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C

Command:
In computing, a command is a directive to a computer program acting as an interpreter of
some kind, in order to perform a specific task. Most commonly a command is either a
directive to some kind of command-line interface, such as a shell, or an event in a graphical
user interface triggered by the user selecting an option in a menu.

Communications line:
In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of
individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary
stations.

Compiler:
If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different
from the one on which the compiler runs, the compiler is known

Computer:
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set
of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow a
sequence of operations, called a program, make computers very flexible and useful.

Concentrator:
In the evolution of modern telecommunications systems there was a requirement to
connect large numbers of low-speed access devices with large telephone company 'central
office' switches over common paths.
Conference:
A meeting for consultation or discussion

Configuration:
The relative disposition or arrangement of the parts or elements of a thing.

Connect time:
The amount of time that a computer is logged on to a remote computeror server, as through
an Internet Service Provider.

control character:
A character in a data stream that signals the device receiving the datato perform a particular
control function, as changing the line spacing ona printer from single to double-spaced.

Control key:
Either of two keys on a PC keyboard that is held down while pressing another key, as to
issue a command.

Copy:
An imitation, reproduction, or transcript of an original.
CPU:
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out
the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control
and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

Crash:
(Or system crash) in computing is when a computer program, such as a software
application or an operating system, stops functioning properly. Often the program
will exit after encountering this type of error.

Cursor:
Is a control structure that enables traversal over the records in a database. Cursors
facilitate subsequent processing in conjunction with the traversal, such as retrieval, addition
and removal of database records.

Cursor control:
Cursor may refer to: Cursor (user interface), an indicator used to show the current position
for user interaction on a computer monitor or other display

Cyberspace:
Is "the notional environment in which communication over computer networks
occurs."[1] The word became popular in the 1990s when the uses of the Internet, networking,
and digital communication were all growing dramatically and the term "cyberspace" was
able to represent the many new ideas and phenomena that were emerging

D
Data link layer:
Or layer 2 is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. This
layer is the protocol layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide
area network (WAN) or between nodes on the same local area network (LAN) segment.

Data:
(/det/ DAY-t, /dt/ DA-t, or /dt/ DAH-t)[1] is
a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. An example of qualitative data would
be an anthropologist's handwritten notes about her interviews with people of an Indigenous
tribe. Pieces of data are individual pieces of information.

Data transmission:
Digital transmission or digital communications is the physical transfer of data (a digital bit
stream or a digitized analog signal[1]) over a point-to-point or communication channel.
Data entry:
Data Entry Process data input to a computer for processing.

Data processing:
Is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to
produce meaningful information."[1] In this sense it can be considered a subset
of information processing, "the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable
by an observer.

Data set:
(Or dataset, although this spelling is not present in many contemporary dictionaries) is a
collection of data.

Database:
Is an organized collection of data It is the collection of schemas, tables, queries,
reports, views, and other objects. The data are typically organized to model aspects of
reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modelling the
availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies.

Database management system:


Management System Database is a set of programs that allow storage, modification and
extraction of information in a database, and provides tools to add, delete, modify and
analyze data

DBMS:
Is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the
database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow
the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases.

Debug:
Is the process of finding and resolving of defects that prevent correct operation of computer
software or a system.

Default:
This is an English word literal translation dont refers to something that is done by default or
by default.

Delete key:
The delete key is a key on most computer keyboards which typically is used to delete either
(in text mode) the character ahead of or beneath the cursor, or (in GUI mode) the currently-
selected object.

DHCP:
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a standardized network protocol used
on Internet Protocol (IP) networks. The DHCP protocol is controlled by a DHCP server that
dynamically distributes network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses, for
interfaces and services.
Dial-up:
relating to or denoting a type of computer data transmission encodedin audio format and tra
nsmitted through a telephone call to an Internet service provider

Dictionary file:
Is a glossary and usage dictionary of computer programmer slang. The original
Jargon File was a collection of terms from technical cultures

Digital:
Displaying a readout in numerical digits rather than by a pointer orhands on a dial: a digital
speedometer

Direct Access:
Also known as Unified Remote Access, is a VPN-like technology that
provides intranet connectivity to client computers when they are connected to the Internet.
Unlike many traditional VPN connections, which must be initiated and terminated by explicit
user action, Direct Access connections are designed to connect automatically as soon as
the computer connects to the Internet.

Directory:
A book containing an alphabetical index of the names and addresses ofpersons in a city, dis
trict, organization, etc., or of a particular category of people.

Disk or diskette:
Any of several types of media consisting of thin, roundplates of plastic or metal, used for ext
ernal storage.

Display:
Is an output device for presentation of information in visual[1] or tactile form (the latter used
for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people).[2]when the input information is
supplied as an electrical signal, the display is called an electronic display

Distribution:
Is the final stage in the delivery of electric power; it carries electricity from the transmission
system to individual consumers

Distributed applications:
(Distributed apps) are applications or software that runs on multiple computers within a
network at the same time and can be stored on servers or with cloud computing.

Distributed database:
A collection of several different databases that looks like a single ddatabase to the user. An
example is the Internet Domain Name System (DNS).

Distributed file System:


(DFS) is a set of client and server services that allow an organization using Microsoft
Windows servers to organize many distributed SMB file shares into a distributed file system.
DFS provides location transparency and redundancy to improve data availability in the face
of failure or heavy load by allowing shares in multiple different locations to be logically
grouped under one folder, or DFS root.
Document:
Is a written, drawn, presented or recorded representation of thoughts. Originating from the
Latin Documentum meaning lesson - the verb doce means to teach, and is pronounced
similarly, in the past it was usually used as a term for a written proof used as evidence.

