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Philippine Grid Code PV Inverter Test Requirements

2.1 Generating Unit Power Output


2.1.1 Generating Unit Power Output Capable of supplying its Active Power output, depending
on the availability of the primary source, and its Reactive Power output within the Power
System Frequency range of 59.7 to 60.3 Hz (Test Plan 7.1)

Test Procedure: Run the PV Inverter at rated output, rated voltage and nominal frequency.
Change the frequency at an increment of 0.1 hz per minute to reach 59.7 hz
and 60.3 hz.

Passing Criteria: Within the frequency range of 59.7 hz to 60.3 hz, Active and Reactive power
output should not change at an observation period of 5 minutes

Graphical plots: Time, Active Power, Reactive Power and Frequency

Frequency, Hz 59.7 60.3 Remarks

Active Power
(KW)

Reactive Power
(KVAR)

2.1.2 Generating Unit Power Output Capable of supplying its Active Power output, depending
on the availability of the primary source, and the interchange of Reactive Power at the
Connection Point within the voltage variations within the range +/-5% during normal
operating conditions. Outside this range, and up to a voltage variation of +/-10%, a
reduction of Active Power and/or Reactive Power may be allowed, provided that this
reduction does not exceed 5% of the generators declared data

Test Procedure: Change the voltage at an increment of 2.5% per minute to reach 95%, 90%,
105% and 110% of nominal voltage

Passing Criteria: 1. Active and Reactive power output should not change at +/- 5% voltage
change.
2. Active and Reactive power output should only change up to 5% of
Declared Capability at +/- 10% voltage change

Graphical plots: Time, Active Power, Reactive Power and Voltage

Voltage, V (0.95 p.u.) (1.05 p.u.) Remarks

Active Power
(KW)

Reactive Power
(KVAR)
Voltage, V (0.9 p.u.) (1.1 p.u.) Remarks

Active Power
(KW)

Reactive Power
(KVAR)

2.2 Frequency Withstand Capability (Test Plan 7.2)

Frequency
Time
Hz P.U.

Automatic disconnection allowed, if so


>62.4 >1.04
decided by the VRE operator

>61,8 62.4 >1.04 1.04 5 minutes

52.8 61.8 0.97 1.03 Continuous operation

57.6 - <58.2 0.96 - <0.97 60 minutes

<57.6 <0.96 5 seconds

2.2.1 Frequency Withstand Capability any variation of the Power System Frequency within
the range of 58.2 Hz and 61.8 Hz should not cause the disconnection of the PVS

Test Procedure: Run the PV Inverter at rated power output, rated voltage and nominal
frequency.. Change the frequency at an increment of 0.2 hz to reach 58.2 hz
and 61.8 hz

Passing Criteria: PV Inverter should not disconnect within the frequency range of 58.2 hz to
61.8 hz

Graphical plots: Time, Active Power, Reactive Power and Frequency

Frequency, Hz 58.2 61.8 Remarks

Active Power
(KW)
Reactive Power
(KVAR)

2.2.2 Frequency Withstand Capability the PVS shall be capable of operating, for at least 5
minutes, in case of increase in Frequency within the range of greater than 61.8 and 62.4
Hz; and for at least 60 minutes, in case of a decrease in Frequency within the range of
57.6 to less than 58.2 Hz

2.2.3 Frequency Withstand Capability The PVS Operator shall be responsible for protecting
its PVS against damage for frequency excursions outside the range of 57.6 hz and 62.4
Hz, provided that in case the Frequency momentarily falls below 57.6 Hz the PVS shall
remain connected for at least 5 seconds. In case of increase in Frequency above 62.4 Hz
the PVS Operator shall proceed immediately to disconnect the PVS from the Grid

Test Procedure: 1. Run the PV Inverter at rated power output, rated voltage and nominal
frequency. Change the frequency at an increment of 0.2 hz to reach 61.8
hz then to 62.4 hz then increase further to higher than 62.4 hz

2. Run the PV Inverter at rated power output, rated voltage and nominal
frequency. Change the frequency at an increment of 0.2 hz to reach 58.2
hz then to 57.6 hz then decrease further to lower than 57.6 hz

Passing Criteria: 1. PV Inverter should remain connected for at least 5 minutes for an operating
frequency within the range of greater than 61.8 hz to 62.4 hz. For
frequency above 62.4 hz, the PV Inverter may disconnect anytime

2. PV Inverter should remain connected for at least 60 minutes for an


operating frequency within the range of less than 58.2 hz to 57.6 hz. For
frequency below 57.6 hz, the PV Inverter should remain connected for at
least 5 seconds

Graphical plots: Time, Active Power, Reactive Power and Frequency

Frequency, Hz >61.8 62.4 Remarks

Time Duration
(From/To) at
least 5 minutes

Frequency, Hz 57.6 <58.2

Time Duration
(From/To) at
least 60 minutes

Frequency, Hz >62.4 Remarks

Time Duration
(may disconnect
immediately)

Frequency, Hz <57.6
Time Duration
(connected at
least 5 seconds)

2.3 Reactive Power Capability (Test Plan 8.1)

2.3.1 Reactive Power Capability The PVS Operator shall be capable of supplying Reactive
Power output, at its Connection Point, within the limits of Power Factor 0.95 lagging and
0.95 leading

Test Procedure: Set the Power Plant Controller to manual power factor mode then adjust the
power factor in steps of +/-0.01 p.u. to reach the limits of .95 lagging and
0.95 leading

Passing Criteria: The Reactive Power output of the VRE plant should response based on set
values together with the voltage at the connection point

Graphical plots: Time, Active Power, Reactive Power and Voltage

Power Factor 0.99 lag 0.99 lead Remarks

Reactive Power

Voltage

Power Factor 0.98 lag 0.98 lead Remarks

Reactive Power

Voltage

Power Factor 0.97 lag 0.97 lead Remarks

Reactive Power

Voltage

Power Factor 0.96 lag 0.96 lead Remarks

Reactive Power

Voltage

Power Factor 0.96 lag 0.96 lead Remarks


Reactive Power

Voltage

2.4 Performance During Network Disturbances

1.0
Voltage (p.u.)

No Disconnection
0.8 0.9 p.u.

0.6

0.4
0.3
0.2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (seconds)
0.6 sec
0.15 sec

PVS Low Voltage Withstand Capability

2.4.1 The PVS shall be able to withstand, without disconnection, Voltage Sags at the
connection point, produced by faults or disturbances in the network, whose magnitude
and duration profiles are within the no disconnection area in Figure 4. This area is defined
by the following characteristics: (Test Plan 9.1)
(a) If the voltage at the Connection Point falls to zero in any of the three phases, the PVS
shall remain connected for at least 0.15 second
(b) If the voltage at the Connection Point falls, but is still at the level of 30% of the nominal
value, in any of the three phases, the PVS shall remain connected for at least 0.60
second
(c) If the voltage at the Connection Point is equal to or above 90% of the nominal value, in
all of the three phases, the PVS shall remain connected
(d) For voltages between 30% and 90% of the nominal value, the time the PVS shall
remain connected shall be determined by linear interpolation between following pairs
of values [Voltage = 30%; time = 0.60 seconds] and [voltage = 90%; time = 3.0
seconds]

In the case of larger voltage deviations and/or longer duration, the PVS is allowed to
be disconnected from the network

Test Procedure: Run the PV Inverter at rated power output and rated voltage. Change the
voltage according to the following PGC requirement:
a) 0.0 p.u.
b) 0.3 p.u.
c) 0.9 p.u.
d) > 0.9 p.u.

Passing Criteria: PV Inverter should remain connected for the following time duration:
a) At least 0.15 second
b) At least 0.6 second
c) At least 3.0 seconds
d) No disconnection

Graphical plots: Time, Active Power, Reactive Power and Voltage


Voltage Disconnection Time Remarks
Set = 0.15 second
0
(any of three phases)
Act =
Set = 0.6 second
30%
(any of three phases)
Act =
Set = 3.0 s
90%
(all three phases)
Act =
Set = no disconnect
Above 90%
(all three phases)
Act =

2.4.2 The PVS shall provide dynamic grid support to allow voltage control in the event of
voltage drops at the Connection Point, being able to comply with the following: (Test Plan
9.2.5)
(a) Supporting the Grid voltage during the faults by injecting Reactive Power into the Grid,
and
(b) Consuming the same or less Reactive Power after clearance of the fault
Voltage (p.u.) Reactive Power Remarks
2.5 Voltage Control System

2.5.1 The PVS shall be capable of contributing to Voltage Control by continuous regulation of
the Reactive Power supplied to the Grid in any of the following modes, as determined by
the System Operator:
(a) Maintaining a constant Power Factor of the injected Energy at the Connection Point, at
a value prescribed by the System Operator, or
(b) Maintaining the voltage at the HV busbar of the PVS, at a set point instructed by the
System Operator, provided the limits of Reactive Power output established in Article II,
Section 2.3 are not exceeded

Test Procedure: a) Set the power plant controller to continuous PF control mode and test the
0.95 lag/lead power factor

b) Set the power plant controller to continuous Voltage control mode with
reference to the recommended test time and set values

Passing Criteria: a) The Reactive Power output of the VRE plant should response together
with the voltage at the connection point to maintain a constant power factor
based on set values

a) The Reactive Power output of the VRE plant should response together
with the power factor to maintain a constant voltage at the connection point
based on set values

Graphical plots: Time, Active Power, Reactive Power, Voltage and Power Factor
Constant Power 0.95 p.u. 0.95 p.u.
1.0 p.u. Remarks
Factor lag lead

