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METODOLOGIA DE ENSINO DE LNGUA 3.

Students talking about and concentrating on the forms


ESTRANGEIRA of language.
1. Pairwork can improve students accuracy no 4. Practicing sentences out of context.
matter the way it is used in class. 5. Focusing on accuracy, rather than fluency, as the
Audiolingual method Communicative desired goal.
6. Using newspaper articles or any other authentic
Language Teaching
1. Attends to Meaning is paramount. material as part of a lesson.
7. Accepting that errors are natural in conversation.
structure and form
more than
As regards language teaching methods, judge the following
meaning.
items.
2. Language items Contextualization is a
8. Content-based Instruction, Task-based Instruction, and
are not necessarily basic premise.
the Participatory Approach to foreign language
contextualized
teaching subvert the idea that students should learn to
3. Language learning Language learning is
use a language and suggest instead that they should use
is learning learning to communicate.
a language in order to learn it.
structures, sounds
9. In Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), the
or words.
target language is a vehicle for classroom
4. Native-speaker- Comprehensible
communication, not just the object of study. That is one
like pronunciation pronunciation is sought.
of the reasons why the use of the mother tongue should
is sought
5. The use of the Judicious use of native be handled sensibly and carefully.
10. Integrating the four skills (reading, speaking, listening,
students native language is accepted
and writing) from the beginning is a characteristic of
language is where feasible.
the AudioLingual Method because it is concerned with
forbidden.
6. Linguistic Communicative habit formation.
11. There is student-to-student interaction in drilling
competence is the competence is the
exercises or when students take different roles in
desired goal desired goal.
dialogs, but this interaction is teacher-centered. Also,
7. Language is Language is created by
students are not allowed to initiate interaction. This
habit so error the individual often
describes the nature of student-student interaction in
must be prevent at through trial and error.
Suggestopedia.
all costs
12. One of the basic assumptions of the Grammar-
8. Students are Students are expected to
Translation Method is that by learning to communicate
expected to interact with other people
students will be more motivated to study a foreign
interact with the either in the flesh
language since they will feel they are learning to do
language system through pair and group
something useful with the language.
embodied in work or in their writings.
13. In the Silent Way, errors are to be avoided at all costs
machine or
through the teachers awareness of where the students
controlled
will have difficulty and restriction of what they are
materials
taught to say.
14. In Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), errors
of form are tolerated during fluency-based activities
Judge whether the actions proposed in the items below
and are seen as a natural outcome of the development
are in accordance with the Communicative Language
of communication skills. The teacher may note the
Teaching approach.
errors during fluency activities and return to them later
1. Using the students native language in some
with an accuracy-based activity.
situations. 15. In the Grammar-Translation method, errors are seen as
2. Extensive drilling in near-native pronunciation.
a natural, indispensable part of the learning process.
The teacher uses students errors as a basis for deciding
where further work is necessary. Self and peer
correction are fostered as well.
16. In the Total Physical Response (TPR) approach, Meanwhile, for the last 20 years or more, mainstream
errors are expected when students first begin educational researchers have been investigating the topic of 34
speaking. The teacher should be tolerant and only classroom climate, or classroom environment, in non-SL
correct structural errors unobtrusively. As classes. Their results have not been particularly clear-cut,
students get more advanced, the teacher can either. Observational measures of positive affect correlate
correct more minor errors. poorly with achievement, which may have to do with the fact
17. In Georgi Lozanovs Suggestopedia, now called that praise, a major component of such measures, is distributed
Desuggestopedia to reflect the importance placed inconsistently across high- and low-achieving pupils.
on suggesting no limitations on learning, errors
are corrected gently, with the teacher using a soft Judge the following items according to text A
voice. This method is illustrative of what came to 18. A every teacher is conscious that second language
be known as an affective humanistic approach to learning is a social event.
language teaching. 19. it should not be taken for granted that all teachers are
worried about creating a favorable atmosphere to
The text A refers to questions 18 through 37 promote learning.
