2 (3)

(a) The section modulus, Z, of the tube about the axis shown as a dotted 6 B

line is Substituting this into equation (1) for the mass gives

I I

Z = = = 18.45 t 3

y max r m = (6 M )2 / 3 L

2/3

(here y max is the distance of the outer surface from the neutral f (4)

B f

axis),from which

6Z The best material-and-shape combination is that with the greatest value

Bf = = 2.31 of the index

A3 / 2

(b) The second moment, Z, of the channel about the axis shown as a f 2 / 3

B f

dotted line is M =

I

Z = = 49.2 t 3

5t

6Z

from which Bf = = 3.87

A3 / 2

E8.4 Determining shape factors from stiffness data. The elastic shape (b) A steel truss bridge shown in Figure E30 has a span L and is simply supported at both

factor measures the gain in stiffness by shaping, relative to a solid ends. It weighs m tonnes. As a rule of thumb, bridges are designed with a stiffness

square section of the same area. Shape factors can be determined by SB such that the central deflection of a span under its self-weight is less than 1/300

experiment. Equation 11.27 of the text gives the mass m of a beam of

of the length L (thus S B 300 mg / L where g is the acceleration due to gravity, 9.81

length L and prescribed bending stiffness S B with a section of

m/s2). Use this information to calculate the minimum shape factor Be of the three

efficiency Be as

steel truss bridge spans listed in the table. Take the density of steel to be 7900

1/ 2

12 S B 5/ 2 kg/m3 and its modulus E to be 205 GPa. (C1 = 384/5 = 76.8 for uniformly distributed

m = L

( )

1 / 2 load Appendix A, Section A3).

C1 e E

B

where C1 is a constant that depends on the distribution of load on the

beam. Inverting the equation gives Bridge and construction date* Span L Mass m

12 L5 S 2 (m) (tonnes)

Be = B

C m2 E Royal Albert bridge, Tamar, Saltash UK (1857) 139 1060

1 Carquinez Strait bridge, California (1927) 132 650

Thus if S B and m are measured, and the modulus E and density of

Chesapeake Bay bridge, Maryland USA (1952) 146 850

the material of the beam are known, Be can be calculated. *Data from the Bridges Handbook.

data, measured on an aluminum alloy beam loaded in 3-point

bending (for which C1 = 48 see Appendix A, Section A3) using

the data shown in the table

5

Beam stiffness SB 7.2 x 10 N/m

Mass/unit length m/L 1 kg/m

Beam length L 1m

Beam material 6061 aluminum alloy

Material density 2670 kg/m3

Material modulus E 69 GPa

Answer.

E8.5 Deriving indices for bending and torsion.

(a) Inserting the data given in the question into the equation for Be

(a) A beam, loaded in bending, must support a specified bending moment M

given in the example gives without failing and be as light as possible. Section shape is a variable,

and failure here means the first onset of plasticity. Derive the material

Be = 18.6 index. The table summarizes the requirements.

(b) The shape factor is given in terms of m, L and SB by the equation Function Light weight beam

given in the question. Substituting S B 300 mg / L gives

Constraints Specified strength

3600 L4 g 2 Length L specified

Be =

C1 m E Objective Minimum mass m

Inserting C1 = 384/5 (Appendix A, Section A3) and the data from the Free variables Choice of material

table gives the results shown below.

Section shape and scale

Bridge and construction date* F = mg A = m / L Be

(106 N) without failing and be as cheap as possible. Section shape is a variable

(m2) and failure again means the first onset of plasticity. Derive the material

Royal Albert bridge, Tamar, 10.6 0.97 49.3 index. The table summarizes the requirements.

Saltash UK (1857)

Carquinez Strait bridge, 6.5 0.62 65.4 Function Cheap shaft

California (1927)

Chesapeake Bay bridge, 8.5 0.74 74.8 Constraints Specified strength

Maryland USA (1952) Length L specified

Objective Minimum material cost C

Free variables Choice of material

The results show that structured structures (trusses, rib-stiffened

structures) can offer very large shape efficiencies. Note how the Section shape and scale

efficiency has grown over time.