Documentation:
Is a set of documents provided on paper, or online, or on digital or analog media, such
as audio tape or CDs. Examples are user guides, white papers, on-line help, quick-
reference guides. It is becoming less common to see paper (hard-copy) documentation.
Documentation is distributed via websites, software products, and other on-line
applications.

DOS:
/ds/, short for disk operating system,[1] is an acronym for several computer operating
systems that are operated by using the command line.

Dot matrix printing or impact matrix printing:

Is a type of computer printing which uses a print head that moves back-and-forth, or in an
up-and-down motion, on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon
against the paper, much like the print mechanism on a typewriter. However, unlike a
typewriter or daisy wheel printer, letters are drawn out of a dot matrix, and thus, varied fonts
and arbitrary graphics can be produced.

Down:
from higher to lower; in descending direction or order; toward, into, orin a lower position

Download:
to transfer (software, data, character sets, etc.) from a distant to anearby computer, from a l
arger to a smaller computer, or from acomputer to a peripheral device.

Downtime:

Is used to refer to periods when a system is unavailable. Downtime or outage


duration refers to a period of time that a system fails to provide or perform its primary
function. Reliability, availability, recovery, and unavailability are related concepts.
The unavailability is the proportion of a time-span that a system is unavailable or offline.
Drag and drop:
Is a pointing device gesture in which the user selects a virtual object by "grabbing" it
and dragging it to a different location or onto another virtual object. In general, it can be
used to invoke many kinds of actions, or create various types of associations between
two abstract objects.

Drive:
Is a general category of storage mechanisms where data are recorded by various
electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more
rotating disks? A disk drive is a device implementing such a storage mechanism.

Dump:
Is a UNIX program used to back up file systems. It operates on blocks, below filesystem
abstractions such as files and directories. Dump can back up a file system to a tape or
another disk. It is often used across a network by piping its output through bzip2 then SSH.

E
Edit:
Is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual, audible, and film media used to
convey information. The editing process can involve correction.

Editor:
A person having managerial and sometimes policy-makingresponsibility related to the writin
g, compilation, and revision ofcontent for a publishing firm or for a newspaper, magazine, or
other publication

E-mail:
System for sending messages from one individual to another viatelecommunications links b
etween computers or terminals using dedicated software

Email address:
Identifies an email box to which email messages are delivered. A wide variety of
formats were used in early email systems, but only a single format is used today, following
the standards developed for Internet mail systems since the 1980s.

E-Mail server:
Is a computer that serves as an electronic post office for email. Mail exchanged across
networks is passed between mail servers that run specially designed software. This
software is built around agreed-upon, standardized protocols for handling not only mail
messages, but also any data files (such as images, multimedia or documents) that might be
attached to them.
E-mail service:
Within Internet message handling services (MHS), a message transfer agent[1] or mail
transfer agent[2] (MTA) or mail relay is software that transfers electronic mail messages from
one computer to another using a clientserver application architecture. An MTA implements
both the client (sending) and server (receiving) portions of the Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol.

Encapsulation:
In computer networking, encapsulation is a method of designing modular communication
protocols in which logically separate functions in the network are abstracted from their
underlying structures by inclusion or information hiding within higher level objects.

Enter key:
On computer keyboards, the enter key (or the return key on Macs[1] and most Sun
Workstations[2]) in most cases causes a command line, window form, or dialog box to
operate its default function. This is typically to finish an "entry" and begin the desired
process, and is usually an alternative to pressing an OK button.

Environment: The aggregate of surrounding things, conditions, or influences;


surroundings; milieu.

Erase:
To rub or scrape out, as letters or characters written, engraved, etc.; efface.
Error message.
Is information displayed when an unexpected condition occurs, usually on a computer or
other device. On modern operating systems with graphical user interfaces, error messages
are often displayed using dialog boxes.

Error checking:
Error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery
of digital data over unreliable communication channels. Many communication channels are
subject to channel noise, and thus errors may be introduced during transmission from the
source to a receiver.

Ethernet:
A local-area network protocol featuring a bus topology and a 10 megabit per second data
transfer rate.

Execute:
A virtual machine performs the instructions of a computer program. The instructions in the
program trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine. Those actions
produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions in the program.
F
Fiber optics:
(Or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a
diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.[1] Optical fibers are used most often as a
means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic
communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at
higher bandwidths (data rates) than wire cables.

Field:
An expanse of open or cleared ground, especially a piece of land suitable or used for
pasture or tillage.

File:
Folder, cabinet, or other container in which papers, letters, etc., arearranged in convenient o
rder for storage or reference.

File format:
The structure of a computer document that specifies how information disorganized.

File server:
A computer that makes files available to workstations on a network.

Folder:
In computing, a directory is a file system cataloging structure which contains references to
other computer files, and possibly other directories. On many computers, directories are
known as folders, or drawers [1] to provide some relevancy to a workbench or the traditional
office file cabinet.

Font:
Is a particular size, weight and style of a typeface. Each font was a matched set of type,
one piece (called a "sort") for each glyph, and a typeface consisting of a range of fonts that
shared an overall design.

Form:
Document containing blank fields that users can fill in with data