Food Security and Nutrition Nexus

Soekirman
Professor (Em) Nutrition, Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agriculture University (IPB), Chairman, Indonesian Coalition for Fortification (KFI)

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

1

Nutrition Security = Food Security ?

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

2

INPUT

PROCESS - OUTPUT

OUTCOME

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

3

MORE PEOPLE ORIENTED THAN COMMODITY (FOOD)

FOOD
NUTRITION FACTORS

COMMODITY (FOOD)
July 7, 2010 Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

PEOPLE
4

Food Security – IMPLICITLY
CONCERNED ABOUT NUTRITION

NUTRITION IN FS = NUTRIENTS (What in foods - Energy and
Protein Per Capita )
Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila July 7, 2010 5

Food and Nutrition Security
• Food production & supply • Food quality (including nutrients) & safety • Accessibility :
– Poverty – Household Food Insecurity

• Nutrition status (people) • Shift paradigm from input to outcome
July 7, 2010 Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila 6

Accessibility: More Poverty than Supply Issues

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

7

Poverty in Indonesia 1976–2009
(2009: 32.5 million, 14.15%)
47,9 40,1 34 28,6 22,5 21,6 17,4 15,1 13,7 17,3 11,3 23,4 18,2 17,4 16,7 15,9 17,8 16,6 15,4 14,15 39,3 38,4 37,4 37,2 36,1 35,1 34,9 54,2

32,5

1976 1980 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1996 1999 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

penduduk miskin [juta]
sumber: BPS 2009,

% penduduk miskin

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ARUM_BAPPENAS_MARCH 2010 ADB,

8

July 7, 2010

8

HOUSEHOLD FOOD INSECURITY

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

9

Food Insecurity by Province (Indonesia - 2009)
Red – Million; Line - % Population
Penduduk Rawan Pangan
8 7
18.8 20 17.1 17.1 17.5 16.5 14.9 13.1 12.1 11 10.2 7.2 4.8 7.7 6.6 13.9 13.8 13.6 11.8 11.4 10.5 15.2 12.8 11.8 15.3 19.3 18.2 16.9

Jumlah (juta)
19.1

25 20 ) 15 % ( k u d u 10 d n e P 5

6 )5 a t u j (4 h a l m 3 u J 2 1 0

16.9

D a A r a N t U a r e t a m u S

t u i … u g l a a a b a l n e t r i m r u u b r a R a e k t a a B J a g p B k a m n m p a r u e a e J I e t S B L K K a D m u S

t a r a B a w a J

h a g n e T a w a J

a t r a k a y g o Y . I D

r u m i T a w a J

n e t n a B

i B T … n l a T T a B N N t n a m i l a K

… n a t n a m i l a K

… n a t n a m i l a K

… n a t n a m i l a K

a r a t U i s e w a l u S

… i s e w a l u S

… i s e w a l u S

… i s e w a l u S

o l a t n o r o G

u k u l a M

a r a t U u k u l a M

a u p a P

0

Soekirman Sumber: Susenas Food Security Seminar ADB,

10

July 7, 2010
10

Food Security: Measuring Commodity: * Food Consumption * Nutrients: Energy and Protein

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

11

% People with Food Secure and Food Insecure (Th 2007)
(A.Suryana, 2008)

67,8% population food secure (energy intake ≥ 2.000 Kkal/cap/day 29,6% population food insecure (energy intake 80-90 % RDA Calorie/day ) 2,6% population severe food insecure (energy less than 70% RDA)
July 7, 2010 Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila 12

Energy Availability by Food Commodities (2005, 2006, 2007)
A.Suryana, 2008
2006 Gra m 316, 0 50,8 81,9 22,1 8,2 25,8 24,3 204, 7 40,4 Ener gi 1.22 4 61 129 196 45 66 89 83 33 % RD A 61, 2 3,1 6,5 9,8 2,2 3,3 4,4 4,2 1,7 Gra m 316, 6 53,0 90,8 23,0 8,8 27,7 26,2 251, 7 50,7

