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A MO LED

ACTIVE-MATRIX ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING
DIODE

SEMINAR REPORT
2016
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

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TABLE OF CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  OLED COMPONENTS  HOW DO OLEDS EMIT LIGHT?  TYPES OF OLEDS  PASSIVE -MATRIX ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE  ACTIVE – MATRIX ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE  SUPER AMOLED  HD SUPER AMOLED  COMPARISON TO OTHER TECHNOLOGIES  ADVANTAGES  DISADVANTAGES Downloaded from : www.com .pediain.

Currently. OLEDs are used in small-screen devices such as cell phones. Sony Corporation announced that it was beginning mass production of OLED screens for its CLIE PEG-VZ90 model of personal-entertainment handhelds. OLED display for Sony Clie Kodak was the first to release a digital camera with an OLED display in March 2003. INTRODUCTION AMOLED is a display technology for use in mobile devices and televisions.com . OLED describes a specific type of thin-film display technology in which organic compounds form the electroluminescent material. PDAs and digital cameras. OLEDs can provide brighter. crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. and active matrix refers to the technology behind the addressing of pixels.pediain. the EasyShare LS633 Kodak LS633 EasyShare with OLED display Downloaded from : www. In September 2004. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity.

As of 2012. Because OLEDs refresh faster than LCDs almost 1. Samsung Electronics announced that it had developed a prototype 40-inch. OLED-based. you could fold it up when you're done reading it and stick it in your backpack or briefcase. 40- inch) applications Research and development in the field of OLEDs is proceeding rapidly and may lead to future applications in heads-up displays. Downloaded from : www. billboard-type displays. media players and digital cameras. The XEL-1 was available in December 2007 for customers in Japan The Sony 11-inch XEL-1 OLED TV. ultra-slim TV. the first of its size. home and office lighting and flexible displays. and continues to make progress toward low-power.com . low-cost and large-size (for example.pediain. Video images could be much more realistic and constantly updated. In May 2005. AMOLED technology is used in mobile phones.000 times faster -. And in October 2007. automotive dashboards.a device with an OLED display could change information almost in real time. Sony announced that it would be the first to market with an OLED television. The newspaper of the future might be an OLED display that refreshes with breaking news and like a regular newspaper.

These layers are made of organic molecules or polymers. foil) . An OLED consists of the following parts: Substrate (clear plastic. One polymer used in the emissive layer is polyfluorene. an OLED is a solid-state semiconductor device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. this is where light is made.com . the third layer helps transport electrons from the cathode to the emissive layer. Downloaded from : www. OLEDs can have either two layers or three layers of organic material.This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport "holes" from the anode. we'll be focusing on the two-layer design. Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED) . Anode (transparent) .The substrate supports the OLED.This layer is made of organic plastic molecules (different ones from the conducting layer) that transport electrons from the cathode. Molecules commonly used in OLEDs include organometallic chelates. glass. Conducting layer .OLED COMPONENTS Like an LED. Organic layers . In this article.The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device. One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is polyaniline. in the latter design.The anode removes electrons (adds electron "holes") when a current flows through the device.pediain. Emissive layer .

hot-walled reactor chamber. Magnified image of the AMOLED screen on the Nexus One smart phone using the RGBG system of the PenTile Matrix Family Downloaded from : www.  Inkjet printing . Inkjet technology greatly reduces the cost of OLED manufacturing and allows OLEDs to be printed onto very large films for large displays like 80-inch TV screens or electronic billboards. the organic molecules are gently heated (evaporated) and allowed to condense as thin films onto cooled substrates. Using a carrier gas increases the efficiency and reduces the cost of making OLEDs. a carrier gas transports evaporated organic molecules onto cooled substrates. where they condense into thin films.With inkjet technology. OLEDs are sprayed onto substrates just like inks are sprayed onto paper during printing.In a vacuum chamber.The biggest part of manufacturing OLEDs is applying the organic layers to the substrate.  Organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) .In a low-pressure.com .pediain. This can be done in three ways:  Vacuum deposition or vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) . This process is expensive and inefficient.

The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer of organic molecules.com .HOW DO OLEDS EMIT LIGHT? OLEDs emit light in a similar manner to LEDs. The battery or power supply of the device containing the OLED applies a voltage across the OLED. The anode removes electrons from the conductive layer of organic molecules. When an electron finds an electron hole. electrons find electron holes. through a process called electro phosphorescence. The process is as follows: 1. (This is the equivalent to giving electron holes to the conductive layer. An electrical current flows from the cathode to the anode through the organic layers (an electrical current is a flow of electrons). At the boundary between the emissive and the conductive layers.) 3.pediain. 2. the electron fills the hole (it falls into an Downloaded from : www.

The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of electrical current applied: the more current.pediain. When this happens. 4. the electron gives up energy in the form of a photon of light. The color of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in the emissive layer. 6.com . The OLED emits light. 5. Manufacturers place several types of organic films on the same OLED to make color displays. energy level of the atom that's missing an electron). Downloaded from : www. the brighter the light.

Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode. External circuitry applies current to selected strips of anode and cathode. the brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of applied current. PMOLEDs are most efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small screens (2. The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light is emitted. Downloaded from : www.to 3-inch diagonal) such as those you find in cell phones. but they consume more power than other types of OLED.pediain.com .TYPES OF OLEDS: PASSIVE AND ACTIVE MATRIX Passive-matrix OLED (PMOLED) PMOLEDs have strips of cathode. PMOLEDs are easy to make. The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips. organic layers and strips of anode. but the anode layer overlays a thin film transistor (TFT) array that forms a matrix. organic molecules and anode. The TFT array itself is the circuitry that determines which pixels get turned on to form an image. Again. determining which pixels get turned on and which pixels remain off. passive-matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than the LCDs that currently power these devices. mainly due to the power needed for the external circuitry. Even with the external circuitry. PDAs and MP3 players.

The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors.pediain. AMOLEDs also have faster refresh rates suitable for video. Downloaded from : www.AMOLEDs consume less power than PMOLEDs because the TFT array requires less power than external circuitry.com . large-screen TVs and electronic signs or billboards. so they are efficient for large displays.

1.pediain. first introduced with the Samsung Galaxy S II and Samsung Droid Charge smart phones. with a Super AMOLED Plus screen 2. This can lead to reduced real-world battery life in mobile devices but third party solutions. improving detail. have surfaced to help alleviate this behavior. some of the Super AMOLED advantages are brighter screens. Galaxy Nexus.com . One of the main differences from other display technologies is that the layer that detects touch is integrated into the screen rather than being overlaid on top. is a branding where the Pen Tile RGBG pixel matrix (2 sub pixels) is replaced with a traditional RGB sub pixel arrangement. Samsung Galaxy S II. with a HD Super AMOLED screen Downloaded from : www.SUPER AMOLED Super Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode or Super AMOLED is a display technology (variant from AMOLED) mainly for use in mobile devices such as mobile phones (see the list below for examples). Compared with the first-generation AMOLED. such as an all white background. thinner with AMOLED Plus displays being 18% more energy efficient than the old Super AMOLED displays. such as Black Google Mobile. The screen technology is also brighter. SUPER AMOLED PLUS Super AMOLED Plus. As with AMOLED and OLED displays. a main disadvantage for mobile users is the increased battery consumption when displaying an image that is primarily white. less sunlight reflection and reduced power consumption.

Samsung's Super AMOLED technology addresses this issue by reducing the size of gaps between layers of the screen.7 watts showing white text on a black background. The higher resolution and dpi were made possible due to a change in materials and new manufacturing process. such as using Black Google Mobile to search with a black background. which emits more light due to a lack of a R/G/B filter. The phone (and the display) was announced in September 2011. where power consumption is critical to battery life. adding a white subpixel. This may be called "HD Super AMOLED Plus".3 phone with a 5. Because the black pixels actually turn off.with a 4. AMOLED mobile phone users can save battery power by avoiding white backgrounds and many methods exist to achieve this. Downloaded from : www. PenTile technology is sometimes used. one commercial QVGA OLED display consumes 3 watts while showing black text on a white background. COMPARISON TO OTHER TECHNOLOGIES AMOLED displays provide higher refresh rates than their passive-matrix OLED counterparts. However this required a change back to pentile RGBG subpixels. rearranging the subpixels for each color and in the case of PenTile RGBW.HD SUPER AMOLED HD Super AMOLED is a new Super AMOLED type display from Samsung. thereby increasing brightness. and they consume significantly less power. The change to LITI is also said to be an important step toward commercializing OLED TVs. The Windows Phone 7 platform takes advantage of this characteristic. but only 0. This advantage makes active-matrix OLEDs well suited for portable electronics. Samsung is expected to introduce a new screen using "Real Stripe" RGB subpixels with the move to the laser-induced thermal imaging (LITI) process. The second device to use it is Samsung's Galaxy Nexus phone . As an example. The amount of power the display consumes varies significantly depending on the color and brightness shown. AMOLED displays may be difficult to view in direct sunlight compared to LCDs because of their reduced maximum brightness. improving response time often to under a millisecond.com .3" 1280x800 display. albeit while introducing graininess. The first device to use it is the Galaxy Note: an Android v2.65" display with 1280x720 resolution. though still using shadow mask (or fine metal mask (FMM)) technology. Additionally. AMOLED also has contrast ratios that are significantly better than LCD.pediain. as it instructs the user to maintain the "white text on black background" theme to have a better battery autonomy.

Downloaded from : www. Roll- roll vapor-deposition methods for organic devices do allow mass production of thousands of devices per minute for minimal cost. technology has been developed to compensate for material degradation.The organic materials used in AMOLED displays are prone to degradation over a period of time. As the substrate used can be flexible such as PET.  Lower cost in the future: OLEDs can be printed onto any suitable substrate by an inkjet printer or even by screen printing. However. theoretically making them cheaper to produce than LCD or plasma displays. although this technique also induces problems in that multi-layer devices can be challenging to make due to registration issues. Current demand for AMOLED screens is high and. ADVANTAGES The different manufacturing process of OLEDs lends itself to several advantages over flat panel displays made with LCD technology.  Light weight & flexible plastic substrates: OLED displays can be fabricated on flexible plastic substrates leading to the possibility of flexible organic light-emitting diodes being fabricated or other new applications such as roll-up displays embedded in fabrics or clothing.pediain.com . Construction of new production facilities in 2011 will increase the production of AMOLED screens to cope with demand. fabrication of the OLED substrate is more costly than that of a TFT LCD. However. until mass production methods lower cost through scalability. certain models of HTC smartphones have been changed to use next- generation LCD displays from the Samsung and Sony joint-venture SLCD in the future. due to supply shortages of the Samsung- produced displays. lining up the different printed layers to the required degree of accuracy. the displays may be produced inexpensively.

time-consuming process that cannot currently be used on large-area glass substrates. even as the viewing angle approaches 90° from normal. Specifically.  Lifespan: The biggest technical problem for OLEDs was the limited lifetime of the organic materials. DISADVANTAGES  Current costs: OLED manufacture currently requires process steps that make it extremely expensive. so this part of the manufacturing process for AMOLEDs starts with the process costs of standard LCD.com .  Wider viewing angles & improved brightness: OLEDs can enable a greater artificial contrast ratio (both dynamic range and static.pediain. and then adds an expensive. while an inactive OLED element does not produce light or consume power.000 Hz refresh rate. LTPS backplanes in turn require laser annealing from an amorphous silicon start. an OLED can theoretically have less than 0.  Response time: OLEDs can also have a faster response time than standard LCD screens. LED or PDP technology— Downloaded from : www. it requires the use of Low-Temperature Polysilicon backplanes.000 hours to half original brightness (five years at 8 hours a day) when used for flat- panel displays. OLED pixel colours appear correct and unshifted. measured in purely dark conditions) and viewing angle compared to LCDs because OLED pixels directly emit light. This is lower than the typical lifetime of LCD.  Better power efficiency: LCDs filter the light emitted from a backlight. In particular. blue OLEDs historically have had a lifetime of around 14. Whereas LCD displays are capable of between 2 and 16 ms response time offering a refresh rate of 60 to 480 Hz. allowing a small fraction of light through so they cannot show true black. enabling up to 100.01 ms response time.

depending on manufacturer and model. experimental OLEDs were created which can sustain 400 cd/m2 of luminance for over 198. manufacturers optimize the size of the R. each currently rated for about 25.pediain. More commonly.000–40. manufacturer’s bias the color balance towards blue so that the display initially has an artificially blue tint. G and B subpixels to reduce the current density through the subpixel in order to equalize lifetime at full luminance.000 hours for blue OLEDs. The red subpixel may be 10% smaller than the green. leading to complaints of artificial-looking. For example. Considerable research has been invested in developing blue OLEDs with high external quantum efficiency as well as a deeper blue color. a blue subpixel may be 100% larger than the green subpixel. In order to delay the problem. This can be partially avoided by adjusting color balance but this may require advanced control circuits and interaction with the user. However. some manufacturers' displays aim to increase the lifespan of OLED displays. over-saturated colors. In 2007.000 hours to half brightness.  Efficiency of blue OLEDs: Improvements to the efficiency and lifetime of blue OLEDs is vital to the success of OLEDs as replacements for LCD technology. This variation in the differential color output will change the color balance of the display and is much more noticeable than a decrease in overall luminance. pushing their expected life past that of LCD displays by improving light out coupling. blue light output will decrease relative to the other colors of light. though. thus achieving the same brightness at a lower drive current.  Color balance issues: Additionally.com . External quantum efficiency values of 20% and Downloaded from : www. which is unacceptable for some users.000 hours for green OLEDs and 62. as the OLED material used to produce blue light degrades significantly more rapidly than the materials that produce other colors.

for the majority of images it will consume 60–80% of the power of an LCD: however it can use over three times as much power to display an image with a white background such as a document or website. OLEDs rely completely upon converting electricity to light. such as Black Google Mobile. unlike most LCDs which are to some extent reflective. With 10. Therefore. Water damage may especially limit the longevity of more flexible displays. blue diodes (430 nm) have only been able to achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies in the range of 4% to 6%. with the proper application of a circular polarizer and anti-reflective coatings. that provide black background alternatives when otherwise unavailable. enabling the display to be used without any internal light source. e-ink leads the way in efficiency with ~ 33% ambient light reflectivity.com .pediain.  Water damage: Water can damage the organic materials of the displays. respectively. Removal of this filter can lead to severe damage and an unusable display after only a few months of room light exposure. This disadvantage has led to alternative mobile platform solutions. The metallic cathode in OLED acts as a mirror.000 fc incident illumination (typical test condition for simulating outdoor illumination).1%. However.  Outdoor performance: As an emissive display technology. 19% have been reported for red (625 nm) and green (530 nm) diodes. that yields an approximate photopic contrast of 5:1. However. improved sealing processes are important for practical manufacturing. with reflectance approaching 80%.  UV sensitivity: OLED displays can be damaged by prolonged exposure to UV light. the diffuse reflectance can be reduced to less than 0. This can lead to reduced real-world battery life in mobile devices when white backgrounds are used.  Power consumption: While an OLED will consume around 40% of the power of an LCD displaying an image which is primarily black. The most pronounced example of this can be seen with a near UV laser (such as a Bluray pointer) and can damage the display almost instantly with more than 20 mW leading to dim or dead spots where the beam is focused. leading to poor readability in bright ambient light such as outdoors. This is usually avoided by installing a UV blocking filter over the panel and this can easily be seen as a clear plastic layer on the glass. Downloaded from : www.

org/wiki/Active_matrix_addressing 6.wikipedia. http://electronics. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.oled-info. http://en.pediain. http://en.com/oled-technology 5.pdf Downloaded from : www.com/amoled 4.ieee. http://www.com .com/oled3.org/soc/cpmt/presentations/cpmt0401a.html 2. http://www.org/wiki/AMOLED#cite_note-0 3.ewh.wikipedia.howstuffworks. http://www.oled-info.