Active Power

Reactive Power

Voltage

Constant Voltage 0.95 p.u 1.0 p.u. 1.05 p.u Remarks

Active Power

Reactive Power
Power Factor
2.6 Active Power Control System

2.6.1 PVS should be equipped with an Active Power regulation control system able to operate,
at least, in the following control modes, provided that System Frequency is within the
range of 59 Hz to 61 Hz:
(a) Free active power production (no Active Power control): The PVS operates producing
maximum Active Power output depending on the availability of the primary source.
(b) Active power constraint: The PVS should operate producing Active Power output
equal to the value specified by the System Operator (set-point) provided the
availability of the primary resource is equal or higher than the prescribed value; or
producing the maximum possible Active Power in case the primary resource
availability is lower than the prescribed set-point. (Test Plan 7.4)

Test Procedure: a) From Free Active power production mode, set the power plant controller to
Active Power constraint (set point) mode then reduce the output in steps of
20% of pre-test output. Record the time and values for every set point
attained then increase back the output to pre-test value.

b) Change the power plant controller control mode to Active Power gradient
(ramps) then adjust the output and record the pre/post Time and MW value
to check the desired minimum ramp rate

Passing Criteria: For Active Power constraint and Active Power gradient control mode, the
change in output should commence after 2 seconds and completed not later
than 30 seconds

Graphical plots: Time, Active Power, Reactive Power and Voltage


% of Rated
Active Power Remarks
Capability

80%

60%

40%

20%

2.6.2 In case system Frequency exceeds 61.0 Hz the Active Power control system should
reduce the Active Power generated previously according to the following formula:
)*.,- /
P = 45 Pm
),

Where:
P is the variation in Active Power output that should be achieved
Pm is the Active Power output before this control is activated
n is the network frequency
Test Procedure: On Active Power Control mode, increase the frequency to 61.0 hz then
increase further to 61.8 hz in steps of 0.2 hz. Observe the change in Active
Power output upon Creaching a frequency higher than 61.0 hz

Passing Criteria: Change in Active Power output for frequency changes above 61.0 hz should
be consistent with the computed value using the formula above
Graphical plots: Time, Active Power, Reactive Power and Frequency

Active Power
Frequency Remarks
P

60.0

61.0

61.2

61.4

61.6

61.8

2.6.3 In case of system Frequency drops below 59.0 Hz the Active Power control system
should change to free active power production mode, generating the maximum Active
Power output, compatible with the availability of the primary source
Test Procedure: On Active Power Control mode, reduce the frequency from 60 hz in steps of
0.2 hz until it reached 58.8 hz. Observe the power plant control mode
behaviour when frequency drops below 59.0 hz.

Passing Criteria: Power Plant controller should shift from Active Power to Free Active Power
control mode when frequency drops below 59.0 hz.
Graphical plots: Time, Active Power, Reactive Power and Frequency

Frequency Active Power? Remarks

60

59

<59
2.7 Power Quality

2.7.1 With the system in Normal State, upon the connection of the PVS, the Flicker severity at
the Connection Point shall not exceed the values established in Article 3.2.6.6 of the
PGC. The maximum long-term flicker introduced by a PVS shall be determined as the
maximum allowed Flicker at the Connection Point, multiplied by the ratio of the PVS VRE
Installed Capacity to the total capacity of all other interference sources connected at the
same Connection Point.

2.7.2 Upon the connection of PVS, the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the voltage and the
Total Demand Distortion (TDD) of the current at the Connection Point shall not exceed
the limits established in Article 3.2.4.4 of the PGC. The maximum harmonic current
injection from a PVS to the grid shall be determined as the maximum allowed harmonic
current injection at the Connection Point, multiplied by the ratio of PVS VRE Installed
Capacity to the total capacity of all power generation/supply equipment with harmonic
source at the Connection Point. (Test Plan 10.2)

PGC 3.2.6.6 The Flicker Severity at any Connection Point in the Grid shall not exceed
the values given in Table 3.3

Table 3.3
Maximum Flicker Severity

Voltage Level Short Term Long Term

115 KV and above 0.8 unit 0.6 unit

Below 115 KV 1.0 unit 0.8 unit

Maximum Flicker Severity

Voltage Level Short Term Long Term

69 KV
PGC 3.2.4.4 The Total Harmonic Distortion of the voltage and the Total Demand
Distortion of the current at any Connection Point shall not exceed the limits given in
Tables 3.1 and 3.2 respectively

Table 3.1
Maximum Harmonic Voltage Distortion Factors

Harmonic Voltage Distortion

Individual
Voltage Level THD*
Odd Even

500 KV 1.5% 1.0% 0.5%

115 KV 230 KV 2.5% 1.5% 1.0%

69 KV 3.0% 2.0% 1.0%

Table 3.2
Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion Factors

Harmonic Current Distortion

Individual
Voltage Level TDD*
Odd Even

500 KV 1.5% 1.0% 0.5%

115 KV 230 KV 2.5% 2.0% 0.5%

69 KV 5.0% 4.0% 1.0%

* THD Total Harmonic Distortion


* TDD Total Demand Distortion
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and Total Demand Distortion

Individual
69 KV Voltage Level
Odd Even

1.5%

THD 2.5%

3.0%

Individual
69 KV Voltage Level
Odd Even

1.5%

TDD 2.5%

5.0%