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Assignment Coversheet


Student Number:
Module Code / Occ / Year MOD001120
Module Title Organisational Behaviour
Module Element 011- Assignment, 2200 Words
Submission date (by
To be marked by Ananthalakshmi 12/08/2016

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1.0 Introduction 3
1.1 Context 3
1.2 Company 3-4

2.0 Case Issue 4

3.0 Methodology 4-5

4.0 Literature Review 5

4.1 Leadership Models 5-8

4.2 Leadership Philosophies 8-9
4.3 Leadership Styles 9

5.0 Analysis 9 - 11

6.0 Recommendation 11 - 12

7.0 Conclusion 13

8.0 References 13 - 16

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Context

My assignment will focus on the overall superior subordinate relationship in the

organisation and the associated issues that present itself when there is a gap in the
working relationship. The importance of superior subordinate working relationship
is analysed to bridge gaps pertaining to leadership style, employee performance,
interpersonal skills and communications to name a few.

Leadership has an immediate circumstances and end results relationship upon

organisations and their success. Leaders decide values, society, change resilience and

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worker motivation. They shape institutional procedures including their execution and
effectiveness. Leaders can show up at any level of a instituition and are not restrictive
to management. Effective leaders do, nonetheless, have something in common. They
impact everyone around them so as to harvest greatest advantage from the
association's assets, including its most indispensable and expensive: its employees.

A scope of a leader is to secure successful results from the subordinates. The

employees in an organisation refer to the leader or manager for direction and
guidance, which the manager offers by clarifying performance standards and
according motivation, employee work enhancement, appraisal, training, rewards and
discipline if required.

The issue in the case study will be correlated to leadership traits and behaviour
theories to better understand and find solutions to overcome the leadership
deficiencies and improve overall employee performance and motivation.

1.2 Company

Mutiara Etnik Sdn Bhd (MESB) was established on 17 th February 2005 as a company
specialized in providing end-to-end solution in Dry Bulk Material Handling. MESB
scope of work includes design, engineering, construction, commissioning, operations,
maintenance and logistics of Dry Bulk Material. The incumbents have over 30 years
of combined experience in the conveying and storage of bulk material for the solid
fuel power plant, cement, quarry and mining industries.

2.0 Case Issue

MESB is facing issues of employees tardiness, unexcused absences, excessive

emergency leaves and MCs, lack of credibility, low productivity, insubordination, job
procrastination and disorganisation due to their superiors leadership
incompetencies such as unclear expectations, poor people skills, complacent, lack of
empathy, lack involvement and direction. A resultant of which is failure in
intangible support such as feelings like low confidence, degraded morale,
demotivated, absence of trust, respect, relatedness (or purpose), appreciation
autonomy, ownership, engagement and empowerment. There is a critical
requirement to address the leadership deficiencies in order to avoid employee high
turnover and attrition rate.

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In today's organisational level of authority settings, a leader is the person in command
of ensuring that subordinates have a clear idea of organisation strategies and goals
through technique and giving direction and inspiration to them to work towards
executing on the methodology. As a Human Resource Practitioner, I will need to
analyse and evaluate the overall superior subordinate relationship deficiencies and
overcome the shortcomings.

Work environment relationships are remarkable interpersonal associations with

critical ramifications for the people in those connections, and the associations in
which the connections exist and develop. Studies relate that workplace relationships
has strong effect on the capability of employee to perform. Since employees are
spending by and large 50 hours a week in the working environment, these long work
hours are bringing about the arrangement of work environment kinships. These
associations can be both positive, and can possibly get to be harmful.

3.0 Methodology
That methodology will follow the recommendation of Yin (1994) and has four stages:
i) Case Study Design,

ii) Case Study Conduct,

iii) Case Study Analyzing of design, and

iv) Conclude, Recommend and implication recommendation. (Yin 1994)

Reference is made to the case study to research leadership deficiencies leading to

employee poor performance related issues, demotivation and tardiness issues.
There is an urgent need to relook at the entire leadership styles practiced in my
organisation. Secondary literature pertaining to leadership models, philosophies and
styles has been researched to identify actions, traits, and skills, that correlate with
overall superior-subordinate working relationship.

4.0 Literature Review

In order to analyse and understand the superior subordinate issues in an organisation

in terms of behaviour and traits, the three terms to explore is Leadership Models,
Leadership Philosophies and Leadership Styles.

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A leaders behaviour is critical as it demonstrates how a leader acts his act and how
he does it. There is a solid relationship amongst's behaviour and style with regards to
portraying and comprehension of leadership hypothesis. Like the word concept, and
other entirely unclear terms, the word conduct/behaviours should be illuminated
where it is imperative to comprehend its utilization.