Answer. f

(a) The mass m of a beam of length L and section area A is Replacing Q by the shape-factor T (equation (11.13) of the

m = A L (1) text)gives

where is the density of the material of which the beam is made. f

M = f A3 / 2 (7)

Failure occurs if the load exceeds the moment 4.8 T

M = Z f (2) Substituting this into equation (5) for the material cost of the shaft gives

f

Replacing Z by the shape-factor B (equation (11.10) of the C

text)gives m = (4.8 T )2 / 3 L m

f 2/3

f T f (8)

M = f A3 / 2 (3)

6 B Approximating f by f / 2 , we find that best material-and-shape

Substituting this into equation (1) for the mass of the beam gives

combination is that with the greatest value of the index

m = (6 M )2 / 3 L

f 2/3 f 2 / 3

B f

(4) T f

M4 =

The best material-and-shape combination is that with the greatest value

of the index

f 2 / 3

B f

M3 =

without failing and be as light as possible. The material cost C of a

shaft of length L and section area A is

. C = A L Cm (5)

where Cm is the cost per kg and is the density of the material of

which the shaft is made. Failure occurs if the torque T exceeds the

moment

T = Q f (6)

where f is the shear stress at which plasticity first starts.

Answer.

E8.6 Use of the four segment chart for stiffness-limited design

(a) Use the 4-segment chart for stiffness-limited design of Figure 11.12 (a) The method is shown in the question. The results appear on the chart

to compare the mass per unit length, m/L, of a section with EI = 105 on the following page. The CFRP beam with m/L of about 4 kg/m is

Nm2 made from significantly (factor about 2) lighter than one made of steel or softwood.

(i) structural steel with a shape factor Be of 20, modulus E = 210 GPa (b) Direct calculation of E * / * with E * = E / Be and

and density = 7900 kg/m3

* = / Be is shown in the table.

(ii) carbon fiber reinforced plastic with a shape factor Be of 10,

modulus E = 70 GPa and density = 1600 kg/m3, and

E* = E / Be * = / Be E* / *

Material

(iii) structural timber with a shape factor Be of 2, modulus E = 9 GPa (N/m ) 2

(kg/m ) 3

(N/m2 )1/2/(kg/m3)

and density = 520 kg/m 3.

Steel 10.5 x 10 9

395 259

The schematic Figure E31 illustrates the method. CFRP 7.0 x 109 160 523

Softwood 4.5 x 109 260 258

The higher the value of E* / * the lighter is the beam. The ranking is

the same as that arrived at in Part (a).

Figure E31

(b) Show, by direct calculation, that the conclusions of part (a) are

consistent with the idea that to minimize mass for a given stiffness one

should maximize E * / with E * = E / Be and * = / Be .

Granta Design, January 2009

E8.7 Use of the four segment chart for strength Answer.

(a) Use the 4-segment chart for strength-limited design of Figure 11.15 (a) The method is shown in the question. The results appear on the chart

to compare the mass per unit length, m/L, of a section with Z f = 104

on the next page. The steel section is the heaviest ( m / L 9 kg/m). The

Nm (where Z is the section modulus) made from

f titanium alloy is the lightest ( m / L 2.5 kg/m).

(i) mild steel with a shape factor B of 10, strength f = 200 MPa

and density = 7900 kg/m3 2/3

(b) Direct calculation of Bf f / gives the values shown in the

f

(ii) 6061 grade aluminum alloy with a shape factor B of 3, strength

table.

f = 200 MPa and density = 2700 kg/m3, and

f

(iii) a titanium alloy with a shape factor B of 10, , strength f

2/3

= 480 MPa and density = 4420 kg/m3. f Bf f /

Material

(MPa) (kg/m3) B f

The schematic Figure E32 illustrates the method. (MPa)2/3/(kg/m3)

Steel 200 7900 10 2 x 10-2

6061 Al alloy 200 2700 3 2.6 x 10-2

Ti alloy 480 4420 10 6.4 x 10-2

2/3

The higher the value of Bf f / the lighter is the beam. The

Figure E32

ranking is the same.

(b) Show, by direct calculation, that the conclusions of part (a) are

consistent with the idea that to minimize mass for a given stiffness one

Bf f

should maximize .

