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The 12 Principles of High Quality

Assessment of Learning for Teachers


1. CLARITY & APPROPRIATENESS OF LEARNING TARGETS
Assessment should be clearly stated and specified and centered on what is truly
important.

"Teaching emphasis should parallel testing emphasis."

LEARNING TARGETS

Knowledge Students mastery of the content.


Reasoning Students ability to use their
knowledge.
Skills Students ability to demonstrate what
they have learned.
Products Students ability to create.
Affects Students emotional attainments.

2. APPROPRIATE ASSESSMENT METHODS


Assessment should utilize assessment methods suitable for a particular learning target.

ASSESSMENT METHODS LEARNING TARGETS


Objective Supply Knowledge
Objective Select Knowledge
Essay Reasoning
Performance-based Skills, products
Oral-question Knowledge, reasoning
Observation Knowledge, skills
Self-report Affects

3. BALANCE
Assessment methods should be able to assess all domains of learning and hierarchy of
objectives.

DOMAINS OF LEARNING:
Cognitive
Affective
Psychomotor

HIERARCHY OF OBJECTIVES
(BLOOM) (ANDERSON)
Evaluation Create
Synthesis Evaluate
Analysis Apply
Application Analyze
Comprehension Understand
Knowledge Remember

4. VALIDITY
Assessment should be valid. There are several types of validity that are to be
established.

TYPES OF VALIDITY

Content Validity
Face Validity
Concurrent Validity
Predictive Validity
Discriminant Validity
Construct Validity

5. RELIABILITY
Assessment should show consistent and stable results. There are methods which can be
used to measure and establish reliability.

RELIABILITY CAN BE MEASURED USING:

Test-retake or Retest Method Giving the same examination after


several minutes to several years.
SPLIT-HALF This is used to establish internal
consistency using Pearson r formula.
Parallel-form/Equivalence test Giving the same examination within
the day.
Test of Stability Giving the same examination content
but not in the same manner or form
after several minutes to several years.
Measurement of stability & Giving the same examination
Equivalence content but not in the same manner
or form within the day.
Kuder-Richardson Establishment of reliability using KR
21 and KR 20 formulas.

6. FAIRNESS
Assessment should give equal opportunities for every student. There should be no
discrimination of any kind (racial, age, gender, etc.)

7. AUTHENTICITY
Assessment should touch real life situations and should emphasize practicability.

8. PRACTICALITY & EFFICIENCY


Assessment should save time, money, etc. It should be resourceful.

9. ASSESSMENT IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS.


Because assessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning process, it should be
continuous.

ASSESSMENT FORMS:
PLACEMENT ASSESSMENT Done before instruction to assess
the needs of the learners to
determine their capacities and
capabilities.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT Done during instruction


to monitor students progress and
to reinforce learning.

DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT Done to see the problems and


learning difficulties of the
students.

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT Done after instruction to assess


students achievement and to
see the result of the teaching-
learning process.

10. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT

Assessment should not be used to derogate the students. One example of this is the
right to confidentiality.

11. CLEAR COMMUNICATION

Assessment's results should be communicated to the learners and the people involved.
Communication should also be established between the teacher and the learners by
way of pre- and post-test reviews.

12. POSITIVITY OF CONSEQUENCE

Assessment should have a positive effect. It should motivate students to learn and do
more and should give way to improve the teacher's instruction.
Definition of Assessment of Student Learning

Assessment is conducted to inform practice

Assessment is the ongoing process of:

oEstablishing clear, measurable expected outcomes of student


learning

oEnsuring that students have sufficient opportunities to achieve


those outcomes

oSystematically gathering, analyzing, and interpreting evidence to


determine how well student learning matches our
outcomes/expectations

oUsing the resulting information to understand and improve student


learning

What is Testing?

oTesting is systematically gathering and analyzing evidence of


achievement of student learning outcomes It is one part of
assessment

Evaluation is Different from Assessment

Evaluation is using Assessment Information to make a Judgment on such


things as:

1. Have students achieved the learning goals set for them

2. The relative strengths and weaknesses of our


teaching/learning strategies

3. What changes in our goals and teaching/learning strategies


might be appropriate

Role of Grading in Assessment


Grades are often based on more than just what the students have
learned as measured by tests, papers, projects, presentations etc.

Grades may be impacted by students effort, attitude, behavior or


participation

Grades may also be impacted by course rules that lower grades for being
late or absent from class or turning in late work

These may all be appropriate classroom management tools but they


illustrate how grades may not reflect what a student has learned as
defined in the courses learning outcomes.

Grading Standards are often Inconsistent

Do the tests clearly match the content taught, the level of thinking
taught and the skills taught in the class?

Are the test questions precise enough and consistent enough with what
we taught to be an accurate measure of the learning?

Do different instructors teaching the same course agree on what the


standards of A or B work should be?

Does a teacher have grading standards defined precisely or are they


vague
This feels like a B paper to me

Grades cant tells us about Students Strengths and Weaknesses

A grade of B in organic chemistry says the student has probably


learned a great deal of the information but we dont know what she has
or has not mastered

Grades fail to clearly tell us about large learning

1. Critical thinking skills

2. Problem solving abilities

3. Communication skills/oral/written/listening

4. Social skills

5. Emotional Management skills


Do grades have a place in assessment?

YesThey can be useful evidence of students learning if they are


based on direct evidence of students learning
(tests, papers, projects etc.) that are truly linked to major learning goals
and clearly delineated, consistent standards through test blueprints or
rubrics (Suskie, 2004)

Benefits of Assessment to Students

Clearly defined learning outcomes help students focus their time and
energy

Grades are a motivator

Feedback helps students to know their strengths and weaknesses

Assessment information can document what they have learned for use in
job applications, grad school etc.