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Braddock Locks and Dam

2. Arch Dam curved in plan with
convexity towards the upward
GROUP 2 DAMS stream; it is most suitable for
narrow canyons with steep
Dams barrier that impounds water walls. It requires less material
for construction and is also
Reservoir natural or artificial lake
cheap but it requires skilled
used as source of water supply
labor, sophisticated kind of work
Purpose of dams and longer time for
1. Irrigation water that is 3. Buttress Dam watertight
supplied to plants upstream side supported by
2. Hydraulic Power Flowing water
triangular shaped walls.
creates energy 4. Embankment Dam or Earth
3. Flood Control control amount
Dam built up by compacting
of water during heavy rain
successive layers of earth.
4. Water Supply potable water
a. Earth Dam usually built
Parts of a Dam in wide valleys having flat
1. Penstock a pipe carrying water i. Rolled fill earth
to the turbine dams moistened
2. Turbine rotary mechanical or damp soil
device ii. Hydraulic fill
3. Generator mechanical energy done by hydraulic
to electrical energy methods.
4. Forebay used in flood control iii. Homogenous
5. Afterbay stream of homo materials
hydroelectric power plant to the iv. Non-homo zoned
outlet of turbines core is made of
6. Tailwater after hydraulic materials which
structure are relatively
Types of Dams impervious.
b. Rock-fill Dams shaped
1. Gravity Dam stone masonry; like a hill. Resistant to
utilization of the weight of the damage from
material. It can also tolerate earthquakes.
minor over-topping flows but i. Concrete-face
susceptible to uplift pressures. filled with concrete
a. Dworshak Dam slabs on the
b. Grand Coulee upstream face.
c. Three Gorges ii. Rock-fill Dam
d. Roller-Compacted Foundation
Concrete minimum
e. Willow Creek settlement.
f. Upper Stillwater Reservoir iii. Rock-fill Dam
g. Pathfinder Dam Topography
h. Cheesman Dam
iv. Rock-fill Dam iii. Rock-fill Dam
Materials pieces iv. Rock-fill
of rock. CompositeDam
5. Composite Dam combinations
Advantages of Dams
of one or more types of dam.
Most likely to be Embankment 1. Regulate water flow and flood
or Gravity. control
2. Drought control
3. Irrigation
Classification of Dams 4. Navigation improvement
5. Generation of hydraulic power
1. Based on Purpose 6. Water Supply
a. Storage or Impounding
to create reservoir to Disadvantages of Dams
store water during huge 1. Resettlement
flow from the river. 2. Compensation Flows
b. Detention Dam 3. Fish Migration
gradually release the 4. Safety
stored water. 5. Loss of Habitat
c. Diversion Dam divert 6. Blocks fish migration
water from the river to a 7. Siltation
conduit. 8. Loss of Storage
d. Coffer Dam temporary 9. Damage to Turbines
dam to exclude water 10.Downstream Erosion
from a specific dam.
e. Debris Dam catch and
retain debris in the
flowing river.
2. Based on Hydraulic Desigm
a. Overflow Dam permit to
overflow of surplus of
water that cannot be
retained in a reservoir.
b. Non-overflow Dam
water is not allowed to
overflow on its crest.
3. Based on Materials Used
a. Rigid Dam constructed
with rigid materials
i. Steel
ii. Timber
iii. Rubber can be
inflated or deflated
by water or air.
b. Non-Rigid constructed
with non-rigid materials
i. Earthen Dam
ii. Tailing Dam
2. Airports
3. Parking Lots
4. Loading and unloading areas in
ports and other areas
Parameters for Design Pavements
1. Mix Design optimum mixture
of component materials
2. Pavement Thickness overall
thickness of the road.
Pavements structure consisting of Design Parameters
superimposed layers of processed
materials above the natural soil. It also 1. Subgrade
used as surface transportation. The a. Load bearing capacity
most important function is to the subgrade must be
withstand the load applied from a able to support loads
vehicle. It is about making the load transmitted from the
spread out below the tire. pavement structure.
b. Volume Changes
Functional requirements Excessive moisture or
1. Pavements primary purpose is freezing conditions.
to provide a functional surface 2. Subgrade Physical Properties
a. California Bearing Ratio
for a specific transportation
b. Resilient Modulus
3. Loads
2. Flexible pavement made of
a. Tire loads
asphalt; better materials near b. Axle and Tire
the top. Configuration
3. Rigid pavement made of c. Load Repetition
concrete; deflect little traffic d. Traffic distribution
load. e. Vehicle speed
Pavement Purposes 4. Load Quantification
a. Equivalent Single Axle
1. Load Support resisting loads Load converts wheel
without excessive deformation loads. It is based on
2. Smoothness improve ride amount of damage.
comfort and reduce vehicle b. Load Spectra
operation costs 5. Load Transfer grain
3. Drainage eliminates moisture distribution. The wheel load on
problems the pavement will be distributed
to a wider area. For Flexible,
Factors for Design of Pavements lower layer; For Rigid, sub-grade
1. Environment soil.
2. Existing Soil is not stiff enough 6. Environment
a. Temperature
Uses of Pavements b. Frost Action
1. Roads
Maintenance and Rehabilitation 3. Plant Operation HMA
Maintenance slows down the rate of a. Batch Plant individual
deterioration batches
Rehabilitation Reset the deterioration b. Drum-mix Plant
process. continuous operation.
4. Mix Transport from production
Flexible Pavement reflects the facility to the site.
deformation of subgrade and the 5. Mix Placement and compaction
subsequent layers to the surface. No to place the HMA
reinforcement. 6. Compaction volume of air of
HMA is reduced.
Failures of Flexible Pavement
1. Alligator Cracking fatigue
Layers of Flexible Pavement 2. Consolidation of Pavement
Layers (Rutting) formation of
1. Seal Coat water-proof the ruts.
surface 3. Shear Failure Cracking
2. Tack Coat Asphalt emulsion upheaval of pavement
3. Prime Coat application of 4. Longitudinal Cracking cracks
bitumen to an absorbent that extends to the full
surface thickness of pavement.
4. Surface Course layer directly 5. Frost Heaving Upheaval but
in contact with traffic loads depends on the ground water
5. Binder Course distributes load table and climatic condition
to the base course 6. Lack of Binding with Lower
6. Base Course additional load Layers creates patches and
distribution potholes.
7. Sub-base Course provide 7. Reflection Cracking crack on
structural support bituminous layer
8. Sub-grade natural soil 8. Formation of Waves and
Corrugation unstable surface
Types of Flexible Pavement
1. Dense-graded for general use 9. Bleeding excess bituminous
2. Open graded provide large binder on the pavement
voids to allow surface of water 10.Pumping seeping or ejection of
to drain water.
3. Gap graded maximize rutting
Rigid Pavement associated with
resistance and durability.
rigidity, flexural strength or slab action
Construction of Pavement so that the load is distributed in a wide
1. Base and Sub-base Preparation
foundation Types of Rigid Pavement
2. Surface Preparation prime
coat 1. Jointed Reinforced Concrete
Pavement contraction of joints
and reinforced concrete to
control cracking
2. Continuously Reinforced
Concrete Pavement transverse
cracks are held tightly by
3. Concrete Pavement Contraction
Design uses joints to control
cracking without reinforcing
Construction of Rigid Pavement
1. Concrete Mix Design
performed to ensure the mix
formulation meets the
2. Steel Placement the
reinforcement steel keeps the
transverse cracking in
3. Paving Operations
construction of rigid pavements
4. Joints control of volume
changes due to temperature.