-

2005
Foods Gram

2007 Ener gi 1.244 62 155 203 47 73 96 100 5,0 35 1,8 % RD A 62,2 3,1 7,8 10,1 2,3 3,6 4,8

Ener gi 1.24 1 73

% RDA

1. Cereals

319,1

61,2 3,6 7,0

2. Tubers

60,0

3. Animal

87,4

139
4. Fat & Oil 22,4

9,9 199 2,6 51 3,4 67 5,0 99 4,7 93 1,8 35

5. Fatty Nuts 6. Protein Nuts 7. Sugar

9,1

25,5

29,0

8. Fruit & Vegy 9. Others

223,4

8,8

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

13

Nutrition in Traditional Food Security : Energy and Protein Available (FBS) Indonesia: 2004-2008 – No Nutrition Problem ?
Tahun 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Growth (%) Energi (cal/cap/day) 3.005 2.919 2.959 3.040 3.145 1,17 Protein (gram/cap/day) Vegetable 63,15 64,53 64,50 66,18 69,02 Animal 13,07 12,26 13,34 14,45 14,26 Total 76,22 76,79 77,84 80,63 83,28 2,25
14

Sumber: Neraca Bahan Makanan, diolah July 7, 2010 Soekirman Food Security Keterangan: Tahun 2007 Angka Perkiraan Awal, Tahun 2008 Angka Proyeksi Seminar ADB, Manila Source : A Suryana , 2008

Nutrition Security: Measuring People
Children Nutrition Status

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

15

Underweight Children in Indonesia Red-Severe, Orange-Mild, Line-Total (1989 – 2007)
Kekurangan Gizi pada Balita 40.0
37.5 35.5 31 .2 31 .6 29.5 28.3 26.4 24.6 26.1 27.3 27.5 28.2 28.0

30.0 Persen

Targe t RPJM 2009

20.0

20.0

1 9.0

1 8.3

1 9.8 1 7.1

1 9.3

1 9.2

1 9.6

1 9.2

1 8.4

20

18.5

1 .6 1

1 3.0 1 0.5 8.1 7.5 8.0 6.3 8.3 8.6 8.8 5.4

10.0
6.3

7.2

Targe t MDG 2015

0.0
19 92 19 89 19 95 19 98 19 99 20 02 20 01 20 00 20 05 20 03 20 04 20 09 20 07 20 12 20 15

Gizi Buruk

Gizi Kurang

Kekurangan Gizi

Target

Sumber : Susenas(1989-2005), Riskesdas 2007

Prevalensi kekurangan gizi pada anak balita menurun secara signifikan dari 28,0 % (Susenas, 2005) menjadi 18,4 % (Riskesdas, 2007). Angka penurunan prevalensi kekurangan gizi ini telah melampaui 16 July 7, 2010 target yang ditetapkan pada tahun 2009 yaitu sebesar 20 persen.

16

40,0 35,0 30,0 25,0 20,0 15,0 10,0 5,0 0,0

Sumber data : Riskesdas 2007

Underweight Children by Province Indonesia (2007)

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, 17
6 ADULT OBESE 5 4 U5C OVERWEIGHT LOW BIRTH WEIGHT
Nusa Tenggara Timur Maluku Sulawesi Tengah Kalimantan Selatan Aceh G orontalo Sulawesi Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat Kalimantan Tengah Papua Barat Maluku Utara Sumatera Utara Sulawesi Tenggara Kalimantan Barat Riau Papua Sumatera Barat Kalimantan Timur Jambi Indonesia Bangka Belitung Sumatera Selatan Sulawesi Selatan Lampung Jawa Timur Bengkulu Banten Jawa Tengah Sulawesi Utara Jawa Barat DKI Jakarta Kepulauan Riau Bali D.I. Yogyakarta 33,6 27,8 27,6 26,6 26,5 25,4 25,4 24,8 24,2 23,2 22,8 22,7 22,7 22,5 21,4 21,2 20,2 19,3 18,9 18,4 18,3 18,2 17,6 17,5 17,4 16,7 16,6 16,0 15,8 15,0 12,9 12,4 11,4 10,9

No

3 ADOLECENCE GIRLS ENERGY DEFICIT

2 STUNTING U5C WASTING

1

Indiktcor

Sumber data : Riskesdas 2007

Percent

Double Burdens Indonesia 2007

July 7, 2010
17

10,3

11,5 4,3

13,6

13,6

36,8

CHRONIC UNDER NUTRITION (STUNTED) Black = 40% or above

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB,

18

July 7, 2010

Nutrition Security
• Accessibility PLUS : Concerns with the utilization of food obtained by a household and its impact on nutrition status, health, educability, and productivity

• Concern more on outcome (nutrition status of
human being) not merely input (food / commodity) , process and output

