Dynamic Stability of Nonlinear Barge-Towing System

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Dynamic Stability of Nonlinear Barge-Towing System

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barge-towing system

Ming-Ling Lee

University, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.

A methodfor predicting the dynamic stubility of u nonlinear barge-towing system is presented in which

the equations of motion of the dynamic system are first transformed into a six-dimensional state-space

equation. The governing equation is then linearized by using the Taylor series expanding with respect

to the equilibrium configurations of the towed barge. It is found that the stability conditions of a

towing system are determined by the signs of the real part of some associated eigenvalues: Positive

and negative Is will result in unstable and stable dynamic responses, respectively, and 0 corresponds

to the marginally stable condition. The reliability of the foregoing criteria is confirmed by the time

histories (simulations) of the nonlinear barge-towing system. The effects of the stabilizing skegs and

the length and material of the towrope are also studied. Numerical results show that the skegs

significantly improve the course stability of the towed barge and that the length and muterial of the

towrope are also key factors affecting the dynamic stability of the barge-towing system.

Keywords: dynamic stability analysis, state equation, barge towing, equilibrium position, stability

criteria, simulation

Introduction

bility of a barge-towing system. The behavior of the

When a barge carrying bulk cargoes or offshore struc- nonlinear dynamic towing system was first described

tures is towed in an ocean, it is important that the barge with a set of six state-space equations. After the equi-

maintain its expected course. A towed barge must be librium configurations of the system were defined, the

dynamically stable because maneuvering an unstable nonlinear system was linearized by using the Taylor

barge is very difficult, since a barge is usually not series expanding with respect to the foregoing equilib-

equipped with an active control surface to maintain its rium configurations, and the stability condition was

course stability. Thus study of the stability property determined. To confirm the reliability of the criteria,

of a barge-towing system is required. time simulation of the nonlinear barge-towing system

The problems of course stability and safety of barge was performed. Two barges, one of them equipped

towing have been studied by several investigators since with slotted flap skegs, were investigated, and much

1950. In general, the analysis was done by using a linear difference between their dynamic stabilities was found.

approach with the time-independent model,-3 and the The effects of length and material of the towrope on

local stability and towing operations were analyzed. the towing stability were also studied.

Studies based on observation4 and model tests have In the present work, the dynamic stability and sim-

also been published. In 1985, Bernitsas and Kekridi$ ulation were evaluated by considering the three de-

studied the above problem with a time-dependent model grees of freedom of the barge in the horizontal plane

and showed that the five Routh-Hurwitz stability cri- (surge, sway, and yaw). Motions not in the horizontal

teria are only active for the local stability analysis and plane (roll, pitch, and heave) were neglected. The ef-

that analysis of the global behavior of the nonlinear fects of wind, waves, and currents were not consid-

system may also be achieved by simulation. Recently, ered.

the global stability of a nonlinear towing system was

determined based on the local analysis results obtained

with the perturbation method.

Governing equations

The mathematical model adopted here is the same as

Address reprint requests to Mr. Lee at the Department of Naval the conventional nonlinear model for setting up the

Architecture and Marine Engineering, National Cheng Kung Uni-

versity, Tainan, Taiwan, 70101, R.O.C.

maneuvering equations in the horizontal plane.2.8

Moreover, a nonlinear elastic towline is connected with

Received 12 May 1988; accepted 4 August 1989 the present model.

0 1989 Butterworth Publishers Appl. Math. Modelling, 1989, Vol. 13, December 693

Stability analysis in barge towing: M.-L. Lee

Equations of motion of a towed barge Y(U), u, T), and N(u, u, r) are the velocity-depen-

Figure I shows the configuration

of a barge towed dent hydrodynamic forces and moment; and Xk, YK,

by a tugboat. The reference frame (x, y, z) is fixed on and Nk are the towing forces and moment in surge,

the barge with its origin at the center of gravity of the sway, and yaw directions.

barge. Let (x, z) be the plane of symmetry and (x, y) The primes indicate that the associated parameters

the horizontal plane. Then the surge, sway, and yaw are nondimensional. All the terms included in the equa-

motions of the towed barge may be modelled by equa- tions of motion and their nondimensional expressions

tions (l), (2), and (3) in dimensionless form: are shown in Table I.