Granta Design, January 2009

E8.8 A light weight display stand (Figure Material Modulus E Tube radius r Wall thickness/tube

E33). The figure shows a concept for a (GPa) radius, t/r

lightweight display stand. The stalk must Aluminum alloys 69 25 mm 0.07 to 0.25

support a mass m of 100 kg, to be placed Steel 210 30 mm 0.045 to 0.1

on its upper surface at a height h, without Copper alloys 120 20 mm 0.075 to 0.1

failing by elastic buckling. It is to be Polycarbonate 3.0 20 mm 0.15 to 0.3

made of stock tubing and must be as light (PC) 7 - 12 40 mm Solid circular

as possible. Use the methods of Chapter Various woods sections only

11 to derive a material index for the

tubular material of the stand that meets Answer. The objective function is the mass. The mass m of the tubular stalk

these requirements, and that includes the is

shape of the section, described by the

shape factor m = Ah (1)

12 I where is the density and A the section area of the tube. The

Be =

constraint is that the stalk should not buckle. The buckling load for a

A2

Figure E33 slender column of height h is

where I is the second moment of area and e 2

A is the section area. The table n2 2 E I n2 2 E B A

Fcr = = (2)

summarizes the requirements. h2 h2 12

where E is Youngs modulus, I is the second moment of area of the

tube and n is a constant that depends on the end constraint (n = 1/2 in

Function Light weight column this instance Appendix A Section A5). Substituting for A from

Constraints Specified buckling load F equation (2) into equation (1) gives

Height h specified

2 3 h 2 1/2

Objective Minimum mass m m = F (3)

(E Be )1/2

Free variables Choice of material

The best choice of tubing for the stalk is that with the greatest value of

Section shape and scale

( EBe )1/2

M=

Cylindrical tubing is available from stock in the following materials and

sizes. Use this information and the material index to identify the best The shape factor for a thin-walled tube is calculated from the bending

stock material for the column of the stand. moment of inertia, Ixx (Appendix A, Section A2):

Ixx = r3 t (4)

where r is the tube radius and t the wall thickness; the area A of the

section is 2 rt.

Its shape factor is E8.9 Energy-efficient floor joists . Floor joists are beams loaded in bending.

12 I They can be made of wood, of steel, or of steel-reinforced concrete, with the

3 r

Be = = shape factors listed below. For a given bending stiffness and strength,

A2 t which of these carries the lowest production-energy burden? The relevant

(5) data, drawn from the tables of Appendix C, are listed.

Material Density Modulus Strength Energy Hp

Be Bf

made by evaluating and comparing the quantity M = ( E Be )1/2 / for kg/m3 E GPa f MPa MJ/kg

each of the materials and sections, as shown Soft wood 700 10 40 15 2 1.4

Material E (kg/m )

3

Be M Reinforced 2900 35 10 3.2 2 1.4

(GPa) (GPa1/2/Mg/m3) concrete

Aluminum alloys 71 2700 4 - 14 6.2 - 11.7 Steel 7900 210 200 25 15 4

Steel 210 7900 10 - 21 5.8 - 8.2

Copper alloys 120 8900 10 - 13 3.9 4.4 (a) Start with stiffness. Locate from Table 16.3 of the text the material

Polycarbonate (PC) 3 1200 3.3 - 6.7 2.6 3.7 index for stiffness-limited, shaped beams of minimum production

Various woods 8-15 500 - 800 1 3.5 7.7 energy. Introduce shape by multiplying the modulus E by the shape

factor Be in the index. Use the modified index to rank the three

Aluminum offers the highest index and thus the lightest stalk. Steel is

beams.

the next best choice, then wood.

(b) Repeat the procedure, this time for strength, using the appropriate

index for strength at minimum energy content modified by including

f

the shape factor B .

(c) Compare wood and steel in a second way. Construct a line of slope 1,

passing through carbon steels on the Modulus / Production energy

chart of Figure 16.8, and move steels down both axes by the factor 15,

as in Figure 11.16. Move Wood (// to grain) down by a factor of 2

The shaped steel can be compared with other materials wood, say

using the ordinary guide-lines which are shown on the figure. Is the

conclusion the same?

