Está en la página 1de 7

AncientRome:DBQESSAY:CausesofthefalloftheRomanEmpire

Name:_______________________________ Period:___________

Task: WhatcausedthefalloftheWesternRomanEmpire?

InthethirdcenturyADRomefacedmanyproblems.Inadditiontointernal
decay,theinvasionbytheGermanictribesseemedtosoundthedeathknell
fortheWesternRomanEmpire.Historianshaveexaminedboththeinternal
conditionsthatweakenedtheexpansiveempireandtheexternalforceofthe
barbarianinvasionsandhavepresentedavarietyofexplanationsforthefall
oftheWesternRomanEmpire.
Document1

Thisexcerptisfromatextbook,TheCourseofCivilizationbyStrayer,
Gatzke&Harbison(1961)

Thebasictroublewasthatveryfewinhabitantsoftheempirebelievedthat
theoldcivilizationwasworthsavingtheoverwhelmingmajorityofthe
populationhadbeensystematicallyexcludedfrompoliticalresponsibilities.
Theycouldnotorganizetoprotectthemselvestheycouldnotserveinthe
army...Theireconomicplightwashopeless.Mostofthemwereserfs
boundtothesoil,andthesmallurbangroupssawtheircitiesslippinginto
uninterrupteddecline.

1.WhatwerethebasicproblemsfacingtheWesternRomanEmpire
accordingtotheauthors?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

1
Document2

Excerptfrom TheDeclineandFalloftheRomanEmpirebyEdward
Gibbon.

ThedeclineofRomewasthenaturalandinevitableeffectofimmoderate
greatness(largesize)TheintroductionofChristianity,hadsome
influenceonthedeclineandfalloftheRomanEmpire.Theclergy
successfullypreachedthedoctrineofpatiencetheactivevirtuesofsociety
werediscouragedandthelastremainsofmilitaryspiritwereburiedinthe
cloisteralargeportionofpublic&privatewealthwasconsecratedtothe
demandsofcharityanddevotion

2.AccordingtotheexcerptfromGibbon,whatweretwocausesforthe
fallofRome?Explainboth.
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Document3

Thisexcerptisfrom UsesofthePastbyHerbertJ.Muller.

FirsttheeconomicfactorWhiletheempirewasexpanding,itsprosperity
wasfedby plunderedwealthandbynewmarketsinthesemibarbaric
provinces.Whentheempireceasedtoexpand,however,economicprogress
soonceased.Theabundanceofslavesledtogrowthofthelatifundia,the
greatestatesthatcametodominateagricultureandruinthefreecoloni
(farmers)whodriftedtothecities,toaddtotheunemploymentthere.The
abundanceofslaveskeptwageslow.

2
3a.WhateconomicissuesdoesMulleridentifyascausesfordecline?
Explain.
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

3b.HowwasslaveryacauseforthedeclineoftheRomanEmpire?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Document4

Thisexcerpt,from TheNewdealinOldRomebyHenryHaskell,blamesthe
declineontheheavytaxationrequiredtosupportthegovernmentexpenses.

Partofthemoneywentintothemaintenanceofthearmyandofthe
vastbureaucracyrequiredbyacentralizedgovernmenttheexpenseledto
stranglingtaxationTheheartwastakenoutofenterprisingmentenants
fledfromtheirfarmsandbusinessmenandworkmenfromtheiroccupations.
Privateenterprisewascrushed&thestatewasforcedtotakeovermany
kindsof businessestokeepthemachinerunning.Peoplelearnedtoexpect
somethingfornothing.TheoldRomanvirtuesofselfreliance&initiative
werelostinthatpartofthepopulationonrelief(welfare)Thecentral
governmentundertooksuchfarreachingresponsibilityinaffairsthatthe
fiberofthecitizensweakened.

4a.WhydidtheRomangovernmenthavelargeexpenses?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

3
4b.Whatwastheeffectofhigh taxationonthepeople?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

4c.Whateffectdidtheestablishmentofagovernmentwelfaresystem
haveonthepeople?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

Document5

Thisexcerpt,fromRomanswithoutLaurelsbyIndroMontanelli,blames
thefalloninternaldecay,specificallythatofthemilitary.

Rome,likeallgreatempires,wasnotoverthrownbyexternalenemiesbut
underminedbyinternaldecay....Themilitarycrisiswastheresultof
proudoldaristocracysshortageofchildren.(Consequently)
foreignerspouredintotheRomanarmy[was]composedentirelyof
Germans
5.Whatdoesthisauthoridentifyasthecauseofproblemsinthe
military?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

4
Document6

ThismapshowsthebarbarianinvasionsoftheRomanEmpireprior
to476.

5
6a.Accordingtothemapabove,whatwasthecauseofthefallofthe
RomanEmpire?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

6b.Wasthisaunifiedattack?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_________________________________

Task:WhatcausedthefalloftheWesternRomanEmpire?

Listcausesforeachofthecategoriesontheleftusingthedocumentsand
yourstudiesofAncientRomePolitical Social,Political,Economic,and
Military.

RemembertodowellontheRegentsyoumustnoteoutsideinformationin
youressay

Example:WhatcausedthefalloftheRomanEmpire?

Cause:Citizenswereapathetic(didnotcare),serfsindebtbondage
farmingindecline
Citieswereinhopelessdecline.(doc.1)

Effect:Lackofprideandeffortledtoafeelingofhopelessnessinthe
empire.
Thisledtoaslowandsteadydecay.

UsetheoutlineyoucreatedasabasisforyourDBQessay

Therealityofthe"FallofRome"splinter"or"crumble"wouldbeabetter
metaphor.Itwasalong,slowprocessofgovernmentaldecentralizationthat
ledtothebirthofseveralsmallerstatesfoundedlargelyonRomanlocal
administration

6
ThesestatesforetoldoftheformationofmodernnationsofWesternEurope
andNorthAfrica.Thesenewstatesprovedstrongerandmoreadaptable
collectivethanthebureaucracyladenoldRomangovernment.