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

19

Nutrition Security
A household achieves nutrition security when it has:
• secure access to food that meets nutrition requirement for a balance diet, coupled with • sanitary environment, • adequate health services, • sufficient knowledge and skill of child care and how to ensure effective and efficient utilization of the accessible food. • ensure better nutrition status of ALL HH members

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

20

FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION NEXUS

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

21

Hunger: People experience the sensation of hunger when they lack the basic food intake, necessary to provide them with the energy and nutrients for fully productive and active lives. Hunger principally refers to inadequate consumption of the macronutrients, carbohydrates in particular, and is an outcome of food insecurity. All hungry people are food insecure, but not all foodinsecure people are hungry (hidden hunger)

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

22

Nutrition Factors
• Not merely a function of food • Under nutrition : macro & micro nutrients deficiency • Nutrition insecurity : under and over Nutrition - double burdens • Development policy

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

23

Nutrition Insecurity
• It is a function of:
– – – – – – – Food and non-food Health Child care Sanitation Income Education Development Policy
Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila 24

July 7, 2010

Child NUTRITION INSECURITY FACTORS (UNICEF, 1990)
Food Non Food

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

Source: ACC/SCN and IFPRI (2000).

25

The UNICEF conceptual framework of the determinants of NUTRITION INSECURITY measured by nutritional status of children provides a clear and useful way to understand nutrition security The framework presents a generalized understanding of how proper nutrition or, similarly, malnutrition is the outcome of specific development problems related directly to the level of Food intake and Non Food -the health status (illness) of the individual.

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

26

Food & Nutrition Security Needs Shift of Paradigm: From Commodity To People-Oriented
Food Consump tion = Nutrients MDGs People: Nutrition Factors Health & Nutrition Status

Accessibilit y

Food

Commodity

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

27

Food and Nutrition Security – MDGs Nexus
MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Malnutrition erodes human capital, reduces resilience to shocks and reduces productivity (impaired physical and mental capacity). reduces mental capacity. Malnourished children are less likely to enroll in school, or more likely to enroll later. Current hunger and malnutrition reduces school performance.

MDG 2: Achieve universal primary education Malnutrition

MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

Better-nourished girls are more likely to stay in school and to have more control over future choices.
Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, 28 July 7, 2010

FN Security & MDGs Nexus
MDG 4: Reduce child mortality Malnutrition is directly
or indirectly associated with more than 50% of all child mortality. Malnutrition is the main contributor to the burden of disease in the developing world.

compromised by an anti-female bias in allocations of food, health and care. Malnutrition is associated with most major risk factors for maternal mortality.

MDG 5: Improve maternal health Maternal health is

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB,

29

July 7, 2010

Food Fortification is Example of Food and Nutrition Security
• Unfortified salt as food commodity is always secure. In general, every body has access to salt. But it is a high risk for IDD. Mandated policy to fortified salt with iodine is a food and nutrition security policy • Mandated fortification (salt, wheat flour, cooking oils, sugar etc) is FN security policy to prevent micronutrient deficiency

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

30

Cost Effectiveness of FNS Policy
• Food fortification is most cost effective policy to prevent malnutrition (Copenhagen Economists’ Consensus, 2004) • Food Security - supply and access guarantee of food – no hunger – but not a guarantee for risk of hidden hunger • FNS policy – always multi-sectoral, integrating food with other nutrition factors (income, education, sanitation, health, and environment ) • FNS policy always considers nutrition implication of any food and other development policy
July 7, 2010 Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila 31

Policy Implication
• National and regional development should include nutrition as human investment (WB, 2006 : Repositioning Nutrition as Central of Development) • MDGs – global development policy that accommodates nutrition (WB 2008 : Nutrition Neglected MDGs) • National food security policy should becomes food and nutrition security

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

32

Conclusions
• In national development context , food security and nutrition policy should be part of development policy. • F security and nexus policy is a complex policy that is pro- people, especially the poor (Farmers) • Food security and nutrition nexus is a multi-sectoral and inter-disciplines in nature that required

effective institution in coordination

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

33

Conclusions …..
• FNS policy requires an accountable political will and commitment to eradicate poverty, hunger, malnutrition, under-education, promote gender inequality, etc. (such as MDGs) • FNS policy should be institutionalized by law and regulation to ensure continuity and sustainability
July 7, 2010 Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila 34

THANK YOU

July 7, 2010

Soekirman Food Security Seminar ADB, Manila

35

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful