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Dynamicstability of nonlinear

barge-towing system
Ming-Ling Lee

Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, National Cheng Kung


University, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.

A methodfor predicting the dynamic stubility of u nonlinear barge-towing system is presented in which
the equations of motion of the dynamic system are first transformed into a six-dimensional state-space
equation. The governing equation is then linearized by using the Taylor series expanding with respect
to the equilibrium configurations of the towed barge. It is found that the stability conditions of a
towing system are determined by the signs of the real part of some associated eigenvalues: Positive
and negative Is will result in unstable and stable dynamic responses, respectively, and 0 corresponds
to the marginally stable condition. The reliability of the foregoing criteria is confirmed by the time
histories (simulations) of the nonlinear barge-towing system. The effects of the stabilizing skegs and
the length and material of the towrope are also studied. Numerical results show that the skegs
significantly improve the course stability of the towed barge and that the length and muterial of the
towrope are also key factors affecting the dynamic stability of the barge-towing system.

Keywords: dynamic stability analysis, state equation, barge towing, equilibrium position, stability
criteria, simulation

This paper presents a method for predicting the sta-


Introduction
bility of a barge-towing system. The behavior of the
When a barge carrying bulk cargoes or offshore struc- nonlinear dynamic towing system was first described
tures is towed in an ocean, it is important that the barge with a set of six state-space equations. After the equi-
maintain its expected course. A towed barge must be librium configurations of the system were defined, the
dynamically stable because maneuvering an unstable nonlinear system was linearized by using the Taylor
barge is very difficult, since a barge is usually not series expanding with respect to the foregoing equilib-
equipped with an active control surface to maintain its rium configurations, and the stability condition was
course stability. Thus study of the stability property determined. To confirm the reliability of the criteria,
of a barge-towing system is required. time simulation of the nonlinear barge-towing system
The problems of course stability and safety of barge was performed. Two barges, one of them equipped
towing have been studied by several investigators since with slotted flap skegs, were investigated, and much
1950. In general, the analysis was done by using a linear difference between their dynamic stabilities was found.
approach with the time-independent model,-3 and the The effects of length and material of the towrope on
local stability and towing operations were analyzed. the towing stability were also studied.
Studies based on observation4 and model tests have In the present work, the dynamic stability and sim-
also been published. In 1985, Bernitsas and Kekridi$ ulation were evaluated by considering the three de-
studied the above problem with a time-dependent model grees of freedom of the barge in the horizontal plane
and showed that the five Routh-Hurwitz stability cri- (surge, sway, and yaw). Motions not in the horizontal
teria are only active for the local stability analysis and plane (roll, pitch, and heave) were neglected. The ef-
that analysis of the global behavior of the nonlinear fects of wind, waves, and currents were not consid-
system may also be achieved by simulation. Recently, ered.
the global stability of a nonlinear towing system was
determined based on the local analysis results obtained
with the perturbation method.
Governing equations
The mathematical model adopted here is the same as
Address reprint requests to Mr. Lee at the Department of Naval the conventional nonlinear model for setting up the
Architecture and Marine Engineering, National Cheng Kung Uni-
versity, Tainan, Taiwan, 70101, R.O.C.
maneuvering equations in the horizontal plane.2.8
Moreover, a nonlinear elastic towline is connected with
Received 12 May 1988; accepted 4 August 1989 the present model.

0 1989 Butterworth Publishers Appl. Math. Modelling, 1989, Vol. 13, December 693

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Stability analysis in barge towing: M.-L. Lee