(d) Repeat the procedure for strength, using the Strength / Production

energy chart of Figure 16.9.

What do you conclude about the relative energy-penalty of design with

wood and with steel?

Answer (a) The index for an energy-efficient beam with a specified Material f H p Be M1

stiffness, modified to include shape, is (MPa /GJ/m3)

2/3

(MPa) (GJ/m3)

( Be E)1/2 Wood 40 10.5 1.4 1.4

M1 =

H p Concrete 10 9.3 1.4 0.6

where E is the modulus, the density, Hp the energy content per Steel 200 198 4 0.4

unit weight, and Be is the shape factor for stiffness controlled design.

The first Table shows values of M1 for the wood, the concrete and the (a) The first figure below shows the chart of Figure Chart 16.8 with the

shaped steel beam. Wood wins. shaped wood and steel marked on it, and with a line for M1. Even

with shape, the steel beam is less energy efficient than the wooden

one.

Material E H p Be M1

(GPa) (GPa /GJ/m3)

1/2

(d) The second figure below shows the chart of Figure Chart 16.9 with

(GJ/m3) the shaped wood and steel marked on it, and with a line for M2. Again,

Wood 10 10.5 2 0.43 the steel beam is less energy efficient than the wooden one, despite its

Concrete 35 9.3 2 0.9 large shape factor.

(b) The index for an energy efficient beam of prescribed strength is,

from Table 7.4 of the book:

2/3

f

B f

M2 =

H p

f

Where B is the shape factor for failure in bending. The next table

shows that, as before, wood is the most efficient material. The same

conclusion is reached by shifting wood and steel on the Strength-Energy

Content chart (Chart 18) by the appropriate factor

Granta Design, January 2009

E8.10 Microscopic shape: tube arrays (Figure E34). Calculate the gain Answer The unit cell of the structure is shown as a hexagon on the right-

e , when a solid is formed into small, thin-

in bending efficiency, B hand part of the figure. The area As of solid in the unit cell, equal to its

relative density / s , is

walled tubes of radius r and wall thickness t that are then

assembled and bonded into a large array, part of which is shown in the As = 6 r t

figure. Let the solid of which the tubes are made have modulus Es and the relative density of the array, / s , is

and density s . Express the result in terms of r and t. As t

= = 1.8

s 6 tan( 60 ) r 2 r

If an initially solid, square section, beam of edge length bs is formed

into an array like that of the figure, with an outer, square, profile, the

edge-length of this new square is

1/ 2

b = s bs

The apparent modulus of the tube array parallel to the axis of the tubes

is

E = E s

s

Figure E34 and the second moment of area of the tube array is

2

b4

I = = bs

12 s

Thus the bending efficiency is

EI r

Be = = s = 0.56

Es I s t

E8.11 The structural efficiency of foamed panels (Figure E35). Answer. The panel, initially solid and of thickness t, is foamed to a height

Calculate the change in structural efficiency for both bending stiffness h at constant area. The density falls from s to

and strength when a solid flat panel of unit area and thickness t is

foamed to give a foam panel of unit area and thickness h, at constant t

= s

mass. The modulus E and strength f of foams scale with relative h

density / s as and the modulus and strength fall from Es to f ,s

2 3/ 2

t

2

t

3/2

E =

Es and f = f ,s E = Es and f = f ,s

s s h h

where E, f and are the modulus, strength and density of the foam The bending stiffness per unit area changes from Ss to S, so that

and Es , f ,s and s those of the solid panel.

S EI h 1

Be = = = =

So Es I s t ( / s )

(using I s = t 3 / 12 and I = h 3 / 12 per unit width). Foaming

imparts a shape-efficiency factor for stiffness equal to the reciprocal of

the relative density.

Following the same procedure for strength (using

Z s = t 2 / 12 and I = h 2 / 6 per unit width) gives

Z f h 1

Bf = = =

Z s f ,s t ( / s )1 / 2

The shape-efficiency factor for strength is equal to the reciprocal of the

square root of the relative density.

