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IB Chemistry

Topic 4: Bonding

4.1 Ionic Bonding

Chemical bond – chemical bonds are made by the interaction of valence electrons. A chemical
bond is like a connection between two atoms.
- Why do bonds form? Because the bond is lower energy, or more stable, than the two atoms

Electronegativity – the ability to attract bonding electrons.
 Metals - low electronegativity
 Nonmetals - high electronegativity

Three types of chemical bonds
 Ionic
o a large difference of electronegativity
o metal cation with a positive charge and a nonmetal anion
 Covalent
o Both atoms have a high electronegativity
o Bond is between two nonmetals
 Metallic
o Both atoms have low electronegativity
o Made between metals

Define an ionic bond
o An ionic bond is the electrostatic attraction between the positive and negative charge
of the ions.
o Example: Na+ + Cl-  NaCl
o Note: when you write the formula, there should be no charges! Ionic compounds are

Electron transfer
 A metal loses electrons and makes a cation (+ charge), and a nonmetal gains electrons to
make an anion (- charge), and an ionic bond forms.
 Example: Sodium loses an electron, chlorine gains an electron, and an ionic bond forms.

Strength of Ionic bonding
 Ionic bonds get stronger with increased charge of the cation or anion and with smaller
ionic radii.
 Example: MgS has a stronger ionic bond than NaCl.

4.2 Covalent bonding

it needs four more electrons. Single bonds…double bonds…triple bonds Increasing bond strength  Decreasing bond length  Increasing bond energy  *Bond energy is a measure of bond strength VSEPR Shape VSEPR & Valence Bond Theory Examples E = nonbonding electron pair. Example: CH4 See Lewis structure worksheet for how to draw Lewis structures. Example: Carbon has a valence level of 2s2. each hydrogen atom gives one electron and share the two between them to make a covalent bond. Therefore. Noble gases already have a filled valence level. so they don’t usually form compounds. Dative bonds form when one atom donates both electron paris. Example NH3  NH4+ Bond length and bond strength Double bonds are shorter and stronger than single bonds. X = bonded atoms Arrangement of Molecular Hybrid TYPE Angle(s) Example Electron Pairs Structure Orbital AX2 linear 180 linear sp BeF2 2 AX3 trigonal planar 120 trigonal planar sp BF3 AX2E trigonal planar 117 bent sp2 SO2 3 AX4 tetrahedral 109. A = central atom. To get the valence configuration of neon. dative bond (coordinate bond) A covalent bond is the electrostatic attraction of the positively charged nuclei for the shared pairs of electrons. Example: in H2. Octet rule: Nonmetals form covalent bonds to fill their valence level.5 tetrahedral sp CH4 3 AX3E tetrahedral 107 tripodal sp NH3 AX2E2 tetrahedral 104 bent sp3 H2O . octet rule. 2p4. Triple bonds are shorter and stronger than double bonds. Lewis structure. carbon usually makes four bonds.Vocabulary: Covalent bonding.

“The dipole cancels” Polar Molecules To be a polar molecule. All other shapes are asymmetrical. Be asymmetrical (see below) If a molecule is symmetrical. it has an overall dipole. Atoms with a larger difference in electronegativity have a more polar bond. and it is therefore polar. Example: H-Cl Cl is much more electronegative than H Nonpolar Molecules Consider carbon tetrachloride CCl4 The bond C-Cl is polar because chlorine is more electronegative than carbon. The molecule. it is usually nonpolar. the bond polarities pull to one side of a molecule. a molecule must 1. Symetrical shapes: tetrahedral. If a molecule is asymmetrical. is non-polar because there is no overall dipole moment. . CCl4 is symmetrical and the polar bonds pull equally in each direction. the bond polarities cancel and it is therefore nonpolar. When they pull in opposite directions. Have one or more polar bonds and 2.Polarity Vocabulary: Electronegativity values Electronegativity Polar bond Polar molecule Dipole moment Nonpolar bonds Atoms with no difference in electronegativity difference have no overall dipole. trigonal bipyrimidal. Which is more electronegative H or Cl? F is. octahedral. however. square planar. Drawing a dipole: Draw arrows over the H-F bond to show the direction of the negative charge. So F gets the partial negative charge and hydrogen gets the partial positive charge. Example: hydrogen molecule H-H Polar bonds Electronegativity increases up and to the right of the periodic table.