The hydrodynamic forces X(u, u, Y), Y(U), u, Y),

m(ti - ur) = X(u, u, r) + XL (1) and moment N(u, u, Y), shown in equations (l)-(3),

m(d + ur) = Y(u, u, r) + Yk may be expressed in terms of the slow motion deriv-

(2)

ative9 and are given by

ZI_i = N(u, u, r) + NK (3)

X(U, u, Y) = -R + X:,,ur + X,$ (4)

In these equations, m and 1; represent the mass and

mass moment of inertia, respectively, of the towed y(U, u, r) = YLU + Yir + ;Y;,&I*r

barge; u, u, and r are the relative velocities of the + +Y:,,ur* + QY;,,o + QY:J3

barge with respect to the still water; X(u, u, Y),

+ Y!ti

I + Y;r (5)

N(u, u, r) = Nbu + Nir + &N;,,o*r

+ $Nl,.,ur* + +,N&3 + $,Nirrrt3

Equilibrium + N/L? + N;? (6)

Position (2)

where R denotes the resistance of the towed barge.

The effects of propeller and rudder are not included in

Equilibrium

the above equations.

Position (11 From Figure I we see that the towing forces XL,

Yk, and moment Nk in equations (I), (2), and (3) are

given by

X;, = Tcos(y + $) (7)

Figure 1. Geometry of barge-towing system and possible equi-

librium positions Yk = -T sin (y + I+!J) (8)

Nk = - T x,,sin (y + I,@ (9)

Table 1. Nondimensional terms in the equations of motion where T is the tension in the towrope, XI,is the distance

between center of gravity of the barge and the con-

* = * nection point B of the towrope with the barge, and y

and + are the angles indicated in Figure I.

y; = - If the towrope is elastic, then the relationship be-

pi2L4

tween the tension T and length I of the towline at any

X, time t is given by7,9

x:, = -

pl2L3

Y (10)

NV = - N y,, = Yyy

pl2L3uo pl2L2luo

pi2L4 and the undeformed length of the towrope, respec-

tively, and p and q are the empirically determined con-

N; = - N,

p/2L4uo stants. The typical values of p and q for the towropes

Y

made of nylon and polyester are given by

Ni = - Ni v;, = 2

pl2L5 pl2L3luo Wet nylon (soft): p = 9.78 q = 1.93

j(; = - XII N&, = z

N Polyester (stiff ): p = 176 g = 1.86

pl2L%Jo pi2 L3luo

For a specified towrope the instant towline tension

N

N, = = T varies with the instant towline length I only. Thus

pl2L5luo

the towing forces Xk, Yk, and moment Nk in the system

are functions of the three parameters I, y, and +.

State equation

N

N; = 2

pi2 L4/uo From the foregoing subsection it is seen that the

hydrodynamic and towing forces and moment appear-

Stability analysis in barge towing: M-L. Lee

eters u, u, r, l, y, and I,!J.Thus the latter may be x1 = U, x2 = VI, x3 = r,

used as the state variables to establish a set of six state (IL)

equations. Three of the equations can be derived from xq=ll, x5=y, xfj=*

equations (l)-(3), and the other three can be obtained Then the substitution of equation (11) into equations

from the geometry and kinematics of the towing (l)-(3) will give

system.

i, = [fl(X,,XZ,X3) + fTI(.%~s~&M~ -xi) (12)

where

f-,(x1,x2,x3) = -R + (m + XJx2x3

f2(X,, x2, x3) = Y:.X?+ (Y: - mx,)xg + &Y;,I~rX$x3

+ &Y:.,.,.x?_x: + a Y;.l.l.x;+ fty;,.,.x_:

f,(x,, x2, x3) = N;x2 + Nix3 + +N:.l~,-x?fx3

+ ;N;,,.r~2~; + &N;.,.,.x;+ RN,!,.,.x_:

j& = u sin * + u cos $I (16)

g,(x4,x5,xfJ = SP q cos (xg + X6) r=ljl (17)

g2(xt,x5, X6) = -SLp

( >

:

0

- 1 sin (xs + x6)

1 = (xl; + xi>cos +)2 + (y& + x6 sin ij!# (19)

4

where Xl; and j& are nondimensional time derivatives

g3(x&x, &) = -&$

( >

F - 1

0

x:, sin (x5 + x6) of the x- and y-components of the distance from the

center of gravity of the towed barge to the connection

point A of the towline with the tugboat as illustrated

From the geometry and kinematics of the system in Figure 1. From equations (11) and (15)-(19), one

shown in Figure 1, one obtains obtains

& = -xl cos (x5 + x6) + x2 sin (xs + xn) + cos x5 + x3x;, sin (x5 + x6) (20)

-G = [x2 cos (x5 + x6) + xl sin (x5 + x6) - sin xs + x3x; cos (x5 + x6)] (21)

x4

Let x,(t) denotes a nominal operating point that cor-

Equations (I 2)-( 14) and equations (20)-(22) are the responds to some fixed initial state. Expanding the

six state equations of a towing system, and they may nonlinear state equation (equation (23)) into a Taylor

be rewritten as series about x(t) = x,,(t) and neglecting all the higher-

order terms, one has

k(t) = f[x(t)] (23)

where bold type represents the vectors; x is the state 6 H-(x)

%(I) = f;(x,,) + 2 I (24)

variables vector, f denotes the function vector, and j, .j= I aXj .,,'x'- "j'

is the time derivative of vector x.

wherei= 1,2,3 ,..., 6.Let

Since the state space equation (23) is nonlinear and is Then

usually difficult to analyze, it is more convenient to

perform a linearization before stability analysis. AX; = X; - X,,;

Stability analysis in barge towing: M.-l. Lee

Since 2. If u = + [(Nh - Y~x;)l$(Y:,,x:, - N:,,)]12, then

y # 0 and (c, # 0, the equilibrium position of the

& = fi(&) barge deviates from the centerline of the tugboat.

equation (24) may be rewritten as This is denoted by equilibrium position (2) as shown

in Figure 1. In other words, the positive and neg-

A&=

6 af.(x)

c-- AXj ative values of u correspond to two equilibrium

(25)

j=1 axj x,, positions that are symmetric with respect to the

centerline of the tugboat.

or, in matrix form,

3. If [(N: - Ylx;)l(Y:,,x:, - N:,,)] < 0 or Y:,,x; -

Ari=A*Ax (26) N0 = 0, equilibrium position (2) cannot be deter-

mined and hence does not exist.

where

4. If NL - YLxA= 0, the three values of u given by

. . -a.fi equation (33) are coincident; that is, u = 0.

5. If lul > 1, it is obvious that one cannot determine

af6

the value of (crfrom equation (29).

. . -a.f2

It should be reiterated that the above-mentioned pa-

af6

A* = rameters u, v, Y, l, y, and rl, are identical to xl, x2,

x3, x4, x5, and x6, respectively.

. .

af6

- Stability criteria

ax6 The concept of stability of a dynamic system is sim-

which is the Jacobian matrix of the first partial deriv- ilar to that of a static system: If an infinitesimal dis-

atives of the function vector f evaluated at x,(t). turbance will cause a system to deviate from its mean

equilibrium position and to not return to its original

position, the system is in unstable condition; other-

Determination of equilibrium position wise, the system is in stable condition.

The nominal operating point is defined by the equi- In some textbooks of automatic control systems,O

librium position of the system. When the towing sys- the stability criteria for a linear system like the one

tem is in equilibrium, one has defined by equation (26) are as follows:

i) = ljl = it = it = yf = $1 = yl = 0 When all six eigenvalues of A* have negative real

(27)

parts, the responses due to the initial conditions will

Based on equation (27) and from the equilibrium decrease to zero as time approaches infinity and the

conditions of the towed barge, the following equations system is stable.

are obtained: If at least one eigenvalue of A* has positive real

u[&(Y:,x; - N:,,)Ur2 + (Ykxj, - Nb)] = 0 part, the responses due to initial conditions will in-

(28)

crease in magnitude as time increases and the sys-

sin $ = - 0 (29) tem is unstable.

U = cos $ If the largest real part of the eigenvalue of A* is

(30)

zero, the responses will be the undamped sinusoidal

tan (y + $) = (Yku + 8Y&3)lR (31) oscillations and the system is unstable.

and Although the third case is considered to be unstable

Y in linear system theory, it might be better to call this

T=Sip f-l = Rlcos (y + $) (32) critical case marginally stable in the nonlinear towing

( 0 ) system. The reason is that even in the stable condition

It is seen that the values of 9. u, y, and 1 are deter- the responses of a towing system can hardly become

mined once the values of u are defined. The latter are zero in reality, since the towed barge is always dis-

given by turbed in the open ocean.

l/2

For the three cases mentioned above, the responses

N: - Y:x; of a towing system may be represented by the curves

u=O or f (33)

Q(Y:&, - N:,,) 1 shown in Figure 2.

It should be remembered that the above-mentioned

Equation (33) is obtained from equation (28). Since it

A* is the Jacobian matrix shown in equation (26), and

gives three values of u, three equilibrium positions of

its value is evaluated at the equilibrium position of the

the towing system may be obtained.

towing system.

In seeking the equilibrium positions it is noted that:

1. If v = 0, then y = (c,= 0, the equilibrium position

Time simulation

of the barge is just at the back of the tugboat. This

is denoted by equilibrium position (1) as shown in The foregoing stability criteria are confirmed by the

Figure 1. time histories of the towing system.

Stability analysis in barge towing: M-L. Lee

Re?.pO~Se Table 2. Barge particulars and slow motion derivatives used

in stability and simulation analysis

Particulars (without skews) (with skens)

191.56

35.00

14.58

0.505

0.0014 0.00196

/ - 0.00136

/ Track of towed barge

start 0.0170

- Time

/ - 0.01383

-0.01153 - 0.0259

0.0

0.00238 0.002815

0.0

Response

- 0.007285 - 0.0026425

LL Time -

0.00188

0.00128

0.01931

- 0.00265

- 0.01025

- 0.3005

Figure2. Definitions of course stability of a towed barge: stable

(top), unstable (middle), and marginally stable (bottom) 0.0

- 0.0111

- 0.01025

- 0.009669

The state equation of a towing system represents a 0.0

set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equa-

tions. It can be integrated over the time by a stepwise

integration scheme as long as the proper integration

step size and the initial conditions are defined. The

initial conditions for simulation may be obtained by

assigning values to the state variables Xi (i = 1, 2, 3,

. . . , 6) with finite deviations from the equilibrium

Ilx(t)ll =

r i= I 12

i: X,2(?)

positions. xi(t) the response of the ith state variable at time t, and

Although several methods, such as the Euler or n the number of total state variables.

Runge-Kutta integration method, can be used to solve

equation (23), in this study the Hammings method is

Numerical results and discussions

used because its algorithm is more accurate and re-

quires less computation time. Based on a fourth-order Two barges with the particulars shown in Table 2 are

predictor-corrector scheme, Hammings algorithm studied here. Barge 2 has the same principal dimen-

adopted here involves three steps:* sions as Barge 1 except that slotted flap skegs are

added on Barge 2. Inoue et a1.3 have shown that the

Predictor: Xi!+!1 = Xi-3 + +h(2fi - fi-1 + 2fj&2) skegs mainly affect the values of N:, YL, Ni, and Y:

Modifier: ii + I = Xl!, + ~[Xi - Xf]

and the resistance. Table 2 shows that the skegs raise

the resistance and the values of YLand N: and lower

Corrector: xi+1 = +$(9X; - Xi_*) the values of YLand N;.

+ $h(fi+ r + 2fi - fi_ 1)

Determination of equilibrium positions

where the subscript i refers to the current time to, i + Applying equations (29)~(33), one may obtain the

I refers to time co + h, i - 1 refers to time to - h, equilibrium positions of a towed barge. Figures 3(a)

and so on; fitI = f(k., to + h) is the moditied estimate and 3(b) show the relationships between the yaw angle

of f at the end of the time interval; and x$), is the $ and the nondimensional distance x;X= x,/L) for Barge

predicted value of xi+ 1 and is used only in the esti- 1 and Barge 2, respectively. From Figure 3(a), one

mation process. sees that there exists three equilibrium positions ((l),

To initialize the Hammings algorithm, one must use (2), and (2)) for Barge 1 and two of them ((2) and (2))

some other integrator for the first three time steps. The are symmetric. The configurations of the foregoing

Runge-Kutta scheme is used in this case. equilibrium positions are shown in Figure 1. For Barge

The result of time simulation of a dynamic system 2, from Figure 3(b), one sees that a critical point exists

is usually represented by state variables. However, it at x; = 0.1 and that the equilibrium states change grad-

may be represented by the norm of the state variables, ually with parameter ,$ in the range of .rL = 0.054-o. I.

which is defined as When the parameter _$, approaches the critical point,

Stability analysis in barge towing: M-L. Lee

1.6

\

Parameter x I Parameter es

P E 0

1.6 , ,

: 0.007

I

2,

Parameter X

P

Figure 3. Relationships between the yaw angle $ and the non- Figure 4. Stability curves of the barges towed by nylon rope

dimensional distance x; on barge 1, without skegs (top), and with XL = 0.505 and u0 = 4 knots

barge 2, with skegs (bottom)

the pair of symmetric equilibrium positions ((2) and termining the stability or instability of a specified equi-

(2)) merges at that point and disappears; thus librium position: Positive values denote unstable equi-

for .$ > 0.1, only equilibrium position (1) exists. librium, while negative values and zero denote stable

and marginally stable equilibrium, respectively.

Stability analysis From Figure 4(a), one sees that the equilibria of

When the equilibrium positions of a towing system position (1) for Barge 1 (without skegs) are all unstable,

are determined, the stability conditions of the towing while most of the equilibria of position (2) are stable

system can be determined from the eigenvalues of ma- except those corresponding to 1; = 0.55, 0.59, and 1.O

trix A*, which are evaluated at the equilibrium position where significant peaks exist. Since equilibrium posi-

of the towing system, as described in the section on tion (2) (or (2)) for Barge 2 does not exist for x; > 0.1

stability analysis. (see Figure 3(b)), only the curves relating to equilib-

Since the center of gravity of a towed barge is usu- rium position (1) were shown in Figure 4(b) for Barge

ally located near the middle of the barge length and 2. From Figure 4(b), one sees that the equilibria of

the connection point of the towline is usually located position (1) are unstable in the range of fh = 0.25-0.56

at the forward end of the barge, the value of parameter and are stable when 1; < 0.25 or 1; > 0.56.

XL(= x,/L) is unchangeable for a specified towed barge. To realize the effects of towrope materials on the

In the following illustrative examples the value of dynamic stability of a towing system, stability analyses

XP

= 0.505 for the barges shown in Table 2 is used for were performed again by using polyester rope. Figures

stability analysis. The forward velocity of the towing 5(a) and 5(b) show the stability curves for Barge 1 and

tug is assumed to be 4 knots in this study. Barge 2, respectively, towed by polyester rope. The

Figures 4(a) and 4(b) show the stability curves for curves in these two figures are quite similar to those

Barge 1 and Barge 2, respectively, towed by nylon shown in Figures 4(a) and 4(b) except that peaks of

rope. The value of the maximum real part among all the curves for equilibrium position (2) in Figure 5(a)

the six eigenvalues in equilibrium is the basis for de- are severe and wilder.

Stability analysis in barge towing: M-L. Lee

Parameter e:,

Figure 5. Stability curves of barge 1, without skegs (top), and by nylon (fop) and polyester (bottom) ropes and initiated near

barge 2, with skegs (bottom), towed by polyester rope with equilibrium position (1) with /A = 1.6, x,: = 0.505, and u0 = 4

XL = 0.505 and u0 = 4 knots knots

Reliability of stability criteria As depicted in Figures 4(a) and 5(a), the significant

To verify the above results obtained from stability peaks exhibiting on the curves for equilibrium position

analysis, numerical integration of equation (23) is per- (2) with 1,)less than 1.0 denote unstable equilibrium.

formed by using Hammings method. The norm and Hence corresponding to some values of 10,for example,

yaw simulations of Barge I towed by nylon and poly- in the vicinity of lb = 0.8 in Figure 5(a), equilibrium

ester ropes, respectively, are shown in Figures 6 and positions (I) and (2) are both unstable for Barge I. In

7. The initial conditions are in the vicinity of equilib- other words, when 1;)= 0.8, Barge I cannot be towed

rium position (1) with l,$ = 1.6, xi, = 0.505, and u0 = steadily with polyester rope, and the towing operation

4 knots. When the towrope is made of either nylon or is hazardous. Figure 8 shows the norm simulations of

polyester, Figures 4(a) and 5(a) show that equilibrium Barge 1 towed by nylon and polyester ropes, respec-

position (I) is unstable and equilibrium position (2) is tively, which are initiated in the vicinity of equilibrium

stable when I(, = 1.6. Hence Barge 1 is unstable in position (I) with 16 = 0.8. From Figure 8, one sees that

forward motion and can be towed only with equilibrium the motions associated with the nylon rope converge

position (2). From Figures 6 and 7, one sees that the to equilibrium position (2), since when 1:) = 0.8, equi-

motions associated with nylon rope converge to stable librium position (2) is stable, as shown in Figure 4(a),

equilibrium, and those associated with polyester rope while those associated with the polyester rope do not

converge to stable oscillations with limited amplitude. converge, but approach infinity. These results also agree

Furthermore, the polyester rope induces larger-amph- with the previous predictions.

tude motions. From Figure 7, one sees that the yaw Figures 4(b) and 5(b) show that the dynamic stability

angles of the barge converge to r,G= 0.251 (equilibrium of Barge 2 is quite different from that of Barge 1. For

position (2)) instead of Cc,= 0 (equilibrium position (I)). Barge 2, only equilibrium position (1) exists, and the

It is evident that the time simulations agree with the equilibria for I(, greater than 0.56 are marginally stable

predictions of stability analysis. (since the largest real part among all the six eigenvalues

Stability analysis in barge towing: M-L. Lee

0.5 0.06

1

0.4

Sb

0.3

2

5

E 0.2

>

0.1

-0.06 I 4

OO 40 80 120 160 200 240 0 40 80 120 160 200 240

Figure 7. Yaw simulations of Barge 1 (without skegs) towed by Figure 9. Norm (top) and yaw (bottom) simulations of Barge 2

nylon (top) and polyester (bottom) ropes and initiated near equi- (with skegs) towed by nylon and polyester ropes with /A = 1.6,

librium position (1) with lb = 1.6, x; = 0.505, and u,_,= 4 knots XL = 0.505, and u0 = 4 knots

2

=

+I

;; 1.9 -Rayester

with limited amplitude, and the oscillations associated

5 with the polyester rope are larger than those associated

3 1.8

with the nylon rope. Note that the amplitudes of the

P

.rz 1.7 two motions are very small. One may also find from

2 1.6

Figure 9(b) that the yaw angles of both motions con-

>

verge to CF,= 0. This means that Barge 2 is stable in a

s

z 1.5 towing operation and will be just at the back of the

w 1.4

towing tug when the towrope is made of either nylon

0 or polyester.

El 1.3 Figures 4(b) and 5(b) have shown that the equilibria

z"

1.2 of position (1) for Barge 2 are unstable when & =

0 40 80 120 180 200 240

0.25-0.56. To verify this prediction, the simulation of

Dimensionless time t' the towing operation was performed with 16 = 0.4.