Failure in Rigid Pavement

1. Use of poor quality material
2. Inadequate stability of the
pavement structure
Types of Failure in Rigid Pavement
1. Scaling of Cement Concrete
peeling of top layer of the
concrete surface
2. Shrinkage crack formation of
hairline shallow cracks during
the setting and curing
3. Joint Spalling breakdown of
slab near the edge of a joint
4. Warping Cracks
accommodation of expansion
5. Pumping the materials present
below the road is ejecting
through the joints or cracks.
Softening Point bitumens softening
Viscosity resistance to flow
Fire Point lowest temperature for
Water Bound Macadam most
commonly used road construction
Tack Coat asphalt emulsion
Difference between Bitumen and
1. Bitumen is the liquid binder that
holds the asphalt together.
2. Asphalt is produced in a plant
that heats, dries and mixes
aggregates while Bitumen is a
composite mix.
Tar and Bitumen
1. Both black in color
GROUP IV Bituminous Pavement 2. Bitumen made of crude oil
3. Tar extracted from coal
Bitumen solid or viscous substance 4. Weathering: Bitumen>Tar
having adhesive properties. Semi-solid 5. Durability: Bitumen>Tar
hydrocarbon. It is also a kind of 6. Roads are constructed by
flexible pavement. bitumen
7. Deterioration: Tar>Bitumen
Bituminous Pavement combination of 8. Tar is no longer used for road
mineral aggregates and bituminous construction because it is
binders carcinogenic.
Carcinogen substances that cause Types of Bitumen
1. Cutback Bitumen bitumen is
AASHTO American Association of dissolved in a solvent.
State Highway and Transportation a. Rapid Curing gasoline
Officials b. Medium Curing
Fractional Distillation separation of a
c. Slow Curing diesel oil
mixture into its component parts 2. Bitumen Emulsion oil on water
Ductility property of bitumen that solution. The bitumen is about
permits to undergo great deformation 60% more than water.
a. Rapid Setting Used for
BIS Bureau of Indian Standards surface dressing work
b. Medium Setting Premix hydrocarbon found in Utah. It is
jobs and patch repair similar to petroleum asphalt aka
works natural asphalt or asphaltite. It
c. Slow Setting rainy is frequently used to harden
season petroleum products.
3. Bituminous Primer the
distillate is absorbed by the Tests on Bitumen
road surface. It depends on the 1. Penetration Test measures the
porosity. It is mixed with hardness or softness of bitumen
petroleum distillate. 2. Ductility Test mould assembly
4. Modified Bitumen different 3. Softening point test softens
additives are added to bitumen bitumen
to improve stiffness and 4. Specific Gravity Test ratio of
resistance to deformation. mass of given volume of
bitumen of known mass
Requirement of Bitumen
5. Viscosity Test higher viscosity:
1. Should process desirable resists compactive effort and
properties results to heterogeneous mix.
2. Bitumen should not be highly Lower viscosity: lubricates the
temperature susceptible aggregates of particles.
3. The viscosity of the bitumen 6. Flash and Fire Point Test high
should be adequate temperature leaves out volatile
4. Adequate affinity and adhesion materials.
between the bitumen and 7. Float Test water bath
aggregates mix 8. Water Content Test water in
bitumen is determined by
Sources of Bitumen mixing the specimen to
1. Lake Asphalt Pitch Lake: petroleum that is free from
Trinidad. The liquid asphalt is water.
black and viscous but has 9. Loss on heating test when
semisolid surface that can be bitumen is heated, it loses
walked on. The opened fault volatility and gets hardened.
lines allowed oil from the deep Qualities of Bitumen
underground deposits to rise.
2. Rock Asphalt a form of 1. Surface is free from cracks
sandstone impregnated with 2. It withstands weather conditions
bitumen. It is obtained from and its effects
mines and quarries 3. Resistant to internal moisture
3. Refined Asphalt from Crude Oil 4. Tight or porous impermeable
its viscosity is similar to cold surface
molasses and the fractional 5. Smooth riding and skid free
distillation of crude oil is 525 C Purpose of Bituminous Pavement
4. Gilsonite or North American
Asphaltum Natural, resinous