Equations of motion of a towed barge Y(U), u, T), and N(u, u, r) are the velocity-depen-
Figure I shows the configuration
of a barge towed dent hydrodynamic forces and moment; and Xk, YK,
by a tugboat. The reference frame (x, y, z) is fixed on and Nk are the towing forces and moment in surge,
the barge with its origin at the center of gravity of the sway, and yaw directions.
barge. Let (x, z) be the plane of symmetry and (x, y) The primes indicate that the associated parameters
the horizontal plane. Then the surge, sway, and yaw are nondimensional. All the terms included in the equa-
motions of the towed barge may be modelled by equa- tions of motion and their nondimensional expressions
tions (l), (2), and (3) in dimensionless form: are shown in Table I.
The hydrodynamic forces X(u, u, Y), Y(U), u, Y),
m(ti - ur) = X(u, u, r) + XL (1) and moment N(u, u, Y), shown in equations (l)-(3),
m(d + ur) = Y(u, u, r) + Yk may be expressed in terms of the slow motion deriv-
(2)
ative9 and are given by
ZI_i = N(u, u, r) + NK (3)
X(U, u, Y) = -R + X:,,ur + X,$ (4)
In these equations, m and 1; represent the mass and
mass moment of inertia, respectively, of the towed y(U, u, r) = YLU + Yir + ;Y;,&I*r
barge; u, u, and r are the relative velocities of the + +Y:,,ur* + QY;,,o + QY:J3
barge with respect to the still water; X(u, u, Y),
+ Y!ti
I + Y;r (5)
N(u, u, r) = Nbu + Nir + &N;,,o*r
+ $Nl,.,ur* + +,N&3 + $,Nirrrt3
Equilibrium + N/L? + N;? (6)
Position (2)
where R denotes the resistance of the towed barge.
The effects of propeller and rudder are not included in
Equilibrium
the above equations.
Position (11 From Figure I we see that the towing forces XL,
Yk, and moment Nk in equations (I), (2), and (3) are
given by
X;, = Tcos(y + $) (7)
Figure 1. Geometry of barge-towing system and possible equi-
librium positions Yk = -T sin (y + I+!J) (8)
Nk = - T x,,sin (y + I,@ (9)
Table 1. Nondimensional terms in the equations of motion where T is the tension in the towrope, XI,is the distance
between center of gravity of the barge and the con-
* = * nection point B of the towrope with the barge, and y
and + are the angles indicated in Figure I.
y; = - If the towrope is elastic, then the relationship be-
pi2L4
tween the tension T and length I of the towline at any
X, time t is given by7,9
x:, = -
pl2L3
Y (10)
NV = - N y,, = Yyy
pl2L3uo pl2L2luo

N; = -!%- where .Shand 16represent the average breaking strength


pi2L4 and the undeformed length of the towrope, respec-
tively, and p and q are the empirically determined con-
N; = - N,
p/2L4uo stants. The typical values of p and q for the towropes
Y
made of nylon and polyester are given by
Ni = - Ni v;, = 2
pl2L5 pl2L3luo Wet nylon (soft): p = 9.78 q = 1.93
j(; = - XII N&, = z
N Polyester (stiff ): p = 176 g = 1.86
pl2L%Jo pi2 L3luo
For a specified towrope the instant towline tension
N
N, = = T varies with the instant towline length I only. Thus
pl2L5luo
the towing forces Xk, Yk, and moment Nk in the system
are functions of the three parameters I, y, and +.
State equation
N
N; = 2
pi2 L4/uo From the foregoing subsection it is seen that the
hydrodynamic and towing forces and moment appear-

694 Appl. Math. Modelling, 1989, Vol. 13, December


Stability analysis in barge towing: M-L. Lee

ing in equations (l)-(3) are functions of the six param- Let


eters u, u, r, l, y, and I,!J.Thus the latter may be x1 = U, x2 = VI, x3 = r,
used as the state variables to establish a set of six state (IL)
equations. Three of the equations can be derived from xq=ll, x5=y, xfj=*
equations (l)-(3), and the other three can be obtained Then the substitution of equation (11) into equations
from the geometry and kinematics of the towing (l)-(3) will give
system.
i, = [fl(X,,XZ,X3) + fTI(.%~s~&M~ -xi) (12)

where
f-,(x1,x2,x3) = -R + (m + XJx2x3
f2(X,, x2, x3) = Y:.X?+ (Y: - mx,)xg + &Y;,I~rX$x3
+ &Y:.,.,.x?_x: + a Y;.l.l.x;+ fty;,.,.x_:
f,(x,, x2, x3) = N;x2 + Nix3 + +N:.l~,-x?fx3
+ ;N;,,.r~2~; + &N;.,.,.x;+ RN,!,.,.x_:

and $; = U cos Cc,- v sin * - I (15)


j& = u sin * + u cos $I (16)
g,(x4,x5,xfJ = SP q cos (xg + X6) r=ljl (17)