20. there is sound evidence that every teacher is concerned
As teachers we cannot ignore the fact that classroom SL about promoting a supportive environment.
learning has a social dimension. It might be assumed that 21. it is advisable to support the idea that English
all practitioners are aware of this, and also that all SL practitioners have always been preoccupied with
teachers 4 will strive to arrange for a relaxed, supportive problems which have to do with the promotion of a
environment in order to promote learning. However, it is relaxed classroom atmosphere.
desirable to ask what evidence we have to support this 22. Two decades ago teaching accuracy was pursued the
position, or if it is only an assumption. It certainly has not same way as it is today.
23. Cultural environment is the same the world over.
always been assumed to be an accurate statement, as a
24. In non-Western countries, the teachers had no choices
glance at the prescriptions for SL classrooms of 20 years
as to how to teach foreign languages.
ago will quickly show. In addition, the position that such 25. Culture and teaching are two closely related issues
an environment favors learning is not accepted across all 26. Lately, there have been two currents of discussions in
cultures (particularly non-Western educational systems). the field of SL learning.
Culturally determined student expectations, the individual 27. there is nothing whatsoever new about the humanistic
teachers personality, and the interaction between these approach.
two impose limitations on the social climate of the 28. All SL teachers have no time available to be trained
classroom. Nevertheless, teachers have some flexibility either in the counseling-learning or in the
as to what choices they make. communicative approach.
29. The success of the methods mentioned is supposed to
In recent years there have been two streams of discussion happen soon.
in this area directly connected to SL learning. One is that 30. classroom climate in non SL class stopped being
broadly associated with the label humanistic investigated two decades ago or more.
31. under no circumstances, positive feedback is the best
approaches. In this area are the so-called innovative
way to make students succeed.
methods such as counseling-learning and
32. the effect of classroom environment in non SL classes
communicative approach. The training needed to utilize
is not yet clearly determined.
these techniques according to the full prescriptions of 33. low achievement can be associated with lack of praise.
their founders is more extensive than most SL teachers
have time for, and the evidence for their success has not
been forthcoming. The second strand here is the less
doctrinaire position associated in particular with
Schumann and Krashen. Krashen in particular has
posited an affective filter, which must be lowered if
successful unconscious SL development is to take place.
However, these positions have suffered from a general
lack of direct support
42. The explanation about the syllabus is a reference to the Silent
According to the text A, judge the items regarding the Way
doctrinaire position associated with Schumann and 43. The explanation about the syllabus is a reference to the
Krashen. Total Physical Response
44. The explanation about the syllabus is a reference to the
34. If the affective filter is low, the learning will
Suggestopedia.
also be low.
45. The explanation about the syllabus is a reference to the
35. The affective filter needs to be lowered in
Natural Approach.
order to reach success in learning. 46. The explanation about the syllabus is a reference to the
36. If the affective filter is high, the learning will Community Language Learning.
also be high.
37. If the affective filter is high, there will be no
learning
Text B refers to items 38 through 41
The native language is learned along with the ways
and attitudes of the social group, and these ways and
attitudes find expression through the language. In this
way 4 the language is an integral part of the
functioning social system. The psychologist Osgood
has set out a theory of language meaning which
maintains that the full meaning of 7 words for
individuals is the result of the total sum of experiences
they have had with those words in the environment in
which they learned them. Since members of 10 a
cultural group have had similar experiences, the
meaning of a word is shared by them all, but it may
differ in certain respects from the meaning this word
has for other groups. It 13 is because of this
interrelationship of language and culture that one-to-
one equivalences can rarely be established between
words and expressions in two languages, once one 16
has passed beyond the stage of physical identification.
Even here there will be divergences, as the speakers of
one language will have identified certain criterial
attributes and 19 categories, according to their
environmental needs, which may not correspond with
the attributes and categories of another language.

According to text B, judge the following items.


38. the four skills should be taught separately.
39. listening must be taught with speaking,
whereas reading has to be taught together with
writing.
40. the integrated teaching/learning of the four
skills provides the students with more
motivation.
41. teaching skills in isolation is not so rich as
teaching them in an integrated way
Text C refers to items 42 through 46
No set syllabus. Course progression is topic-based;
learners provide the topics. Syllabus emerges from
learners intention and the teachers reformulations.

According to Text C, judge the following items.