4.1 Leadership Models

The Action Centered Leadership published by John Adair emphasised the need to
necessary to manage teams within the organisation. It identifies and associates
responsibilities within three main functions which is task related realising the teams
goal, team Nurturing and growing the team to achieve higher productivity and
individual assisting an employee in realising their maximum potential in the

The above three functions are demonstrated by the three interlocking circles, as shown in
Figure 1 below.

The model outlines that leaders must be able to equalize the methods that they project
for all three main functions should they require the team to perform successfully. All
the functions are interdependable; should the leader show more emphasis on one

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particular function and disregard the other two, there will be issues faced by the team

In 1964 the Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid was published and it advocates the
people-oriented style which focuses on organising, supporting and developing
subordinates. The participatory styles emulates excellent teamwork initiatives and
creative collaboration. With a people-oriented style, you concentrate on sorting out,
supporting, and building up your subordinates. This participatory style empowers
great cooperation and innovative coordinated effort. With task arranged leadership,
you concentrate on taking care of business. You characterize the work and the parts
required, set up structures, and arrange, sort out, and screen work. As per this model,
the best style to utilize is one that has both a high sympathy toward individuals and a
high sympathy toward the task it contends that you ought to go for both, as opposed
to attempting to balance one against the other. Unmistakably, this is a vital thought.
(Blake-Mouton 1964)

The new era leadership model that is the Hudson Leadership Model was introduced
on an advancement of thoughts rising up out of the long history of initiative models as
opposed to on any single hypothesis or development that may have been well known
at one point in time or place. It is composed particularly to concentrate on what is
required of leaders in today's unverifiable business environment and is supported by
experimental examination and worldwide consulting knowledge.

This perspective of leadership spotlights on five key components of authority

Vision, Action, Impact, Connection and Drive each enlivened in particular practices
while the setting in which a business works is the characterizing variable in how these
practices develop. Execution, potential and derailers would all be able to be taken a
gander at through this initiative model to convey significant bits of knowledge

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Ken Blanchard (1985) refined the model and changed the term Situational
Leadership Theory to just Situational Leadership. In his model, authority is
the demonstration of giving the right measure of supervision (Directing
Behavior) and excitement (Supportive Behavior), which thus, produces the
best learning and formative environment as appeared in the model

Situational Leadership is on a very basic level is a four-phase model, regardless, depending

upon the condition, you can move into any advancement as required (dependent upon how
well a worker can perform and is pushed to perform) :

Directing - Provide a lot of direction (learner does not know how to perform)
and a little measure of reinforce (you would lean toward not to over-
weight learner - see excitement).

Coaching - Decrease direction (with the objective that employeee can learn by
experimentation) and development support (needs energetic backing in

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light of the fact that of some mistake).

Supporting-Decrease direction much all the more (with the objective that worker can
get the opportunity to be independent and self-supporting) and turn down

Assigning - Provide direction and support on an as-required premise

4.2 Leadership Philosophies

Leadership philosophies of insight depend on what the individual values, and what
they anticipate from their subordinates. The identity of the leader and in addition the
circumstance and kind of followers can likewise influence leadership philosophies.

Out of the five main leadership philosophies which is authentic leadership, ethical
leadership, french and raven sources of power and value-based leadership, the
servant leadership is most appropriate as such leaders pay attention and focus on their
subordinate and organisation. They ensure that they stay engaged with the team
members work together on solving team members problems.(Robert Greenleaf
1977/2002 p. 27))

Eventhough scholars have differing outlook on a particular definition of leadership,

we have to except that the current age leadership is a process that is intentional
influence which is demonstrated by one person on the subordinates by guiding,
structuring and facilitating activities and relationships in a group or organisation.
(Yukl, 2002, p. 2)

The pathgoal theory (House, 1971) argued that effective leaders motivate followers
by trying to make the paths to payoffs easier for subordinates. Leaders may
accomplish this by adjusting to situations by shifting from one leadership style to
another (Mello, 1999).

4.3 Leadership Styles

A leadership style is a leader's style of giving guidance, direction, executing

performance plans, and motivating individuals. There are a wide range of initiative

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styles proposed by different creators, that can be shown by pioneers in the political,
business or different fields. (Daniel Goleman 2000)

The Fred Fiedler shows the hypothesis of Fiedler leadership possibility model
hypothesis in which he suggested that effective employees performance relied on the
correct match between a leaders' capacity to lead is dependent upon situational
variables that incorporate the leaders' abilities, favored style, and conduct and
competency of employees. This hypothesis propounded that leaders ought to embrace
that style which best to the circumstance and instantly stimulate the employee
performance. (Fred Fiedler 1958)

5.0 Analysis
MESB is experiencing various employees performance issues such as lack of direction, de-
motivation issues, low confidence, degraded morale, lack of trust, lack of respect towards
superior, lack of ownership, disengagement issues relatedness(or purpose), autonomy and
empowerment. The reason for the subordinates overall discontentment is due to various
deficiencies in the leaderships styles in the workplace.