Figure E35

E9. Hybrid materials

The examples in this section relate to the deign of hybrid material described

in Chapters 13 and 14. The first two involve the use of bounds for evaluating

the potential of composite systems. The third is an example of hybrid design

to fill holes in property space. The next three make use of the charts for

natural materials. The last is a challenge: to explore the potential of

hybridizing two very different materials.

E9.1 Concepts for light, stiff composites. Figure E36 is a chart for

exploring stiff composites with light alloy or polymer matrices. A

construction like that of Figure 13.10 of the text allows the potential of

any given matrix-reinforcement combination to be assessed. Four

matrix materials are shown, highlighted in red. The materials shown in

gray are available as fibers (f), whiskers (w) or particles (p). The

criteria of excellence (the indices E / , E 1 / 2 / and E 1 / 3 / for

light, stiff structures) are shown; they increase in value towards the top

left. Use the chart to compare the performance of a titanium-matrix

composite reinforced with (a) zirconium carbide, ZrC, (b) Saffil

alumina fibers and (c) Nicalon silicon carbide fibers. Keep it simple:

use equations 13.1 13.3 to calculate the density and upper and lower

bounds for the modulus at a volume fraction of f = 0.5 and plot these

points. Then sketch arcs of circles from the matrix to the reinforcement

to pass through them. In making your judgement, assume that f = 0.5 is

the maximum practical reinforcement level.

Figure E36

Answer. The adjacent figure shows the result. The guide lines have been

moved to pass through titanium, allowing the performance of each

composite system to be assessed. A vertical, broken, line through

each of the bound-envelopes marks the f = 0.5 point. The Ti-ZrC

composite system offeres little or no gain in performance By contrast,

Ti-Saffil composites offer gains. Best of the lot is Ti-Nicalon,

offering the greatest increase in all three criteria of excellent.

E9.2 Concepts for composites with tailored thermal properties. Figure

E37 is a chart for exploring the design of composites with desired

combinations of thermal conductivity and expansion, using light alloy

or polymer matrices. A construction like that of Figure 13.11 allows the

potential of any given matrix-reinforcement combination to be assessed.

One criterion of excellence (the index for materials to minimize thermal

distortion, / ) is shown; it increases in value towards the bottom

right. Use the chart to compare the performance of a magnesium AZ63

alloy-matrix composite reinforced with (a) alloy steel fibers, (b) silicon

carbide fibers, SiC (f) and (c) diamond-structured carbon particles.

Keep it simple: use equation 13.7 13.10 to calculate the upper and

lower bounds for and at a volume fraction of f = 0.5 and plot these

points. Then sketch curves linking matrix to reinforcement to pass

through the outermost of the points. In making your judgement, assume

that f = 0.5 is the maximum practical reinforcement level.

Figure E37

Answer. The figure shows the result. Mg-alloy steel composites perform

less well than magnesium itself. By contrast, Mg-SiC composites

offer gains (and are currently available). Even bigger gains lie with

Mg-diamond composites. These are not as outrageous as they might

sound: particulate industrial diamond is produced in large quantities

for cutting tools, rock drills, grinding and polishing. Using it for a

reinforcement in a composite for very high performance applications

is perfectly practical.

E9.3 Hybrids with exceptional combinations of stiffness and damping.

The loss coefficient of the cellular structure, s , is the same as that of

The Loss-coefficient Modulus ( E ) chart of Figure 4.9 is

the material from which it is made, provided deformation remains

populated only along one diagonal band. . (The loss coefficient elastic. Thus a low-loss aluminum alloy with a bending-dominated

measures the fraction of the elastic energy that is dissipated during a cellular structure of relative density / s = 0.1 has a has a modulus

loading cycle.) Monolithic materials with low E have high , those

that is 100 times lower than that of aluminum, with the same value of .

with high E have low . The challenge here is to devise hybrids to fill

It lies at the point marked on the figure.

the holes, with the following applications in mind.

(a) Sheet steel (as used in car body panels, for instance) is prone to lightly

damped vibration. Devise a hybrid sheet that combines the high

stiffness, E, of steel with high loss coefficient, .

(b) High loss coefficient means that energy is dissipated on mechanical

cycling. This energy appears as heat, sometimes with undesirable

consequences. Devise a hybrid with low modulus E and low loss

coefficient, .