4 sin y = + (y;; + x;, sin I+!J) (18)


g2(xt,x5, X6) = -SLp
( >
:
0
- 1 sin (xs + x6)
1 = (xl; + xi>cos +)2 + (y& + x6 sin ij!# (19)
4
where Xl; and j& are nondimensional time derivatives
g3(x&x, &) = -&$
( >
F - 1
0
x:, sin (x5 + x6) of the x- and y-components of the distance from the
center of gravity of the towed barge to the connection
point A of the towline with the tugboat as illustrated
From the geometry and kinematics of the system in Figure 1. From equations (11) and (15)-(19), one
shown in Figure 1, one obtains obtains

& = -xl cos (x5 + x6) + x2 sin (xs + xn) + cos x5 + x3x;, sin (x5 + x6) (20)

-G = [x2 cos (x5 + x6) + xl sin (x5 + x6) - sin xs + x3x; cos (x5 + x6)] (21)
x4

.i\-h= xj (22) Linearization of u nonlinear system


Let x,(t) denotes a nominal operating point that cor-
Equations (I 2)-( 14) and equations (20)-(22) are the responds to some fixed initial state. Expanding the
six state equations of a towing system, and they may nonlinear state equation (equation (23)) into a Taylor
be rewritten as series about x(t) = x,,(t) and neglecting all the higher-
order terms, one has
k(t) = f[x(t)] (23)
where bold type represents the vectors; x is the state 6 H-(x)
%(I) = f;(x,,) + 2 I (24)
variables vector, f denotes the function vector, and j, .j= I aXj .,,'x'- "j'
is the time derivative of vector x.
wherei= 1,2,3 ,..., 6.Let

Stability analysis Ax; = x; - x0,


Since the state space equation (23) is nonlinear and is Then
usually difficult to analyze, it is more convenient to
perform a linearization before stability analysis. AX; = X; - X,,;

Appl. Math. Modelling, 1989, Vol. 13, December 695


Stability analysis in barge towing: M.-l. Lee
Since 2. If u = + [(Nh - Y~x;)l$(Y:,,x:, - N:,,)]12, then
y # 0 and (c, # 0, the equilibrium position of the
& = fi(&) barge deviates from the centerline of the tugboat.
equation (24) may be rewritten as This is denoted by equilibrium position (2) as shown
in Figure 1. In other words, the positive and neg-
A&=
6 af.(x)
c-- AXj ative values of u correspond to two equilibrium
(25)
j=1 axj x,, positions that are symmetric with respect to the
centerline of the tugboat.
or, in matrix form,
3. If [(N: - Ylx;)l(Y:,,x:, - N:,,)] < 0 or Y:,,x; -
Ari=A*Ax (26) N0 = 0, equilibrium position (2) cannot be deter-
mined and hence does not exist.
where
4. If NL - YLxA= 0, the three values of u given by
. . -a.fi equation (33) are coincident; that is, u = 0.
5. If lul > 1, it is obvious that one cannot determine
af6
the value of (crfrom equation (29).
. . -a.f2
It should be reiterated that the above-mentioned pa-
af6
A* = rameters u, v, Y, l, y, and rl, are identical to xl, x2,
x3, x4, x5, and x6, respectively.