Match the columns 57. Formative assessment, in its current conception, is


A-Formalist Approach 1 interactive and centered in students' cognitive
B- Berlitz Approach 2 processes and associated to the processes of feedback,
C- Reading Approach 3 regulation and self assessment of learning.
D- Structuralist Approach 4
E- Communicative Approach 5 Concerning Interaction Hypothesis, judge the
following items.
47. Related to the Audio-lingual Method, this approach
grants no importance to cultural and 58. The Interaction Hypothesis is considered to be more
communicative aspects of language. A deductive adequate to private schools.
path is intended to enable the creation of automatic
59. Negotiation of meaning is an important element in the
habit. Language is seen as a set of rules. The
Interaction Hypothesis Theory
operative model is basically composed of short
classes with structural tasks. As far as teaching methods are concerned, judge the
48. This approach inspired many different methods, as
following items.
the Situational Language Teaching, the Natural
60. In the Grammar Translation Method all four language
Way, the Total Physical Response, the Community
skills were equally emphasized.
Language Learning and Suggestopedia. Broadly 61. The Audiolingual method makes use of deductive
speaking, there is an emphasis in the indirect, explanation to teach grammar
implicit and incidental learning of language. 62. Suggestopedia introduced the notion of teachers as
49. Related to the Direct Method, in which counselors and of their pupils as clients.
teaching/learning of languages happens through its 63. Teachers who elected Suggestopedia as their
exclusive use and meanings should be cleared with preferred method of instruction used American class
mimics and images. Language is viewed as a jazz music to create an environment conductive to
means for communication that carries on cultural learning
models that should come forth spontaneously 64. The Direct Method makes frequent use of a vast
through the guidance of the ideal native speaker range of sophisticated vocabulary and grammar
teacher. structures.
50. Related to the Grammar-Translation Method.
Translation is the core of this approach to language In the context of teaching a foreign language, judge the
teaching. It is based on Descriptive linguistic definitions for syllabus or curriculum
theory, according to which education consists in 65. Specifications for implementing a given language
respecting the rules of the target language to attain programme such as the detailing of linguistic and
the command of it. subject-matter objectives, sequencing and materials.
51. In this approach, priority granted to the reading 66. A wide variety of exercises, activities or tasks used in
ability. Students are autonomous to apprehend a teaching/learning environment for fulfilling lesson
grammatical rules. Translation exercises are used objectives
and readings are controlled for difficulty 67. An ideological perspective based on sound teaching
theories about the nature of language and the nature
Read attentively the assertions about learning assessment of language learning and how they both can be
and check (C) for those that are true and (E) for those that applied to a teaching/learning environment
are false: 68. A selection of teaching practices in their broadest
52. Continuous assessment should be used as a basis to possible sense
the construction of intended results; 69. Fully-detailed specifications of the individual roles of
53. ( ) Assessment must privilege validity, accuracy teachers and students in the teaching/learning
and reliability without possible ambiguity or processes.
mistake;
54. ( ) Assessment should use precise and objective
tools to evaluate knowledge acquisition;
55. ( ) The concepts of subjectivity and provisional
truth suspend any assessment criteria;
56. ( ) Assessment can be collaborative, when teachers
and students share their comments and decisions;
According to some research in the field of the teaching of 83. Due to the complex nature of the spoken language,
English as a foreign language, the most sensible, effective students should be exposed only to carefully graded
and didactic approach a teacher can adopt when dealing listening material recorded by native speakers in the
with a particular students pronunciation mistake(s) is ideal conditions of a recording studio.
70. To interrupt him or her on the spot and stress 84. Background noise and the hustle and bustle of
repeatedly the wrong form(s) he or she has just contemporary urban life should be entirely removed
used. from recorded listening materials.
71. To allow him or her to carry on speaking, even if
he or she did so incorrectly, and only at the very One of the types of classroom performance in terms of
end of the class bring up the problem, making all speaking is known as Interpersonal. It can be correctly stated
his or her fellow students pronounce correctly the that
word(s) that was (were) mispronounced. 85. individuals who engage in this particular kind of
72. To start drilling with all the students the correct exchange are keenly aware of their social standing
form of the word(s) mispronounced, making them and make their linguistic choices accordingly.
repeat it (them) in chorus, to the point of 86. the notions of age, gender, and ethnicity play a
exhaustion. negligible role in this kind of exchange.
73. To allow the student to finish his or her imperfect 87. its participants display a clearly negotiative
utterance(s) and immediately afterwards, but disposition.
without much fuss, provide him or her with the 88. its aim is fundamentally to maintain social
correct form(s) of the word(s) mispronounced. relationships rather than provide the transmission of
74. To draw a list of all the wrong forms used by the facts and information.
students in the particular class and write them 89. it best suits a situation in which the aim of the
down on the blackboard correcting them all one by speaking is to stress some particular element of
one at the end of the class. language form
In the light of recent research in the field of teaching The most constructive and sensible piece of advice teachers
English as a foreign language. of Reading Comprehension can offer their students is
75. It has been suggested that the native speaker, non 90. to concentrate on each individual word as they read
native speaker dichotomy should be updated to along.
provide guiding principles for the assessment of 91. to approach any written text with no other purpose
speaking performances. than that of deriving great pleasure from it.
76. It has been proposed that what is judged to be 92. to avoid the excessive use of dictionaries while they
acceptable or correct in terms of speaking varies by read.
93. to produce in their minds the actual sounds of the
context or genres, such as small talk, discussion
words they are reading.
and narrative
94. to avoid reading between the lines in any text.
77. There is now a clear rejection of the integrated
The teaching and learning of Writing can be said to be
skills approach for it renders a strong principled
particularly challenging because
approach to the separate, unique characteristics of
95. it is the only language skill which does not come
each skill ineffective. naturally to the individual for it has to be taught and
78. There have been calls to remove on theoretical learnt formally.
grounds, English for specific purposes (ESP) from 96. the rules that govern grammar, spelling, and
the category Content- based instruction rhetorical devices in general are very fluid and
79. It was established that Theme-Based instruction changeable.
should be organized around subject-matter and that 97. a writers interlocutors profiles and expectations
language skills were to play at best a supporting may not always be readily or commonly available.
role in this particular process. 98. the vast lexical range of the English language
As far as Listening Comprehension is concerned, it can be overwhelms foreign learners, preventing them from
said that producing anything meaningful or worth reading.
80. It has historically held a pre-eminent position in all 99. it is not even loosely connected with any of the three
teaching syllabi. other language skills.
81. Before the 1990s, teachers did not quite know how
to deal effectively with it
82. Teachers have eventually come to the realization
that listening competence is universally larger than
speaking competence

Teachers and learners of Speaking are faced with a O aprendizado por tarefas (task-based learning)
particularly difficult problem presented by caracteriza-se
100. the state of generalized anxiety many 120. pela concentrao na oralidade, questionando
participants of a speaking activity feel. a necessidade das outras habilidades comunicativas.
101. the need to balance evenly the mutually 121. pelo planejamento de atividades a serem
exclusive notions of use and usage. desenvolvidas apenas em sala de aula.
102. the considerable difficulty students 122. por valorizar o produto da aprendizagem ao
encounter in mastering the concept of turn-taking. invs do processo.
103. a multicultural learning environment that 123. pela ateno s necessidades do aluno e
makes interclass communication virtually nfase na interao do aluno na lngua-alvo.
impossible. 124. pela nfase na repetio das atividades,
104. the very real possibility of most learners visando o aprimoramento da comunicao.
failing miserably the ultimate test of making In terms of assessment/evaluation in language teaching there
themselves understood by native speakers is at least two different dimensions: formative and
Os estudos sobre as metodologias para o ensino de summative. Given these two main dimensions in
lngua inglesa indicam que assessment/evaluation, match each of them to its
105. as metodologias se tornaram totalmente corresponding definition. Then choose the alternative that
desnecessrias na prtica da sala de aula. presents the CORRECT matching order: (1) Formative
106. a abordagem comunicativa emergiu como assessment/evaluation (2) Summative assessment/evaluation
reao aos mtodos voltados para a gramtica. 125. ( ) It can produce results open to
107. o mtodo audiovisual emergiu como interpretation although it deals with something fixed.
reao abordagem comunicativa. Its force is limited.
108. os mtodos com base na gramtica 126. ( ) It is more likely to be sensitive to promote
surgiram como reao s abordagens humanistas e development. Teachers use it to modify
ao ensino reflexivo. teaching/learning objectives.
109. as metodologias preocupadas com as 127. ( ) It is used during the process of learning
necessidades dos alunos tornaram-se obsoletas. for the purpose of helping language planning and
De acordo com os estudos recentes sobre o uso da language teaching.
lngua inglesa, importante que o professor leve em 128. ( ) It is more likely to produce information on
considerao o fato de que a maior parte da which the teaching/learning process can be based on.
comunicao em lngua inglesa ocorre assim: 129. ( ) It examines the extent to which the
110. no nativos em comunicao com no student has acquired the content covered in the
nativos. curriculum.
111. no nativos em comunicao com falantes 130. One important practice that teachers have to
nativos em viagens internacionais. develop is how to correct errors. Fill in the blanks in
112. nativos que se comunicam com no the two sentences below which are related to the
nativos em visita aos pases destes. significance that error correction has in two different
113. professores nativos que se comunicam learning theories.
com seus alunos no nativos. According to the ____________________________
114. professores no nativos que se comunicam tradition, the belief was that practice makes
com professores nativos. perfection. Errors had to be
Segundo a proposta curricular para LEM, no ensino de _____________________________. According to the
lngua inglesa, ______________________________ view, errors
115. o ensino comunicativo era focalizado might be seen as hypotheses about how language
apenas no Ensino Mdio. works and regarded as _______________________
116. o enfoque comunicativo se implementou to the learning process.
na prtica.
117. o ensino comunicativo existia apenas na A( ) cognitive avoided behaviourist practice
prtica. B( ) cognitive avoided behaviourist useful
118. a nfase comunicativa se restringia C( ) behaviourist avoided cognitive useful
escrita. D( ) behaviourist hypotheses cognitive useful
119. a nfase comunicativa mal se implementou E( ) cognitive avoided behaviourist errors
na prtica.

131. Choose the CORRECT alternative to 133. A dozen of concepts are tied Communicative
complete the following citation: Language Teaching (BROWN, 1994: 80-84). Look at
In critical multicultural education, teachers and some current jargon, match them to its corresponding
students need to critically _______________ the definition and then choose the alternative that
taken-for-granted conceptions about groups, Self or presents the CORRECT order:
Other, and _______________ how these 1. Learner-centered teaching
conceptions are _______________ and 2. Cooperative learning
________________. (KUBOTA, 2005:45) 3. Interactive learning
A( ) support understand denied perpetuated. 4. Whole language education
5. Content-centered education
B( ) reevaluate understand produced
6. Task-based learning
perpetuated. ( ) In this view, learning is well succeeded due to the
C( ) approve disregard produced perpetuated.
fact that teacher control is not emphasized nor is the
D( ) reevaluate understand denied avoided.
E( ) reevaluate understand avoided dismissed. competition in the environment.
( ) Negotiation of meaning is the heart of this
132. Read the quotation from Heberle and perspective since it promotes space for spontaneous
Meurer (1995:51): linguistic changes as those in real communication.
The study of grammar is important, but it is not the most ( ) The notion of this perspective is related to the
important or the only aspect to be taught in terms of motivation and emancipation of the students in the
reading. Grammar should be taken into consideration in process. It focuses on the students needs.
( ) Language is not taught in isolated parts. Activities
reading classes to help clarify the meaning of the text. After
are top-down oriented. Skills are integrated and texts
the text has been discussed and effectively studied, then the
should be taught in its original and not as an adapted
teacher can proceed to the study of some of the most
version.
evident grammatical points of the text. Our word of advice
( ) Obtaining information, giving instruction, asking
is: do not use texts as a pretext for the study of grammar.
for directions are some of the situations which present
Instead use it for comprehension and discussion of ideas
meaningful instances of language that goes beyond
and explore it in relation to its communicative value and the grammar and vocabulary teaching.
function in the context where it occurs. ( ) Subject matters guide the language classroom.
A( ) 2 3 5 6 4 1
B( ) 4 3 1 6 5 4
According to the text decide whether the statements below
C( ) 2 1 3 4 5 6
are true (T) or false (F). Then, choose the alternative which D( ) 4 1 3 4 6 5
presents the CORRECT order. E( ) 2 3 1 4 6 5
( ) The study of grammar is the most important aspect of a
reading class. 134. Stephen Krashen (1982) has developed an
( ) Grammar is the first aspect to be taught in a reading overall theory of second language acquisition which
class. attempts to bring together research findings from a
( ) The study of explicit grammar in a reading class is a number of diverse areas. Read the statements and
worthwhile learning strategy only if it helps the check if they are true (T) or false (F), and then choose
comprehension of the text. the CORRECT order:
( ) Grammar clarifies the meaning of the text, but it should ( ) For the author, acquisition is a minor process, even
not be the main focus of a reading class. though we engage in meaningful interaction in much
( ) It is advisable to teach grammar as a reading approach. the same way that children pick up their first
A( ) F T T F F language with no attention to form.
B( ) T F T T T ( ) Krashen argues that the acquired system acts to
C( ) F F T T F initiate the speakers utterances and is responsible for
D( ) T T F T F fluency and intuitive judgments about correctness,
E( ) F F T T T while the learned system acts only as an editor or
monitor, making minor changes and polishing what
the acquired system has produced.
( ) The natural order hypothesis states that learners do
not acquire the rules of a language in a predictable
order.

( ) The acquisition of language will occur only if I. Learning language is like learning any other
the learners receive comprehensible input, that is, habit. You dont have to think about it. It
the input has to contain forms and structures just develops automatically.
beyond the learners current level of competence in II. When learning a language you have to hear
language. others speaking it. But learners really develop
( ) According to the affective filter hypothesis, the languages inside themselves, forming their own
filter will be up or operating when the learner is view about how it works.
stressed, self-conscious, or unmotivated, and the III. III. Amount of practice is not important.
filter will be down when the learner is relaxed Sometimes you can learn a word after just
and motivated. hearing it once what matters is where and how
A( ) F T T F F you heard or performed it.
B( ) F T F T T ( ) Cognitivism
C( ) F F F T T ( ) Sociointeracionism
D( ) T T T F F ( ) Behaviourism
E( ) T F F T F A( ) III II I
B( ) II III III
135. Read the excerpt below. C( ) II III I
Terms like top-down or the contrasting bottom-up [] D( ) III III II
are, of course, merely metaphors for the complex mental E( ) I II III
process of reading... (ESKEY & GRABE, 1988: 223).
Based on these two processes of reading, first match each 137. Match the statements considering the main
of the statements below to its corresponding process. Then, characteristics of the teaching approaches and methods to
choose the alternative that presents the CORRECT order. 1. their underlying theory of language and learning:
Top-down 2. Bottom-up 1. Audiolingual
( ) Graphemes are perceived as forming words, words as 2. Total Physical Response
forming sentences, sentences as forming paragraphs and so 3. The Silent Way
on. 4. The Natural Approach
( ) Reading comprehension starts with the general idea of 5. Communicative Language Teaching
the text. ( ) Language is seen as set of structures, in which the process
( ) Higher order mental concepts are considered as the of learning a second language is the same as learning a first
knowledge and expectations of the reader. language, i.e., comprehension appears before production,
( ) Decodification of linguistic elements is the starting usually through carrying out commands, mimes and gestures.
point. ( ) Language is seen as a system of rule-governed structures
( ) It is a data-driven process. hierarchically arranged, and students learn through habit
A( ) 2 1 1 2 2 formation.
B( ) 1 1 2 1 2 ( ) This approach was an attempt to develop a language
C( ) 2 1 2 2 1 teaching proposal that incorporated naturalistic principles.
D( ) 1 2 2 1 1 ( ) Language is a system for communication. Primary
E( ) 2 2 1 2 2 function-interaction-communication and learning should be
136. Different learning theories have oriented meaningful for the learner.
and guided different views of language learning ( ) In this approach, each sound in the new language is
and teaching. Match sentences i, ii, and iii, assigned a unique color and the teacher remains mainly silent.
extracted from Johnson (2008: 44-45), to its The CORRECT order is:
corresponding theoretical background. Then A( ) 5 1 4 2 3
choose the alternative that presents the CORRECT B( ) 4 3 5 2 1
order. C( ) 4 2 1 5 3
D( ) 2 1 4 5 3
E( ) 2 1 4 3 5

The following excerpt is used in questions 138 and 139. 141. The following extract was taken from Swan's chapter
Read it carefully. in Richards and Renandya (2002, p. 151).
It is the first class of the year so after the teacher takes Where ____ is given too much priority the result is
attendance, she introduces the method they will use study predictable and well known. () Students do not learn
English. She explains in Swedish. '(...) You will not speak English: they learn ____, at the expense of other things
at first. Rather, you will just listen to me and do as I do. I that matter as much or more. They know the main rules,
will give you a command to do something in English and can pass tests, and may have the illusion that they know
you will do the actions along with me.' LARSEN- the language well. However, when it comes to using
FREEMAN, D. Techniques and Principles in Language language in practice, they discover that they lack vital
Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. p. 108- elements, typically vocabulary and fluency: They can
109. recite irregular verbs but cannot sustain a conversation.
QUESTO 138 Which language teaching method or SWAN, M. Seven Bad Reasons for Teaching Grammar and Two
Good ones. In: RICHARDS, J. C.; RENANDYA, W. A.
approach does it correspond to?
Methodology in Language Teaching: an Anthology of Current
(A) Audio-lingual. Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. p.148-152.
(B) Silent way.
Which of the following words best completes the gaps?
(C) Communicative Language Teaching.
(D) Total Physical Response. (A) Pronunciation (B) Vocabulary (C) Reading (D)
Grammar
QUESTO 139 Reading the passage, it is possible to
affirm that FONTICA & FONOLOGIA
(A) the teacher considers Swedish an easier language. than
English. According to the established rules of phonetics and
(B) the students attending the class have Swedish as their phonology of the English language, judge the items below.
first language. 142. In the pronunciation of the following words subtle,
(C) translation is the best technique to learn a foreign lamb, climb and thumb, the b is always silent.
language. 143. In the following words, the initial h is never silent:
(D) the students learn by contrasting the structures of both hate, hello, honest, history.
languages. 144. The sound of the letter a in ago and in about is
Question 140 is based on the following excerpt adapted unstressed and it is called a schwa.
from Ur (1996). 145. The following sets of words are illustrative of
In general terms, the teaching of pronunciation, minimal pairs: toe/so, later/litter, they/day, bid/bead.
vocabulary and grammar will tend to be accuracy 146. The pronunciation of the verbal forms attached,
oriented, which means the main focus is on the activities disposed, needed, advanced, disturbed, and noted leads to
that are carried out by students in a correct way. On the the conclusion that there are only three possibilities for the
other hand, in the teaching of the four skills listening, edending pronunciation.
reading, writing and speaking the emphasis falls on 147. A shift (or change) in the stressed syllable of nouns
fluency, i.e., on the learners' facility in receiving and such as contract, defect, object, progress turns them into
conveying messages. UR, P. A Course in Language verbs.
Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 148. The pronunciation of the verb use has two different
p. 103. (Adapted). forms in He used his pen to sign his name and in He
QUESTO 140 Read the list of activities below and used to wear short trousers when he was a boy.
choose the one that corresponds to accuracy.
(A) The texts are usually whole pieces of discourse (like About the sounds of North American English and the
conversation, stories) and the tasks are meaning oriented. points of articulation, judge the following items.
(B) Students' performance is assessed on how few mistakes
are made in a determined task. 149. The th in thumb and bath is classified as velar
(C) Tasks often simulate real life situations and students 150. The sh in shy and dish is classified as palatal.
are asked to perform accordingly. 151. The h in his and ahead is classified as alveolar
(D) Texts are usually used as they would be actually found: 152. The b in boy and cab is classified as labiodentals
dialogues are spoken, articles and written stories are read. 153. The g in ago and the k in wake are classified as
glottal.