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Tema 1. Introducción a la psicología de las diferencias individuales

Ione Esquer Terrazas

SÁNCHEZ ELVIRA –Introducción a la psicología de las diferencias individuales –

Etapa precientífica

Teorías de los humores

Características biológicas distintas daban lugar a diferentes temperamentos. Inicio con Empédocles e Hipócrates. Cuatro tipos de tipologías mutuamente excluyentes. Hipócrates enuncia la primera teoría de las diferencias individuales;

Tipo sanguíneo; entusiasmo, actividad y volubilidad.

Tipo colérico; gran irritabilidad.

Tipo melancólico; tristeza.

Tipo flemático; apatía y frialidad.

Galeno. Defendía la existencia de dos dimensiones; frio-calor y seco-húmedo. Propone nueve tipos. Presenta una vertiente más psicológica que la presente en Hipócrates.

Sirven de referencia para los trabajos de la reflexología soviética (Pavlov principal representante).

Frenología

Gall, de su mano surge la frenología o “psicología popular de las facultades”. Complejo sistema de reconocimiento y evaluación de las facultades psíquicas del hombre y de su carácter, a partir de su localización de determinadas protuberancias craneales (hasta 37) bajo el supuesto general de que toda facultad está localizada en una región concreta del cerebro.

Alexander Bain. Propone una doctrina de tres tipos; mental, motor y vital.

Establecimiento y consolidación

Aportaciones de Galton (Padre fundador de la psicología diferencial)

De lo general a lo individual; Wundt vs Galton

La psicología de Wundt tenía como objetivo central descubrir las leyes generales de la mente humana, estudiar el funcionamiento característico y común de las personas normales. Von Helmholtz sobre la velocidad de la conducción nerviosa y los estudios de Weber hasta la ley matemática formulada por Fechner relacionando la magnitud del estímulo y la fuerza de la sensación. Bessel. Ecuación personal; representa la diferencia en segundos entre las observaciones realizadas por dos sujetos cualquiera sobre un mismo fenómeno. Donders. Método sustractivo; inferir la acción de los procesos mentales complejos a partir del tiempo de reacción en múltiples variantes dando origen a la cronometría mental.

Principales aportaciones de Galton

Desarrollo del modelo y objeto de estudio de las diferencias individuales

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Interés por lo individual, en las diferencias individuales en las capacidades humanas. El objeto de estudio; procesos sensoriales/mentales simples. Análisis exhaustivo de las respuestas o ejecuciones.

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Laboratorio antropométrico; datos relativos a un elevado número de atributos y facultades. Mediciones físicas. También utilizo la introspección.

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Eugenesia; perfeccionamiento físico y mental de la especie humana, a través de la crianza selectiva.

Creación de numerosas pruebas y estrategias de evaluación para obtener medidas directas de las funciones mentales Desarrollo de aparatos y métodos adecuados para poder llevar a cabo una evaluación individual de un modo fácil y rápido. Ejemplo; silbato de Galton.

Enfoque cuantitativo y desarrollo de procedimientos estadísticos para el estudio de las diferencias individuales en características mentales Desarrollo sus índices representativos más característicos; la media, la mediana, la desviación típica, los percentiles y el orden de mérito. Desarrollo del método estadístico de la correlación.

Desarrollo y aplicación de diversos método científicos para el estudio del origen de las diferencias individuales Galton enuncio las principales controversias en el estudio de las diferencias individuales; nature-nurture (herencia vs medio ambiente).

Aportación de Binet-Terman

Alfred Binet y Victor Herni. Primer análisis sistemático de los siguientes objetivos y métodos; estudio de la naturaleza y el alcance de las diferencias individuales y el descubrimiento de las interrelaciones entre procesos mentales.

Tema 1. Introducción a la psicología de las diferencias individuales

Ione Esquer Terrazas

Cattell. Término test mental. La metodología consistía en observar lo que el sujeto hacía, sin pedirle ninguna información de tipo introspectivo. Considero el tiempo de reacción como una medida fundamental.

Woodworth. Entender el problema de las diferencias individuales en el ámbito experimental. Dejo de considerar las diferencias individuales solo como varianza de error.

Spearman. Análisis factorial y teoría bifactorial de la inteligencia; existía un factor general (g) y un número indeterminado de factores específicos propios de la tarea (s)

Binet. Propone el estudio de los procesos mentales superiores y complejos.

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Escala métrica de la inteligencia; conjunto de 30 pruebas ordenadas de menor mayor dificultad y servía para medir el alcance intelectual de cada niño. Se incluían pruebas sensoriales y perceptivas, y había una proporción alta de contenido verbal.

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El nivel normal para una edad se medía por el resultado que alcanzaban la mayoría de los niños de esa edad.

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Si los resultados que obtenía un niño coincidían con los procedentes de la mayoría de su misma edad se decía que su nivel de inteligencia era normal.

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Si obtenía un nivel más bajo se decía que era retrasado y si los superaba que era adelantado.

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El nivel normal del resultado obtenido en la prueba definía la edad mental con independencia de la edad cronológica.

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Retraso mental; se media por la diferencia entre la edad mental y la cronológica.

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Las pruebas eran de aplicación individual y debían administrarse en una exploración casi clínica.

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Terman revisó y mejoro la prueba, creando la escala “Stanford-Binet”.

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Ortopedia mental; orientada a incrementar el nivel intelectual de los retrasados (Binet).

L.W.Stern. Difundió una orientación transaccional. Se le atribuye la paternidad del concepto de rasgo. Bases teóricas de lo que el autor vino a denominar psicotecnia. Establece el cociente mental (CM) como la edad mental / edad cronológica.

Terman. Para evitar el inconveniente de los decimales propone el cociente intelectual (CI), bajo la fórmula CI; edad mental / edad cronológica x 100.

Escuela soviética. Carácter psicofisiológico y desarrollos psicométricos aplicados.

Concepto de test mental

La finalidad de los test mentales sería clasificar las facultades humanas y medir aquellas funciones que contribuían a tener éxito en la vida. Binet. Estudio de los procesos mentales superiores a través de la evaluación de tareas de carácter complejo. Terman. Cociente de inteligencia. Yerkes. Fundador de la psicología comparada. Pensaba que la inteligencia general “g” era la esencia de la evolución. Desarrollo diferentes tipos de tests, especialmente durante la I guerra mundial.

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Test colectivos; Army Alpha. Población e reclutas en general.

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Test no verbales; Army beta. Personas iletradas.

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Tests de aptitudes especiales y rendimiento.

Psicología diferencial; comparar a los individuos utilizando el análisis factorial dando lugar a los denominados modelos psicométricos o estructurales; determinando cuántas y cuáles son las dimensiones y establecer el tipo de estructura, la forma y organización que las dimensiones o factores constituyen. Está formado por factores latentes no observables.

Periodo clásico ,crisis y perspectivas actuales

Enfoque clásico de la investigación psicológica de diferencias individuales

Selección de muestras amplias y heterogéneas Evaluación de la variabilidad de respuestas que distintos individuos dan ante unas mismas condiciones estimulares en contextos próximos a la ocurrencia real Uso metodología multivariada y análisis factorial. Perspectiva internalista; disposiciones consistentes y carácter universal Estudian la estructura Claro potencial predictivo en áreas aplicadas.

Crisis de la psicología diferencial clásica y nuevos planteamientos

En los 60 y 70 sufre una fase de reestructuración profunda debida a dos factores;

o El cuestionamiento que atravesó la metodología correlacional y factorialista

o La separación definitiva y necesaria de otros ámbitos disciplinares relacionadas como la psicometría y los tests mentales. Se cuestiona además dos aspectos; la simplicidad de objetivos y el reduccionismo metodológico.

Tema 1. Introducción a la psicología de las diferencias individuales

Ione Esquer Terrazas

También se realizan críticas a las técnicas del análisis factorial; la utilización de muestras no amplias ni representativas, combinación diferencial de factores, subjetividad, el conceptivo de circularidad y porque no sirve para verificar hipótesis causales. Thurstone. Análisis factorial exploratorio; realización de una rotación tanto ortogonal como oblicua de mayor precisión. Las estructuras hacen referencia a aspectos estáticos y meramente descriptivos. Es necesaria una apertura a una psicología de los procesos psicológicos.

Perspectivas actuales en el estudio científico de las diferencias individuales

Integración de objetivos y métodos de investigación. 1º estadio (carácter descriptivo y clasificatorio) y 2º estadio (proceso y elaboración de modelos explicativos). Eysenck; descriptivos y explicativos.

Integración de constructos. Tº general de sistemas propuesta por L.Von Bertalanffy. Los seres vivos son sistemas abiertos 4 características principales; objeto / atributos / relaciones / ambientes).

Los atributos de un sistema abierto son;

 

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Carácter no sumativo; el sistema responde a una entidad separada, mayor y diferente que lo que constituiría la mera suma de sus partes.

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Interdependencia; implica que cada parte del sistema tiene un efecto sobre cada una de las otras partes del sistema.

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Carácter jerárquico; supone que cualquier sistema complejo es un subsistema de un sistema de orden superior.

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Autorregulación y control; los sistemas establecen transacciones con el entorno, de forma que afectan y son afectados por el.

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Intercambio con el ambiente; los sistemas establecen transacción con el entorno.

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Equilibrio; para poder sobrevivir un sistema debe mantenerse en equilibrio. Entropía; lo que conduce a la muerte de un sistema cerrado.

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Cambio y adaptabilidad; un sistema debe ser adaptable.

Integración disciplinar. Unificación del conocimiento, bajo el término Consilience utilizado por Wilson.

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