. .
af6
- Stability criteria
ax6 The concept of stability of a dynamic system is sim-
which is the Jacobian matrix of the first partial deriv- ilar to that of a static system: If an infinitesimal dis-
atives of the function vector f evaluated at x,(t). turbance will cause a system to deviate from its mean
equilibrium position and to not return to its original
position, the system is in unstable condition; other-
Determination of equilibrium position wise, the system is in stable condition.
The nominal operating point is defined by the equi- In some textbooks of automatic control systems,O
librium position of the system. When the towing sys- the stability criteria for a linear system like the one
tem is in equilibrium, one has defined by equation (26) are as follows:
i) = ljl = it = it = yf = $1 = yl = 0 When all six eigenvalues of A* have negative real
(27)
parts, the responses due to the initial conditions will
Based on equation (27) and from the equilibrium decrease to zero as time approaches infinity and the
conditions of the towed barge, the following equations system is stable.
are obtained: If at least one eigenvalue of A* has positive real
u[&(Y:,x; - N:,,)Ur2 + (Ykxj, - Nb)] = 0 part, the responses due to initial conditions will in-
(28)
crease in magnitude as time increases and the sys-
sin $ = - 0 (29) tem is unstable.
U = cos $ If the largest real part of the eigenvalue of A* is
(30)
zero, the responses will be the undamped sinusoidal
tan (y + $) = (Yku + 8Y&3)lR (31) oscillations and the system is unstable.
and Although the third case is considered to be unstable
Y in linear system theory, it might be better to call this
T=Sip f-l = Rlcos (y + $) (32) critical case marginally stable in the nonlinear towing
( 0 ) system. The reason is that even in the stable condition
It is seen that the values of 9. u, y, and 1 are deter- the responses of a towing system can hardly become
mined once the values of u are defined. The latter are zero in reality, since the towed barge is always dis-
given by turbed in the open ocean.
l/2
For the three cases mentioned above, the responses
N: - Y:x; of a towing system may be represented by the curves
u=O or f (33)
Q(Y:&, - N:,,) 1 shown in Figure 2.
It should be remembered that the above-mentioned
Equation (33) is obtained from equation (28). Since it
A* is the Jacobian matrix shown in equation (26), and
gives three values of u, three equilibrium positions of
its value is evaluated at the equilibrium position of the
the towing system may be obtained.
towing system.
In seeking the equilibrium positions it is noted that:
1. If v = 0, then y = (c,= 0, the equilibrium position
Time simulation
of the barge is just at the back of the tugboat. This
is denoted by equilibrium position (1) as shown in The foregoing stability criteria are confirmed by the
Figure 1. time histories of the towing system.

696 Appl. Math. Modelling, 1989, Vol. 13, December


Stability analysis in barge towing: M-L. Lee
Re?.pO~Se Table 2. Barge particulars and slow motion derivatives used
in stability and simulation analysis

+ Time Barge I* Barge 23


Particulars (without skews) (with skens)

191.56
35.00
14.58
0.505
0.0014 0.00196
/ - 0.00136
/ Track of towed barge
start 0.0170
- Time
/ - 0.01383
-0.01153 - 0.0259
0.0
0.00238 0.002815
0.0
Response
- 0.007285 - 0.0026425

LL Time -
0.00188
0.00128
0.01931
- 0.00265

- 0.01025
- 0.3005
Figure2. Definitions of course stability of a towed barge: stable
(top), unstable (middle), and marginally stable (bottom) 0.0
- 0.0111
- 0.01025
- 0.009669
The state equation of a towing system represents a 0.0
set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equa-
tions. It can be integrated over the time by a stepwise
integration scheme as long as the proper integration
step size and the initial conditions are defined. The
initial conditions for simulation may be obtained by
assigning values to the state variables Xi (i = 1, 2, 3,
. . . , 6) with finite deviations from the equilibrium
Ilx(t)ll =
r i= I 12
i: X,2(?)