. not the individual bond polarities. It is not a network solid like graphite and diamond. and the net dipole (for the whole molecule. include nonbonding pairs. Delocalized pi bonds of the sp2 hybridized carbon atoms give a bond order of 1 1/3. These delocalized electrons allow graphite to conduct electricity. Network solids Carbon has three allotropes. This very strong arrangement explains why diamond has such a high melting and boiling point. It can be reduced and form an anion.  Graphite – giant covalent. Sixty carbons (C60). making layers of hexagon shaped rings. Conducts better than diamond. The right molecule has C-Cl bonds that both pull down.  Fullerene – a large sphere made of five and six-membered carbon rings like a soccer ball. Addition reactions can happen.) Which would you expect to be more polar? The left molecule () has C-Cl polar bonds that are in opposite directions. Different structural arrangements of the same element are called allotropes. partial charges with the lower case delta (δ). it is a molecule. Each carbon is bonded to three other carbons. not as well as graphite. which gives the molecule a strong overall dipole moment. so it can dissolve in nonpolar solvents.When drawing a molecule for the IB exam. Tetrahedral arrangement of carbon atoms— each carbon is bonded to four others. Why is graphite less dense and softer than diamond? The layers are far apart and can slide easily because there are only weak Van Der Waals forces between layers.  Diamond – Giant molecular structure. so bond lengths are shorter than that of diamond.

X = bonded atoms Arrangement of Molecular Hybrid TYPE Angle(s) Example Electron Pairs Structure Orbital AX2 linear 180 linear sp BeF2 2 AX3 trigonal planar 120 trigonal planar sp BF3 AX2E trigonal planar 117 bent sp2 SO2 3 AX4 tetrahedral 109. 120 trig. Poor because Diamond covalent No tetrahedral conductor it is a rigid bonds arrangement structure Covlaent Soft Covalent bonds.1 Shapes of Molecules and Ions *See VSEPR handout on website VSEPR & Valence Bond Theory Examples E = nonbonding electron pair.5 tetrahedral sp CH4 AX3E tetrahedral 107 tripodal sp3 NH3 AX2E2 tetrahedral 104 bent sp3 H2O 3 AX5 trigonal bipyramidal 90 . because hexogon Does not Yes. bipyramidal sp d PF5 AX4E trigonal bipyramidal 90 . less C60 Fullerene and Covalent conduct as delocalized molecules (C60) pentagon bonds well as electrons can slide rings like a graphite than gaphite over each soccer ball other 14. Van Der Good layers Graphite layers of Waals Yes conductor can slide hexogonal Forces over each rings between other layers Soft Molecule. because network. pyramidal sp3d2 ICl5 3 2 AX4E2 octahedral 90 sq. seesaw sp3d SF4 3 AX3E2 trigonal bipyramidal 90 T-shaped sp d ICl3 AX2E3 trigonal bipyramidal 180 linear sp3d I3- AX6 octahedral 90 octahedral sp3d2 CrCl6 AX5E octahedral 88 sq. planar sp d XeF4 . 117 sawhorse. Electrical Delocalized Allotrope Structure Bonding hardness Conductivity electrons? Giant Hard Only molecular.Table1: Summary of the characteristics of the allotropes of carbon. A = central atom.

They have a bond order of 1 1/3. these electrons from the double bond are ‘delocalized’ (spread out) over all three N-O bonds. Really. Really.htm So the real nitrate molecule might be like this: *Note: this is not the correct way to draw a Lewis structure for nitrate. there is not one double bond. the extra pi bonding electrons are equally spread around the molecule.  Main point: This makes bond angles and lengths the same for bonds involved in resonance. Example: In the nitrate ion (NO3-). Each bond is not single or there is not one double bond. it is called a resonance structure.mikeblaber. Resonance structures: When you can draw more than one Lewis structure for a molecule by moving a double bond. double and triple bonds push strongly. Bond order = number of bonding electrons /2. Also. This means…  Bond angles are all 120 degrees  All N-O bond lengths are equal Image taken from http://www. so angles with a double bond will be bigger than expected (except for linear molecules. these pi electrons are delocalized over all three N-O bonds. The real bonding in a molecule with resonance structures is some combination of all three structures. which will be 180). Single bonds = 1 Double bond = 2 Triple bond = 3 For resonance structures.Explaining shape – SL: Give number of bonding pairs and number of nonbonding pairs. HL: when explaining shape on the exam. Example: In the nitrate ion (NO3-). . Draw resonance structures as shown above. give the number of “charge centers” (charge center = bonded atom or nonbonding pair) and the number of nonbonding pairs.

It is not a funny ‘s’ which is what my students think. a pair of nonbonding electrons is in the fourth sp3 orbital Example: a carbon atom in ethene.2 Hybridization The valence level of carbon is 2s22p2. The electrons in pi bonds are above and below the inter-nuclear axis. so they are all sigma bonds. each hydrogen electron pairs with an electron from an sp3 orbital. 2 hybrid orbitals mean sp hybridization. C2H4 . Sigma bonds form along the inter-nuclear axis. Triple bonds are made from one sigma bond and two pi bonds. There are four sp3 hybrid orbitals and they repel each other to make 109. we say the carbon atom is sp3 hybridized. since it only has one electron. Draw the electron diagram of the ground state valence electrons in carbon: How does carbon make four bonds with only two unpaired electrons? One electron moves from the 2s to the empty 2p orbital so that there are four unpaired electrons. Single bonds are made of sigma bonds (σ bond). Double bonds are made of one sigma bond and one pi bond (π bond). Pi bonds form the sideways interaction of two p orbitals. Ask your history teacher who the Greeks were) 14. In CH4. Example: NH3 Draw the Lewis dot structure: 3 sigma bonds + 1 nonbonding pair = 4 orbitals = sp3 hybridized Description: Three sp3 orbitals make sigma bonds with hydrogen. Hydrogen is the only atom that does not hybridize. CH4 has only single bonds. This is the number of hybrid orbitals that must be made. 3 mean sp2 and 4 mean sp3.Partial charges: δ+ or δ. Aren’t they cute. as predicted by VSEPR. These orbitals now have the same energy and are called sp3 hybrid orbitals. Draw the Lewis dot structure 2. 1.(“δ” is the lowercase Greek letter Delta. When bonds form in CH4. Count the number of sigma bonds and nonbonding pairs on the atom. When a carbon atom makes a bond with another atom. To figure out the hybridization of an atom. Only the valence orbitals hybridize. in case you wanted to know. the atomic orbitals “mix” and make new/different hybrid orbitals.5° angles. These 2s and 2p orbitals are atomic orbitals.

Two of the orbitals are _____________ orbitals.” Sulfur dihydride has _____ sigma bonds and ____ nonbonding pairs. Two of the orbitals are bonding orbitals.3-4. Stronger intermolecular forces = less volatile. What is the hybridization on the sulfur atom? _____ c. ___ s orbital and ____ p orbitals combine to make ___ hybrid orbitals.To conduct electricity. from weakest to strongest: Strongest Boiling Strength of type of Type of and attractive Hardness Example attractive crystal melting forces force point Nonpolar molecules. a substance must have delocalized electrons that can move freely. Weakest Van Der Waals Low Soft Ar. Hydrogen H-F or H-O H2O bonds bonds Covalent Network solid C(graphite) bonds Metallic Bond Metals Cu Ionic Strongest Ionic Bond High Hard NaCl compounds . H2 group 8 atomic gases Dipole-dipole Polar H-Cl ↓ ↓↓ Polar with H-N. Types of forces.5 Intermolecular Forces and how they influence properties Memorize Table p133-134 Electrical conductivity . Explain how the orbitals “hybridize. Draw the Lewis structure: b. 4. Volitility – how easily a substance evaporates.Draw the Lewis dot structure: 3 sigma bonds + 0 nonbonding pairs = 3 hybrid orbitals = sp2 hybridized Your turn: Answer the following for the molecule sulfur dihydride: SH2 a. so it needs four hybrid orbitals.

unbranched These molecules have the same number of carbon and hydrogen atoms. You should write nonbonding pairs on all Lewis structures for the exam! . O or F.Van Der Waals Forces (London.wikimedia. Dipole- dipole interactions are stronger than London forces. ionic or metallic). Image: http://commons. dispersion forces) London dispersion forces hold group 8 atoms together in a solid. 2. which can be made between a nonbonding electron pair and a hydrogen that is bonded to N. Image from: http://bdml.png  Example: CH3CH3 has a higher melting point than CH4 because there are more electrons in CH3CH3. this diagram does not show the nonbonding pairs on oxygen. so one side of the atom or molecule becomes partially positive and one side becomes partially negative. and that is WRONG. Note. but the branched molecule (2-methyl propane) has a lower boiling point. but weaker than chemical bonds (covalent. They are made by one atom inducing a charge on another. The strength of London dispersion forces increases with 1.stanford. Hydrogen Bonds: The strongest dipole dipole interactions are hydrogen bonds. if molecules can be packed more closely – Unbranched hydrocarbons usually have stronger Van Der Waals forces.  Example: Branched vs. the number of electrons (or molar mass) in the atom or Dipole-dipole forces  Polar molecules Dipole-dipole interactions become stronger with a larger difference in

 so the strength of the metallic bonding increases and .4 Metalic bonding Metallic bonding is thought of as cations in a sea of delocalized electrons. They have metallic bonding. Malleable means metals can bend without breaking.soton. 4.  the melting points and boiling points increase..2 Network solids Silica is made of SiO2.php?page=13 Example: NF3 has a higher melting point than NH3. SiO2 melting point: 1650(±75) °C. . Metallic bonding gets stronger with  Smaller radius of the ion  number of delocalized valence electrons Example: Sodium.. many covalent bonds must be broken.  Nonpolar molecules 4.. Ductile means they can be pulled into wires. The cations are not attracted to each other. where each Si atom is bonded to four O Network solids have higher melting points than other covalent molecules because to melt a network solid. Going from sodium to aluminum:  the ionic radius increases  the number of delocalized electrons increases . The melting point is over a temperature range Example. magnesium and aluminum are all metals. in which positive metal ions are attracted to delocalized electrons.Image from: http://chemtools..chem. Metals are malleable and ductile because there is attraction between the cations and delocalized electrons. so layers of ions can slide past each other. Electrical conductivity: metals can conduct electricity because they have many delocalized Metals are malleable and ductile.

The stronger these forces are. Example: Which would have a higher boiling point.png You should know these network solids: SiC. C. molar mass of Ne= 20. Phases at room temperature (23 ºC) Melting and boiling points explain phases of each type of compound. Example: are Van Der Walls forces stronger in He or Ne? Answer: Ne because Van Der Waals forces get stronger with increasing molar mass. which is either behind or infront of the Si.18 2. Example: Which has stronger intermolecular forces.Example SiO2 has a higher melting point than CO2 because SiO2 is a network solid and many covalent bonds must be broken when it melts.00. the more energy is needed to overcome them and the higher the melting temperature. (Note—each Si is bonded to a fourth O.5 Physical Properties Properties: the main point Know the following: 1. CO2 is just a nonpolar molecule with weak Van Der Waals forces.wikimedia. white = O Image from: http://commons. Based on the strength of intermolecular forces. He or H2O? H2O because hydrogen bonding is a stronger intermolecular force than Van Der Waals forces. SiO2 *See 4. Melting and boiling points Stronger IMFs = higher melting and boiling points. Ionic compounds – solid Network solids: solid Metals: Solid except mercury = liquid Polar molecules: solid. 3. A substance with strong intermolecular forces will have a high boiling point. Compare molecules of different types with different types of forces. Why? When a substance melts. 4. Answer: Ne because it has stronger Van Der Waals forces than He. Molar mass of He = 4.) Black = Si. some of the attractive forces holding the particles together are broken or loosened so that the particles can move freely around each other but are still close together. He or Ne. liquid or gas depending on size. Lowest boiling points: The same is true for boiling points. predict Si. Know how the strength of each type of force changes in different molecules.1 above for ionic compound bonding strength. .

All others are solid. Gases: H2. Common polar solvent: water. Polar liquids can conduct when strong electrolytes are dissolved. Generally. All others do not. F2. liquid or gas. not molecules). solubility of ionic compounds is greater for:  Smaller size of ions  Smaller charge Image from: grandinetti.Nonpolar molecules: solid. which is made my mixing the metals in the liquid phase and letting them freeze. O2. Metals: conduct Nonpolar compounds cannot conduct because their electrons are kept in covalent bonds. they are usually soluble in water because water is very polar (and therefore the partial charges are very high in water. Common nonpolar solvent: hexane. Hg. Solubility Metals Metals are soluble in other metals. Conductivity – Ionic compounds can conduct when dissolved in a polar solvent or in the molten phase. they are soluble in polar solvents. Cl2. Network solids: Graphite conducts. Know the phase of all elements. Ionic compounds Ionic compounds are insoluble in most polar solvents because the ionic bonding is very strong in ionic compounds. A mixture of metals is called an alloy. Refer to the solubility rules (that you memorized!) for which compounds are soluble. depending on size. Nonpolar substances are soluble in nonpolar substances. Alloys are less malleable and ductile than pure metals because the difference in size of the atoms prevents layers from sliding easily. liquids: “Like dissolves like” Polar substances are soluble in polar substances. If metals are converted to ions. . However.) The charges of ions are attracted to the partial charges of atoms in a polar molecule. group 8 (as gaseous atoms.

Why can’t nonpolar substances dissolve in polar substances? Polar substances form strong dipole- dipole interactions that exclude nonpolar substances. . Imagine oil and water mixing. The oil gets pushed out of the web of hydrogen bonding in water.