Figures IO(a) and IO(b) show the norm simulations of

Figure 8. Norm simulations of Barge 1 towed by nylon and Barge 2 towed by nylon and polyester ropes, respec-

polyester ropes and initiated near equilibrium position (1) with

/A = 0.8, XL = 0.505, and u0 = 4 knots

tively, with l& = 0.4, x; = 0.505, and u. = 4 knots. It

is evident that both motions shown in these two figures

are not converged; besides, the depicted curves are

is equal to zero). Figures 9(a) and 9(b) show the norm quite different from each other. The curve associated

and yaw simulations, respectively, of Barge 2 towed with nylon rope oscillates with gradually increased am-

by nylon and polyester ropes, which are initiated near plitudes, while the curve associated with polyester rope

equilibrium position (1) with I&= 1.6, A$,= 0.505, and goes to infinity in a very short time. Therefore Barge

u. = 4 knots. From Figure 9(u), one sees that both 2 cannot be towed safely if the value of 1; falls in the

motions converge to their predicted stable oscillations unstable ranges as shown in Figures 4(b) and S(b).

Stability analysis in barge towing: M.-L. Lee

erty of a towed barge is very marked: It significantly

improves the course stability of a towed barge.

A towrope of unsuitable length will induce hazard-

ous responses in operations and make it impossible

to keep a towed barge in an equilibrium position.

The motion amplitudes of a barge due to a stiff

towrope (such as polyester) are larger than those

due to a soft towrope (such as nylon). Even in the

stable equilibrium condition, the dynamic responses

due to a polyester towrope will not decrease to zero

and are in sinusoidal oscillations.

40 80 120 160 zoo

Dimensionless time t'

References

1 Strandhagen, A. G., Schoenherr, K. E. and Kabayashi, F. M.

The dynamic stability on course of towed ships. Truns. SNAME

1950, 58, 32-36

2 Eda, H. Course stability, turning performance, and connection

force of barge system in coastal seaways. Trans. SNAME 1972,

80, 299-328

3 Inoue, S., Kihima, K. and Doi, M. On the course stability of

a barge. Trans. We.st Japan Sot. Nuval Architects 1977, 54 (in

Japanese), 193-201

4 Benford, H. The control of yaw in towed barges. Internafional

Shipbuilding Progress 1955, 2(l l), 296-318

5 Tdnako, M. Experimental study on the course stability of a

towed barge. Trans. West Jupun Sot. Naval Architects 1978,

56 (in Japanese), 1-9

6 Bernitsas, M. M. and Kekridis, N. S. Simulation and stability

of ship towing. International Shipbuilding Process 1985,32(369),

Figure 10. Norm simulations of Barge 2 towed by nylon (top) 112-123

and polyester (bottom) ropes with /A = 0.4, x;, = 0.505, and Bernitsas, M. M. and Kekridis. N. S. Nonlinear stability anal-

u0 = 4 knots ysis of ship towed by elastic rope. J. Ship Res. 1986, 30(2),

136-146

Comstock, J. P., ed. Principle ofNuvrrlArc,hitpcture. SNAME,

New York, 1967, 543-545

Mckenna. H. A. and Wong, R. K. Synthetic fiber rope, prop-

Conclusions erties and calculations relating to mooring system. Deepwter

Mooring and Drilling, American Society of Mechanical Engi-

The dynamic stability of the towed barge in water has neers, Ocean Engineering Division, Vol. 7. 1979, 189-198

been studied. Based on the results presented in the Kuo, B. C. Automatic Control System, 4th ed. Prentice Hall,

Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1982, p. 356

previous sections, several conclusions can be drawn: Charters, S., Thomas, G. and Latorre, R. Analysis of towed

vessel course stability in shallow water. Issued for written dis-

1. Results obtained from stability analysis agree with

cussion, RINA, 1985, 2

the numerical integrations of the state equation of Gerald, C. F. and Wheatly, P. 0. Applied Numericul Analysis,

towing system. This indicates that the presented 3rd ed. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Reading, MA, 1984,

method is reliable. p. 334

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