where Ilx(t)ll denotes the norm of the state variables,


positions. xi(t) the response of the ith state variable at time t, and
Although several methods, such as the Euler or n the number of total state variables.
Runge-Kutta integration method, can be used to solve
equation (23), in this study the Hammings method is
Numerical results and discussions
used because its algorithm is more accurate and re-
quires less computation time. Based on a fourth-order Two barges with the particulars shown in Table 2 are
predictor-corrector scheme, Hammings algorithm studied here. Barge 2 has the same principal dimen-
adopted here involves three steps:* sions as Barge 1 except that slotted flap skegs are
added on Barge 2. Inoue et a1.3 have shown that the
Predictor: Xi!+!1 = Xi-3 + +h(2fi - fi-1 + 2fj&2) skegs mainly affect the values of N:, YL, Ni, and Y:
Modifier: ii + I = Xl!, + ~[Xi - Xf]
and the resistance. Table 2 shows that the skegs raise
the resistance and the values of YLand N: and lower
Corrector: xi+1 = +$(9X; - Xi_*) the values of YLand N;.
+ $h(fi+ r + 2fi - fi_ 1)
Determination of equilibrium positions
where the subscript i refers to the current time to, i + Applying equations (29)~(33), one may obtain the
I refers to time co + h, i - 1 refers to time to - h, equilibrium positions of a towed barge. Figures 3(a)
and so on; fitI = f(k., to + h) is the moditied estimate and 3(b) show the relationships between the yaw angle
of f at the end of the time interval; and x$), is the $ and the nondimensional distance x;X= x,/L) for Barge
predicted value of xi+ 1 and is used only in the esti- 1 and Barge 2, respectively. From Figure 3(a), one
mation process. sees that there exists three equilibrium positions ((l),
To initialize the Hammings algorithm, one must use (2), and (2)) for Barge 1 and two of them ((2) and (2))
some other integrator for the first three time steps. The are symmetric. The configurations of the foregoing
Runge-Kutta scheme is used in this case. equilibrium positions are shown in Figure 1. For Barge
The result of time simulation of a dynamic system 2, from Figure 3(b), one sees that a critical point exists
is usually represented by state variables. However, it at x; = 0.1 and that the equilibrium states change grad-
may be represented by the norm of the state variables, ually with parameter ,$ in the range of .rL = 0.054-o. I.
which is defined as When the parameter _$, approaches the critical point,

Appl. Math. Modelling, 1989, Vol. 13, December 697


Stability analysis in barge towing: M-L. Lee

1.6
\

0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.1


Parameter x I Parameter es
P E 0

1.6 , ,
: 0.007
I
2,

0 0.z 0.4 0.6

Parameter X
P

Figure 3. Relationships between the yaw angle $ and the non- Figure 4. Stability curves of the barges towed by nylon rope
dimensional distance x; on barge 1, without skegs (top), and with XL = 0.505 and u0 = 4 knots
barge 2, with skegs (bottom)

the pair of symmetric equilibrium positions ((2) and termining the stability or instability of a specified equi-
(2)) merges at that point and disappears; thus librium position: Positive values denote unstable equi-
for .$ > 0.1, only equilibrium position (1) exists. librium, while negative values and zero denote stable
and marginally stable equilibrium, respectively.
Stability analysis From Figure 4(a), one sees that the equilibria of
When the equilibrium positions of a towing system position (1) for Barge 1 (without skegs) are all unstable,
are determined, the stability conditions of the towing while most of the equilibria of position (2) are stable
system can be determined from the eigenvalues of ma- except those corresponding to 1; = 0.55, 0.59, and 1.O
trix A*, which are evaluated at the equilibrium position where significant peaks exist. Since equilibrium posi-
of the towing system, as described in the section on tion (2) (or (2)) for Barge 2 does not exist for x; > 0.1
stability analysis. (see Figure 3(b)), only the curves relating to equilib-
Since the center of gravity of a towed barge is usu- rium position (1) were shown in Figure 4(b) for Barge
ally located near the middle of the barge length and 2. From Figure 4(b), one sees that the equilibria of
the connection point of the towline is usually located position (1) are unstable in the range of fh = 0.25-0.56
at the forward end of the barge, the value of parameter and are stable when 1; < 0.25 or 1; > 0.56.
XL(= x,/L) is unchangeable for a specified towed barge. To realize the effects of towrope materials on the
In the following illustrative examples the value of dynamic stability of a towing system, stability analyses
XP
= 0.505 for the barges shown in Table 2 is used for were performed again by using polyester rope. Figures
stability analysis. The forward velocity of the towing 5(a) and 5(b) show the stability curves for Barge 1 and
tug is assumed to be 4 knots in this study. Barge 2, respectively, towed by polyester rope. The
Figures 4(a) and 4(b) show the stability curves for curves in these two figures are quite similar to those
Barge 1 and Barge 2, respectively, towed by nylon shown in Figures 4(a) and 4(b) except that peaks of
rope. The value of the maximum real part among all the curves for equilibrium position (2) in Figure 5(a)
the six eigenvalues in equilibrium is the basis for de- are severe and wilder.