Poor leadership in good times can be hidden, but poor leadership in bad times is a recipe for
disaster according to Zenger and Folkman (2009).

The following leadership pitfalls were identified in the MESB organisation :-

5.1 Poor Leader Communication

The critical issue of weak leader communication is obtained from discernments

including a distinction or absence of a platform for criticism and infomation, poor
direction, and no declared and plainly comprehended objectives. Objectives, if
conveyed, continue changing with subordinates turning out to be potentially both
confused and frustrated.

5.2 Lack of Mission and Vision

Clear indication of the mission, vision and objectives are not conveyed to the
employees a resultant of which employees have no clue of Company business
objectives, direction and goals

5.3 Low Employee Morale and Motivation

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The employee morale and motivation is at a all time low due to the poor leadership
traits. The leaders are not interested in observing and identifying employee
behavioural traits in terms of low esteem, morale leading to demotivation.

5.4 Lack of leader responsibility and accountability

The leaders refuse to take accountability of employees poor performance. No

performance plan initiative is taken to address the performance issues. The leaders
refuse to assume responsibity for employees performance deficiencies.
5.5 No synergy and trust in leadership

Poor leadership inhibits the development of synergy. There is no two way process of
communication between the leader and employees in terms of idea sharing and

5.6 Failure to maintain current professional development

The leaders disregard employees professional development needs. There is no effort

to identify training and development needs for employees to further enhance their
career with the organisation.

5.7 Failure to provide reward and recognition

There is no effort to provide reward or recognition when an employee is exemplary in

their performance.

6.0 Recommendation

Leadership is a key segment of all organisations yet its scope and capacity are getting more
confounded with expanded inclusion in globalization and innovation improvement (Punnett,

There is a need to develop competent leaders with the skills required to sufficiently handle
organizational issues and this has been a challenge for most organizations (Amagoh, 2009).
In order to salvage the situation in the Company, the leaders have to analyse the issue and
practice or adopt the following methods:-

i) The leader should evaluate and coach their team members to

perform productively and utilise their potential to the fullest.
Through self-reflection of their own, leaders can increase
awareness of performance problem traits and decide and

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develop action plan to adjust their leadership style. (Beth
Armknecht Miller, CMC)

ii) Leaders need to empower, connect and communicate with their subordinates to
ensure that the direction of organisation work is mutual to ensure that objectives,
mission and vision are met. (Terry "Starbucker" St. Marie)

iii) Leaders must equip their subordinates by making sure the right tools, equipment
and other resources in order for subordinates to be efficient in the delivery of
assigned tasks. This is hypothetically characterized through Bandura's (1997) idea
of self-efficacy that when directed by the accessibility of resources and backing of
the organisation gets to be "means efficacy" which is a piece of general self-

iv) Notwithstanding giving the importance to resources, leaders should provide

training for subordinates to enhance and complete their tasks. Belasco and Stayer
(1994) remarked on the significance of giving training additionally included the
requirement for helping subordinates to learn quickly.

v) Influence engagement and involvement, as indicated by Shartle (1956), and in

addition Hemphill and Coons (1957), is the way toward moving the subordinate
toward the common subordinate/organsation objectives. Capezio and Moorehouse
(1997) added to idea of influence by demonstrating that leaders cause
subordinates to think and feel positively towards the organisations' objectives. As
indicated by Tannenbaum, Weschler, and Massarik (1961); Cribbin, (1981); and
DuBrin, (1997), all influence happens through communication whether the
communnication is in the form of oral communication, composed reports, or
exhibited by conduct. Be that as it may, leaders influence subordinates
fundamentally through interpersonal associations.

vi) Leaders must look into reward and recognition methods to ensure that
employees are consistently motivated ultimately leading to high productivity
levels in the organisation.

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7.0 Conclusion

It is imperative that leadership skills approach includes the knowledge and abilities that the
leader possess. A leader can take in specific abilities and transform himself into an efficient
one. Researchers have concentrated on leadership skills and capabilities for various years.

To accomplish the effective leadership the leader has to analyze the advancement level of
subordinates in an undertaking of tasks and show the accepted leadership style that matches
that circumstance (Northouse, 2007, p.110). To accomplish the effective leadership initiative
the leader ought to analyze the improvement level of subordinates in an assignment
circumstance and display the recommended leadership style that matches that circumstance.

8.0 References
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