Assume for simplicity that the loss coefficient is independent of shape.

(a) High modulus with high damping is achieved by bonding the steel to a

high-loss polymer or elastomer to give a hybrid of Type 2 as suggested

by the sketch at the top right. When the sheet vibrates a bending

mode the outer high-loss layers suffer the greatest strain and dissipate

energy, damping the vibration. The in-plane and flexural moduli

remain those of the steel sheet.

(b) Low modulus and low damping can be achieved by internal shape

(hybrid of Type 3), as sketched in the lower left. A bending-dominated

cellular structure has a modulus E given be equation 13.25 of the text:

2

E = E s

s

where is the density of the cell-wall material, and E s and s are the

modulus and density of the cellular structure.

E9.4 Natural hybrids that are light, stiff and strong. Answer. The comparisons are shown in two the figures below.

(a) Plot aluminum alloys, steels, CFRP and GFRP onto a copy of the E (a) The comparison for stiffness, using the criterion of excellence,

chart for natural materials (Figure 14.11 of the text), where E is Youngs E 1 / 2 / , is highlighted. The nearer a material lies to this line, the

modulus and is the density. How do they compare, using the flexural

better is its performance. Natural materials are extraordinarily efficient

stiffness index E 1 / 2 / as criterion of excellence? by this measure. CFRP is comparable with the best of them, but the

other man-made materials compare poorly with those of nature.

(b) Do the same thing for strength with a copy of Figure 14.12, using the

(b) The comparison for strength, using criterion of excellence,

flexural strength index 2f / 3 / (where f is the failure stress) as criteria

2f / 3 / , is highlighted. Again, natural materials excel. CFRP alone

of excellence.

competes with wood, bamboo and palm.

The table lists the necessary data.

modulus E (Mg/m3) f

(GPa) (MPa)

Aluminum alloys 68 82 2.5 2.9 30 450

Steels 189 215 7.6 8.1 200 1000

CFRP 69 150 1.5 1.6 550 1000

GFRP 15 28 1.75 2.0 110 192

Granta Design, January 2009

E9.5 Natural hybrids that act as springs. The table lists the moduli and

strengths of spring materials. Plot these onto a copy of the E f

chart for natural materials of Figure 14.13, and compare their energy-

storing performance with that of natural materials, using the 2f / E as

the criterion of choice. Here f is the failure stress, E is Youngs

modulus and is the density.

(GPa) (MPa) (Mg/m3)

Spring steel 206 1100 7.85

Copper-2%Beryllium 130 980 8.25

CFRP woven fabric laminate 68 840 1.58

excellence, 2f / E , is highlighted. The nearer a material lies to this

line, the better is its performance. The best man-made spring materials

have a performance that is comparable with that of antler, but falls short

of that offered by silks of various types. If the criterion for light

springs, 2f / E is used instead, the natural materials rank even more

highly.

E9.6 Finding a substitute for bone. Find an engineering material that most E9.7 Creativity: what could you do with X? The same 68 materials

closely resembles compact bone in its strength/weight ( f / ) appear on all the charts of Chapter 4. These can be used as the starting

point for what if? exercises. As a challenge, use any chart or

characteristics by plotting data for this material, read from Figure 14.12,

combination of charts to explore what might be possible by hybridizing

onto a copy of the f chart for engineering materials (Figure 4.4). any pair of the materials listed below, in any configuration you care to

Here f is the failure stress and is the density. choose.

(a) Cement

Answer. The modulus and density of compact bone match closely those of

magnesium and glass fiber reinforced epoxy, GFRP. These materials (b) Wood

work well for external braces. For prostheses, bio-compatibilty is

important. This leads to the used of cobalt and titanium-based alloys (c) Polypropylene

even though the match of mechanical properties is very poor. Efforts (d) Steel

are underway to develop a bio-compatible polyethylene/hydroxyapatite

composites with a near perfect match of properties. Hydroxyapatite is a (e) Copper.

natural ceramic that is found in real bone it appears on the charts for

natural materials.

This is one of six CES EduPack teaching resource books. All are

available free of charge to users with a maintained CES EduPack license.

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