698 Appl. Math. Modelling, 1989, Vol. 13, December


Stability analysis in barge towing: M-L. Lee

Parameter e:,

Figure 6. Norm simulations of Barge 1 (without skegs) towed


Figure 5. Stability curves of barge 1, without skegs (top), and by nylon (fop) and polyester (bottom) ropes and initiated near
barge 2, with skegs (bottom), towed by polyester rope with equilibrium position (1) with /A = 1.6, x,: = 0.505, and u0 = 4
XL = 0.505 and u0 = 4 knots knots

Reliability of stability criteria As depicted in Figures 4(a) and 5(a), the significant
To verify the above results obtained from stability peaks exhibiting on the curves for equilibrium position
analysis, numerical integration of equation (23) is per- (2) with 1,)less than 1.0 denote unstable equilibrium.
formed by using Hammings method. The norm and Hence corresponding to some values of 10,for example,
yaw simulations of Barge I towed by nylon and poly- in the vicinity of lb = 0.8 in Figure 5(a), equilibrium
ester ropes, respectively, are shown in Figures 6 and positions (I) and (2) are both unstable for Barge I. In
7. The initial conditions are in the vicinity of equilib- other words, when 1;)= 0.8, Barge I cannot be towed
rium position (1) with l,$ = 1.6, xi, = 0.505, and u0 = steadily with polyester rope, and the towing operation
4 knots. When the towrope is made of either nylon or is hazardous. Figure 8 shows the norm simulations of
polyester, Figures 4(a) and 5(a) show that equilibrium Barge 1 towed by nylon and polyester ropes, respec-
position (I) is unstable and equilibrium position (2) is tively, which are initiated in the vicinity of equilibrium
stable when I(, = 1.6. Hence Barge 1 is unstable in position (I) with 16 = 0.8. From Figure 8, one sees that
forward motion and can be towed only with equilibrium the motions associated with the nylon rope converge
position (2). From Figures 6 and 7, one sees that the to equilibrium position (2), since when 1:) = 0.8, equi-
motions associated with nylon rope converge to stable librium position (2) is stable, as shown in Figure 4(a),
equilibrium, and those associated with polyester rope while those associated with the polyester rope do not
converge to stable oscillations with limited amplitude. converge, but approach infinity. These results also agree
Furthermore, the polyester rope induces larger-amph- with the previous predictions.
tude motions. From Figure 7, one sees that the yaw Figures 4(b) and 5(b) show that the dynamic stability
angles of the barge converge to r,G= 0.251 (equilibrium of Barge 2 is quite different from that of Barge 1. For
position (2)) instead of Cc,= 0 (equilibrium position (I)). Barge 2, only equilibrium position (1) exists, and the
It is evident that the time simulations agree with the equilibria for I(, greater than 0.56 are marginally stable
predictions of stability analysis. (since the largest real part among all the six eigenvalues

Appl. Math. Modelling, 1989, Vol. 13, December 699


Stability analysis in barge towing: M-L. Lee

Dimensionless time t'

0.5 0.06
1

0.4

Sb
0.3
2

5
E 0.2
>

0.1

-0.06 I 4
OO 40 80 120 160 200 240 0 40 80 120 160 200 240

Dimensionless time t' Dimensionless time t

Figure 7. Yaw simulations of Barge 1 (without skegs) towed by Figure 9. Norm (top) and yaw (bottom) simulations of Barge 2
nylon (top) and polyester (bottom) ropes and initiated near equi- (with skegs) towed by nylon and polyester ropes with /A = 1.6,
librium position (1) with lb = 1.6, x; = 0.505, and u,_,= 4 knots XL = 0.505, and u0 = 4 knots

2
=
+I
;; 1.9 -Rayester
with limited amplitude, and the oscillations associated
5 with the polyester rope are larger than those associated
3 1.8
with the nylon rope. Note that the amplitudes of the
P
.rz 1.7 two motions are very small. One may also find from
2 1.6
Figure 9(b) that the yaw angles of both motions con-
>
verge to CF,= 0. This means that Barge 2 is stable in a
s
z 1.5 towing operation and will be just at the back of the
w 1.4
towing tug when the towrope is made of either nylon
0 or polyester.
El 1.3 Figures 4(b) and 5(b) have shown that the equilibria
z"
1.2 of position (1) for Barge 2 are unstable when & =
0 40 80 120 180 200 240
0.25-0.56. To verify this prediction, the simulation of
Dimensionless time t' the towing operation was performed with 16 = 0.4.
Figures IO(a) and IO(b) show the norm simulations of
Figure 8. Norm simulations of Barge 1 towed by nylon and Barge 2 towed by nylon and polyester ropes, respec-
polyester ropes and initiated near equilibrium position (1) with
/A = 0.8, XL = 0.505, and u0 = 4 knots
tively, with l& = 0.4, x; = 0.505, and u. = 4 knots. It
is evident that both motions shown in these two figures
are not converged; besides, the depicted curves are
is equal to zero). Figures 9(a) and 9(b) show the norm quite different from each other. The curve associated
and yaw simulations, respectively, of Barge 2 towed with nylon rope oscillates with gradually increased am-
by nylon and polyester ropes, which are initiated near plitudes, while the curve associated with polyester rope
equilibrium position (1) with I&= 1.6, A$,= 0.505, and goes to infinity in a very short time. Therefore Barge
u. = 4 knots. From Figure 9(u), one sees that both 2 cannot be towed safely if the value of 1; falls in the
motions converge to their predicted stable oscillations unstable ranges as shown in Figures 4(b) and S(b).

700 Appl. Math. Modelling, 1989, Vol. 13, December


Stability analysis in barge towing: M.-L. Lee

The effect of stabilizing skegs on the stability prop-


erty of a towed barge is very marked: It significantly
improves the course stability of a towed barge.
A towrope of unsuitable length will induce hazard-
ous responses in operations and make it impossible
to keep a towed barge in an equilibrium position.
The motion amplitudes of a barge due to a stiff
towrope (such as polyester) are larger than those
due to a soft towrope (such as nylon). Even in the
stable equilibrium condition, the dynamic responses
due to a polyester towrope will not decrease to zero
and are in sinusoidal oscillations.
40 80 120 160 zoo
Dimensionless time t'

References
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Figure 10. Norm simulations of Barge 2 towed by nylon (top) 112-123
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Conclusions erties and calculations relating to mooring system. Deepwter
Mooring and Drilling, American Society of Mechanical Engi-
The dynamic stability of the towed barge in water has neers, Ocean Engineering Division, Vol. 7. 1979, 189-198
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Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1982, p. 356
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the numerical integrations of the state equation of Gerald, C. F. and Wheatly, P. 0. Applied Numericul Analysis,
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method is reliable. p. 334

Appt. Math. Modelling, 1989, Vol. 13, December 701